ADHD

This page contains all website entries whether pages, posts, updates, or blog entries that are tagged ADHD.

OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsLegal StatusUser Experience


Summary: Phenibut is a a GABAergic agent that works on the GABA neurotransmitter distinctly reducing anxiety. It also lessens depression, and PTSD symptoms, improving sleep, and providing an overall feeling of ease and well-being. Due to the euphoric-like effects it offers, users prefer to stick to occasional use rather than frequent in respect of its abuse and addiction risk potential.

Phenibut Video TTS

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Overview

What is Phenibut?

Phenibut might not have as widespread use as other nootropics on the market. However, it has demonstrated numerous benefits over tens of decades through both formal studies and anecdotal documentation. It's a nootropic designed to simulate the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that acts on the central nervous system. It marketed as a psychotropic with a positive effect on mental capability and improved neurological functioning. The anxiety diminishing effects of phenibut are the most praised of all its attributes. Once anxiety is resolved, natural sleep patterns and enhanced cognitive processes shortly start following.

Phenibut was invented in the Soviet Union almost half a century ago. A fascinating, documented anecdote reveals that Russian cosmonauts were supplementing with phenibut especially during the 1975 mission Apollo-Soyuz at the joint of the USSR and US. It remains in use to date in Russia as a treatment and remedy to many conditions including anxiety, depression, prevention of motion sickness, even alcohol withdrawal syndrome, to name a few. Not to mention, of course, its nootropic attributes.

Phenibut dosage
Phenibut Skeletal Structure

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.

Wikipedia


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Phenibut Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress Levels
  2. Increases Sociability
  3. Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality
  4. Improves Symptoms of ADHD
  5. Promotes better sleep quality
  6. Neuroprotective: it prevents damage to neuronal cells under stress
  7. Increases Sociability and Enhances Mood

Supporting Research:

Reduces Anxiety and Stress Levels

Anyone who suffers from anxiety knows that it can be extremely hard to control, it’s not just something that can simply be ‘switched’ off. When taking Phenibut, you will be able to gain more control. Once administered, you can expect to feel more relaxed and composed.

This attribute is the most appreciated benefit of phenibut which is documented by Izyaslav Lapin (R). Anxiety is often the result of overactivity in brain's concentration and overthinking and analyzation of unnecessary, or irrelevant matters; often with the inability to realize the direction to which the train of thought is heading. Turning down and resting the continuous and distracting neuron processing frees the negative thought preoccupation which in turn opens a fresher, vibrant, and often productive range of possibilities.

Increases Sociability

The anxiolytic effect leads to openness towards social interaction which by itself is an issue almost always associating with anxiety disorders. Studies suggest phenibut to be a promoter of enhanced cognitive processing, but the fundamental reason practically still due to the anxiety relief. Those seeking to improve interaction in social settings report better results with the supplement in comparison with alcohol or prescription medication such as benzodiazepines. While attempted anxiety-reduction using traditional tranquilizers often lead to drowsiness and reduction in motor skill and cognitive ability, phenibut seems to mitigate the feelings, except without the associating and undesired side effects that associate with traditional prescription medication. [R]

Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality

People living through the depression, anxiety, stressful life events, while going through hormonal changes such as menopause, often report degenerating sleep quality, sleep disturbance, and insomnia. While melatonin is a remarkable and beneficial supplement to consider, some require pharmaceutical sleep aid for more sedating and sleep-inducing effects. Lack of continuous quality sleep can cause an impairment in cognitive processing, opening the way to more anxiety and more sleep disturbance. Used consciously, Phenibut an excellent supplement that can restore significant, natural sleep patterns, duration, and quality. The ability to fall asleep, remain asleep, maintaining an extended period of healthy, rejuvenating deep sleep is attainable with phenibut. [R] [R]

May Improve ADHD

Since phenibut improves attention, it may also help with ADHD symptoms. In one clinical trial of 50 children with ADHD, it improved cognition, self-control, sustained, attention, and memory after 1 month (500-700 mg/day). One month is a short time for evaluating ADHD effects; long-term studies need to determine if the beneficial effect can be sustained. – Selfhacked

My Thought on That

Well I am ADHD and have taken Phenibut and similar “GABA-acting” drugs, such as gabapentin for about a year. Its interesting that, at the time, I had not been diagnosed with ADHD yet and was not aware nor had a clue what ADHD is. I self-medicated with gabapentin and phenibut along the way, and now years later, looking back at how routinely I was taking it, I realize the reason I was hooked and amazed by it was its effect on me as an ADHD, prior to any anxiety triggers that might associate. It was a transformative medication – but overtime, mister W (withdrawals) had been sitting and just waiting for me to get off it in order to introduce himself – and that horrible experience was almost equally as transformative.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Phenibut Work?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (also known as GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in our central nervous system.The blood-brain barrier makes supplementing with GABA close to being ineffective due to its inability to bypass the blood-brain barrier. However, phenibut crosses the barrier due to the addition of the phenyl group molecule. Once in the brain, it slows the neuronal excitability, resulting in the effects as mentioned earlier.

GABA frees up channels in the neurons, reduces the function of other neurotransmitters, and diminish collective fears and anxieties in the neuron. It remains vague whether or not phenibut binds to the GABA receptor, although some studies suggest that it only does so in high concentrations.

Lapin’s research found that phenibut increases the levels of dopamine as well. Dopamine is another vital neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It regulates emotions and creates the reaction of what we call motivation.

More from the Web

In order to affect one’s cognitive functioning, mood, and overall relaxation levels, this supplement needs to cross the blood-brain barrier. GABA cannot effectively do this, while Phenibut can. This is due to a phenyl group that is attached to GABA’s structure.

Naturally, GABA balances out the effects of chemicals that stimulate neurons. When neurons are overstimulated, this can lead to feelings of anxiety and restlessness. Since Phenibut works like GABA, it helps to restore this balance.

The result is neurons firing only when they’re supposed to. Once Phenibut reaches the brain, it targets GABA receptor sites.

It is believed that Phenibut is non-selective, as it stimulates both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors. This allows you to feel a sense of relaxation, lessening anxiety. This is fairly different than other nootropic supplements, which is why it’s beneficial in a stack.

Phenibut also stimulates dopamine receptors, which is key in terms of your mood. Once dopamine is increased, you will experience a more positive mood. Users also tend to experience high levels of motivation, allowing them to achieve more.


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Dosage

How to Take Phenibut?

Phenibut is a potent compound. Start at the lowest effective dose and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs. A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers with no tolerance. 500 mg would be ideal in my opinion.

Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.

Phenibut is GABA (the major calming neurotransmitter in your brain) with a phenyl ring attached, which allows the molecule to pass your blood-brain barrier and reach receptors in your brain. Phenibut was originally developed for Russian astronauts, to ease the stress of flight and help them sleep in space. It relieves anxiety and drives you into deeper sleep. Phenibut is also a nootropic: it boosts cognition, giving you relaxed clarity of thought.

For people trying to figure out which capsules to buy, here's how much phenibut I can pack into each capsule size (using liftmode fine crystals phenibut HCL powder):

Terms:

“Packed body” is when you press as much powder as you can into the long inner portion of the capsule.

“Entirely packed capsule” is when you pack the cap (top) of the capsule and the body of the capsule as tightly as you can while still being able to close it to the point of “popping” together.

Size 000

Packed body: ~1100-1150
Entirely packed: ~1200-1250

Size 00

Packed body: ~800 mg
Entirely packed: ~850 mg

Size 1

Packed body: ~410mg
Entirely packed: ~430mg

Dave Aspey on Phenibut

Phenibut can be addictive, so it’s very important to take it correctly. The two common mistakes people make are taking phenibut daily and increasing the dose over time. Phenibut’s effects last for 48-72 hours, so you only want to take it once every three days (twice a week max).

You also want to cycle it to avoid tolerance. Go two weeks on phenibut, two weeks off. Don’t go past 250 mg doses; if you stop feeling the effects at 250mg, cycle off for a couple weeks. Don’t mix phenibut with alcohol, either. It amplifies the effects, which can be dangerous.

Dose: 250 mg (never higher)

Time: Anytime, but only twice a week max (Monday and Thursday, for example).

Do two weeks on phenibut, two weeks off.

Dave Asprey


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Side Effects

What Are Phenibut Side Effects?

Like anything we put inside our body, the best source of measurement and criticism is the human body itself. To avoid adverse effects, start at a low dose and see your body's reaction and adaptation to it.

Often individuals report dizziness and drunk-life sensation as a side effect. On the other hand, many people use to supplement with phenibut for the very same impact.

The experience is entirely subjective. Rarely users report fatigue, nausea, and stomach discomfort. People on epilepsy medication or MAO inhibitors are advised to consult a professional doctor before taking phenibut. Alcohol should be consumption should cautiously within reasonable limits ion due to the synergistic effects of alcohol and phenibut.

Avoid taking on a daily basis.

Phenibut has high abuse potential. If taken regularly, be mindful of possible withdrawal effects upon discontinuation. It's wise to limit intake to once or twice a week. Thereby maintain a low tolerance, enjoy its benefits, and avoid building a destructive habit of use. Do not underestimate the power of phenibut and do your research if you decide to include it in your stack.


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Phenibut Withdrawals

Important and useful resource on phenibut usage, abuse, withdrawals, and much more can be found on reddit's phenibut sub. Please use with caution.

It is very important to be aware of the possible withdrawal effect upon discontinuation of phenibut which can be mild to wild, depending on whether or not it has been abused or not, the dosage, period of use, amongst other things. An example from the wilder end is the following opinion, from a long-time, high-dose phenibut (ab)user:

In my experience it is the worst feeling ever. If you had problems in your life anyway, and were using Phenibut to mask them, then they will come back twenty times as bad. Withdrawal strips away any optimistic delusions the Phenibut might have given you, and puts you into a state of intense ‘depressive realism'. You see things seemingly for how they are, and find it physically impossible to believe in potential hope of a miracle happening. You are forced to confront the crushing hopelessness of your situation. Any optimism you remember from your Phenibut days seems like meaningless self-delusion. Regrets and doubts multiply. You start planning for the worst, expecting the worst.

Waking up at 3am every morning after ultra-depressing dreams, your energy reserves are depleted. Your range of vision widens so you can see out of the corners of your eyes, like a prey animal. It feels like there are cold, damp, grey clouds above your eyes. Vision becomes blurry and you feel old. Smiling becomes physically impossible and fake. Breathing is difficult, you can hold your breath for a long time before having to force yourself to take a big, stressful gulp of air. You may get audible hallucinations, such as hearing a chorus of a particular song repeated over and over again, almost mockingly loudly, when you lie in bed. Things like tooth pain that were masked with GABA are felt again. If you were worried about balding, your scalp will feel cold. Your worst fears will be played upon, as if by a demon, and exaggerated. You find it easy to believe in Hell, but impossible to believe in Heaven.

It gets worse for the first three days, then stays bad, becomes manageable by the end of the first week of cold turkey, though you stay melancholy for about two more weeks. This is based on having taken a relatively high dose daily for several months. With more sensible dosage, the withdrawal will be far milder.


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Phenibut Warnings

The following reddit page is valuable for anyone using or planning to use or stop phenibut:

  1. Phenibut Warnings
  2. Phenibut Dependence
  3. Phenibut Overdose

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Legal Status

Is Phenibut Legal?

Australia and Hungary

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary.

In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential.

In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose. [R]

As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list. [R]

Dubai, Abu Dhabi, UAE

While the subject on nootropics is quite a grey area, Phenibut as per the law is unregulated. This means that it is not illegal to posses for personal use, however, it is not permitted for retail sale. If you order Phenibut from oversees, if has a chance of being siezed by customs, but that won't be an issue of serious importance where customs will be on the lookout for the person who ordered Phenibut to Dubai/Abu Dhabi/UAE. That wouldn't be something to worry about as far as you are placing an order (aside from the risk of losing your money due to siezing), however, it is an issue for companies importing the product from manufacturers for reproduction and sale. We have had a handful of manufacturer shipments siezed by customs in Dubai which caused us to remove Phenibut from our inventory. However, every now and then, we do manage to restock it, so if you are looking to order phenibut within the UAE, shipped locally which guarantees the delivery of product as well as cash on delivery to eliminate risk, you can check our store for Phenibut 250mg capsules availibility.

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User Experience

This is one of the most interesting user experiences I've read on Phenibut. It was posted by on Phenibut sub-reddit:

Reddit Review

We all love phenibut. It removes our social anxiety (which everybody has nowadays), removes inhibitions we have as humans, removes a mental condition we didn't know we had before the use of this substance, makes us more motivated so we can focus on tasks.

Phenibut is a substance which is very handy to treat all of this. You can use it for the rest of your life. You will have continuous anxiolysis, but the motivational aspects will disappear. This is because of a down-regulation of GABA-B on the lesser hand and especially down-regulation of your dopamine receptors. It's called tolerance.

I was 3 years addicted and I have a long road of nootropic use behind me. Herbal extracts, synthetic nootropics, soft- and hard drugs… Some to get high, others to make me smarter and others to remove phenibut tolerance. But 99% of these maybe 100+ compounds I used really helped.

However I discovered 2 very useful substances on my long road.

First of all, memantine. It's an Alzheimer's medication. It works as an NMDA-antagonist. NMDA receptors are receptors in your brain part of the glutamate system, used for learning and memory. These are said to reverse tolerance for stimulants such as caffeine and amphetamine. Phenibut can be classified as a relaxant and stimulant, and while it has like all the other stimulants tolerance problems, NMDA antagonists come in handy to reduce this. Various reports of people you can find on the internet indeed back this claim up. Other compounds who work in this system are ketamine, DXM (cough surpressant), MXE and N20. We also call these compounds dissociatives. Memantine is dissociative in higher doses as a recreational drug but for Phenibut it's more suited in 1-10mg doses for tolerance reduction. It's also a dopamine agonist. You read that good: an NMDA-antagonist (reduces tolerance for dopaminergic stimulants) and dopamine antagonist. So memantine is a stimulant while reducing tolerance for stimulants. In my use of this substance I learned this: start low – with 1 mg to begin with. Because memantine is also a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, it can have anti-nootropic effects the first week while starting. This may contribute to initial worsening of cognitive function during early memantine treatment and is the reason why many people don't take memantine for longer than I week and why you can't find many succesful reports on the internet. I was very succesful in doing this but had to way for minimum 2 weeks. Memantine is also the best in the 2 chemicals I describe in the post when comparing price/efficacy. You can find 10 grams for €75 on the internet (contact me when interested).

The other succesful substance I used is fasoracetam. It's a nootropic in the racetam family. Some other nootropics in this family are piracetam and aniracetam. 2 famous nootropics known for there ability to increase blood flow in your brain and make you more sharper. But only fasoracetam has the ability to increase GABA-B receptors in the brain. It's no GABA-B agonist and no GABA-B antagonist. This is good to know because GABA-B antagonists have a negative on your ability to relax in the beginning and are dangerous in general (because they can damage your nervous system). GABA-B antagonists don't know as far as I know, so this is purely hypothetical. Just wanted to say fasoracetam is an ideal substance. Fasoracetam is more expensive compared to memantine, I can find 10 grams on the internet for €60. Since you need to use higher doses (10-50mg) it will cost you more.

Because of my discovery of these substances and success with it, I decided to be a social butterfly and highly motivational person for the rest of my life. I decided it long before I discovered this, but I couldn't make it true because of the disappearment of phenibut's effects. I hope I stay them for the rest of my life.

My current method? I make 000 capsules which hold approximately 800mg powder. With a weighing scale I weigh 100g phenibut, 2.5g fasoracetam and 0.5g memantine. Then I mix it. By doing this I get a nice mixture of these powders. Be aware, people will say this is not 100% mixed because you do it manually. But this is not a huge problem, it's not really a bad thing if you get sometimes 1 mg memantine and other times 3 mg memantine. If you want to do it more precisely, you can buy a super accurate weighing scale and put 1mg memantine every morning under your tongue. But you lose the comfort of easy dosing.

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Conclusion

Phenibut is a useful anxiety-relieving supplement that does not cause the infamous drowsiness often accompanying anxiety medication. It is well-studied and standing amongst the top in line when it comes to anxiety relief, sleep regulation, and cognitive improvement.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Phenibut?

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.

Where can I buy Phenibut?

Based off my experience, I'd only only tried and therefore recommend Nootropic Depot's Phenibut. But you can simply search online and make your choice from the different vendors. And make sure you research those vendors too, before actually making a purchase.

Is Phenibut Legal?

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary.

In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential.

In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose.

As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list.

How long does the effect of Phenibut last?

The average half-life of phenibut is around 5.3 hours. The peak effects of phenibut can take four to six hours to appear when it's taken orally, although the effects are felt on average around two hours after it's taken and usually you will feel it for more than 6 hours.

How to take Phenibut?

Start at the lowest effective dose (250mg) and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs. A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers with no tolerance. 500 mg would be the ideal in my opinion.

Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.

How long does it take Phenibut to kick in?

Phenibut has a long onset time of around 1.5 – 2 hours until its peak effect, for most people. The time that it takes to kick in depends on the amount of food in your stomach, your metabolism, the dosage, and how you took it. Taking Phenibut sublingually results in a faster onset time that taking it with water or juice.

How much Phenibut should I take?

For first-time, 250mg, If you're experienced and know well enough about it, you can take 500mg. The best approach is to start low and see how you react to it, and increase accordingly if needed. But keep in mind that it takes around an hour and a half to be felt, so make sure you keep about 2 hours interval between doses.

How can I buy Phenibut in Dubai?

If you'd like to buy phenibut in dubai or abu dhabi, as well as get more information about nootropics, availibility, and more, go to the “Nootropics in Dubai” page under the resources tab on the menu. Alternativley, you can click here

Is Phenibut Legal in Dubai, UAE?

White the subject on nootropics is quite a grey area, Phenibut as per the law is unregulated. This means that it is not illegal to posses for personal use, however, it is not permitted for retail sale. If you order Phenibut from oversees, if has a chance of being siezed by customs, but that won't be an issue of serious importance where customs will be on the lookout for the person who ordered Phenibut to Dubai/Abu Dhabi/UAE. That wouldn't be something to worry about as far as you are placing an order (aside from the risk of losing your money due to siezing), however, it is an issue for companies importing the product from manufacturers for reproduction and sale. We have had a handful of manufacturer shipments siezed by customs in Dubai which caused us to remove Phenibut from our inventory. However, every now and then, we do manage to restock it, so if you are looking to order phenibut within the UAE, shipped locally which guarantees the delivery of product as well as cash on delivery to eliminate risk, you can check our store for Phenibut 250mg capsules availibility.

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Further and Related Readings

  1. If you're intrigued by Phenibut, you might like and find Fasoracetam quite interesting too due to the two nootropics interaction. You may also find Agmatine Sulfate & Sunifiram worth exploring.
  2. Reddit's Phenibut Endless Information (from first-hand experiences)
  3. PhenibutWikipedia
  4. Nootropics Information Frequently Asked Questions

FDA on Phenibut

Phenibut is a substance that does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) defines a dietary ingredient as a vitamin; mineral; herb or other botanical; amino acid; dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of the preceding substances. Because phenibut does not fit any of the categories of dietary ingredients under the FD&C Act, any dietary supplements that declare phenibut as a dietary ingredient are misbranded.

Phenibut is also known as:

  • fenibut
  • phenigam
  • PhGaba
  • Phenigamma
  • Phenygam
  • 4-Amino-3-phenylbutanoic acid
  • β-(aminomethyl)benzenepropanoic acid
  • beta-(Aminomethyl)hydrocinnamic acid
  • β-phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid

Phenibut in Dietary Supplements

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Best Adderall Alternatives

Best Adderall Alternatives

  • 8 min read
In a fast, competing world, it's only natural to want to strive for more. When it comes to cognitive enhancement, you often hear of Adderall. Here is a few other alternatives to consider.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceFAQs

Summary: Fasoracetam is a newer addition to the racetam family. It's a nootropic that helps in relieving anxiety, enhancing memory, and improving overall cognition. It’s reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms.

Fasoracetam Video TTS

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Introduction

What is Fasoracetam?

Fasoracetam is a promising and exciting addition to the racetam family. It's reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms. Even though Fasoracetam is a new name on the nootropic scene, it was developed by a Japanese pharmaceutical company more than 20 years ago as a potential treatment for vascular dementia. However, it was put on hiatus after a failed trial.  The clinical data were then bought by NeuroFix in 2013. Clinical trials began in 2016 with its focus on treating ADHD symptoms in children. The experiments have shown a great promise as a potential ADHD treatment.

In 2016, the FDA accepted the substance for evaluation.

Fasoracetam is a research chemical of the racetam family. It is a putative nootropic that failed to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials for vascular dementia. It is currently being studied for its potential use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Wikipedia


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory Cognition
  2. Relieves Anxiety and Depression
  3. Potential ADHD Treatment
  4. Increases Creativity and Motivation

Supporting Research:

Fasoracetam Improves Memory Cognition

Fasoracetam minimizes memory decline, forgetfulness, and amnesia. Individuals who use it report it positively impacts their memory. That is due to the chemical that it produces, which increases learning, memory and cognitive functions. (R)

Fasoracetam Relieves Anxiety and Depression

Fasoracetam relieves anxiety, improves mood, and eases depression by acting on glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). By up-regulating GABA and suppressing the excess production of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, Fasoracetam offers a non-jittery and smooth feeling of calmness, relaxation and improved mood. [R] [R]

Potential ADHD Treatment

A study on 30 individuals ranging between 12 to 17 years old test the impact of Fasoracetam on ADHD patients. The subjects were receiving fasoracetam for five weeks, after which improvements were observed relating to ADHD symptoms. [R]

Increases Creativity and Motivation

With more research done on Fasoracetam, the improvement in creativity and motivation progresses as well. Many users report that not only it makes them inspired by nature but keeps them motivated too. These self-reports are credible for boosting moods and ability to increase the release and production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is responsible for cognition and learning.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Fasoracetam Work?

There is no clear evidence to support how it works to improve cognition. The theories that exist that describe that it as an interaction with the receptors of glutamate and GABA and the cholinergic system.

nootropic fasoracetam
Fasoracetam Skeletal Structure

Fasoracetam works of a specific group of glutamate receptors known as metabotropic glutamate receptors, which play multiple roles in the brain and body mainly relating to memory, learning, and anxiety.

In increasing acetylcholine fasoracetam is a powerful cholinergic, significantly increasing the uptake of choline in the cortex and hippocampus.

The brain uses the additional choline to produce more acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter most strongly associated with learning, memory, and overall cognition.


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Dosage

How to Take Fasoracetam?

A 20 mg dose is a good starting point.

Anecdotal reports suggest smaller doses of 15 to 30 mg per day, while dosages used in clinical trials for ADHD were 100, 200, and 400mg twice a day.

Personally I tried anywhere from 20 mg per dose to 60 mg per dose. The difference was barely notable to me.

Always pair it with Alpha GPC or any choline source to potentiate the effect and prevent a headache.


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Side Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Side Effects?

Fasoracetam is safe when taken responsibly. The most common side effect, similar to all racetams, including fatigue, headache, and digestive discomfort.

The is no scientific evidence available on the specific interactions between other drugs and fasoracetam.


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User Experience

Here is an ongoing discussion thread on Reddit's stack advice regarding Fasoracetam usage that is packed with both information on the nootropic, as well as different user experiences (myself included), suggestions, and thoughts on the nootropic:

Any positive feedback on fasoracetam for anxiety?

Some of the interesting & diverse comments from that thread:

Not from me, unfortunately. Made me feel worse. I've lost any faith in common nootropics because they do nothing for me. Oxetine

10-20mg gave me near instantaneous relief from anxiety—sublingual that is. tawatson2

While it seemed to help somewhat with anxiety (not a magic bullet) I also felt like some cognitive abilities were actually reduced by it. I had problems carrying out my work with usual performance and with internalizing new tasks. Sometimes you can't judge if a nootropic really helps much of anything at all but in case of fasoracetam the downsides seemed pronounced enough for me not to continue. sheldonopolis


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Conclusion

Fasoracetam (as well as Coluracetam) is a new nootropic but has had numerous experiments done on it. However, it has already developed a strong force in the nootropic community.

Many people find it an excellent choice to relieve anxiety and depression. Some people also say that it helps in cognition, clarity, and focus. It works well when used responsibly.

An excerpt from Wikipedia's page:

Fasoracetam is a research chemical of the racetam family. It is a putative nootropic that failed to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials for vascular dementia. It is currently being studied for its potential use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Fasoracetam appears to agonize all three groups of metabotropic glutamate receptors and has improved cognitive function in rodent studies. It is orally bioavailable and is excreted mostly unchanged via the urine.

Fasoracetam was discovered by scientists at the Japanese pharmaceutical company Nippon Shinyaku, which brought it through Phase 3 clinical trials for vascular dementia, and abandoned it due to lack of efficacy.

Scientists at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia led by Hakon Hakonarson have studied fasoracetam's potential use in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hakonarson started a company called neuroFix Therapeutics to try to bring the drug to market for this use; neuroFix acquired Nippon Shinyaku's clinical data as part of its efforts. neuroFix was acquired by Medgenics in 2015. Medgenics changed its name to Aevi Genomic Medicine in 2016. Clinical trials in adolescents with ADHD who also have mGluR mutations started in 2016.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What's the effect of Fasoracetam?

I have been dosing for 3 days now. I started noticing my legs were becoming relaxed as if I took a benzo combined with that sense of horniness phenibut gave me when I first began taking it. Typically after a few days of Phenibut use dopamine builds up which leads to euphoria combined with anxiolytic effects. Those effects have been long gone and I've basically just been taking about 1.6 grams to avoid withdrawals. I've gotten off it a few times only to go back on. Now i'm feeling the orginal effects coming back stronger after each dose of Fasoracetam. I can honestly say I don't feel many other effects aside from the Phenibut now. I'm dosing Phenibut low so its amazing that the effects are coming back with such low doses. I'm wondering if Fasoracetam will completely abolish all Phenibut Withdrawal. It almost seems like that may be the case since its Re-upregulating Gaba B. I wish I understand the Upregulation and Downregulation process on a deeper level.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Fasoracetam (with the addition of another compound, a new formula) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for ADHD
  2. Phenylpiracetam
  3. Nootropics FAQ

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanisms of ActionDosageUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine, often abbreviated to NALT, is a more bioavailable form of L-Tyrosine, an amino acid that also has nootropic benefits. It improves mood, memory, and enhances cognitive abilities in many ways. It has great effects of reducing stress and maintaining mental performance during sleep deprivation.

tyrosine
N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine Skeletal Structure
NALT Youtube Video

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Introduction

What is N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine? (NALT)

Tyrosine is an amino acid the body produces from various dietary sources. Some of its primary functions are maintaining brain chemistry. A result of providing the necessities for the formation of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine; which are vital neurotransmitters that profoundly affect energy levels, moods motivation, and brain function. It works as the buffer delivering the necessary materials for the brain to produces them. Particularly under conditions where stress has depleted them. Another feature is its protein synthesis and the regulation of hormones required in the creation of melanin; supporting skin, hair, and eyes.
Moreover, Tyrosine is related to the thyroid hormones.

It also supports weight maintenance and loss by suppressing appetite and helping the body's ability to burn fats. Although the body produces sufficient amounts of L-Tyrosine on its own, studies suggest that additional supplementation provide physical and mental benefits especially under the circumstances of environmental stress.

L-Tyrosine and Depression

L-tyrosine is a precursor to L-dopa, which is a precursor to dopamine. L-dopa competes with 5-HTP at AAAD enzyme (Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) to be converted to dopamine. You can view that enzyme as a dumb robot that simply converts whatever it sees to a neurotransmitter. If you have more 5-HTP then you will make more serotonin, if you have more L-dopa, then you make more dopamine. You can imagine the process as trying to let an infinite crowd of people through a small door. If the crowd has an equal distribution of red hats and half blue hats, then the room inside will have an equal proportion of both colors. If you increase people wearing red hats, then less people with blue hats will squeeze in.

If you were to supplement L-dopa directly, then there would be no doubt that you could be decreasing your serotonin and causing your symptoms (increased energy from increased dopamine, feeling depressed from decreased serotonin). But supplementing l-tyrosine is not guaranteed to increase l-dopa. The rate limiting step is converting l-tyrosine to L-dopa. In other words, that's the point in the reaction where the brain decides whether it wants more dopamine / norepinephrine. If it wants more dopamine, then it increases activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is the enzyme that converts l-tyrosine to l-dopa, and then l-dopa will be converted by AAAD to dopamine possibly at the expense of serotonin because less 5-HTP will be catalyzed.

So you have to think whether you're doing something to your brain that also that increases dopamine, and if so then you could be throwing gasoline into the fire with tyrosine supplementation and depleting serotonin.


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Benefits & Effects

What Are the N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT) Benefits?

  1. Enhances Cognition Under Stress
  2. Improves Memory Under Pressure and Challenges
  3. Increases Dopamine in the Brain and Boosts Cognitive Flexibility
  4. Increases Focus and Supports ADHD Treatment

Supporting Research:

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine Enhances Cognition Under Stress

A recent study found that Tyrosine effectively impacts memory and information processing decline under stressors such as extreme weather or extreme cognitive demand. The study hypothesizes that this effect is because tyrosine grants substance from which the brain can produce neurotransmitters. Thereby neutralizing the depletes caused by stress. The report concludes that individuals are facing demanding requirements, whether mountain climbing or meeting job deadline, can benefit from L-Tyrosine. (R), (R)

Improves Memory Under Pressure and Challenges

A study investigating L-Tyrosine's impact on individuals doing challenging mental tasks shows that those receiving L-Tyrosine perform better at the more difficult levels of the job. The study confirms L-Tyrosine to provide most benefits at higher levels of demand. (R)

Additionally, NALT is able to attenuate a decrease in memory formation associated with acute stressors

Increases Dopamine in the Brain and Boosts Cognitive Flexibility

A study of 22 individuals shows L-Tyrosine supplementation enhances cognitive flexibility as well as the ability to switch between tasks and thoughts. This result is attributed to L-Tyrosine's capability to increase dopamine in the brain, which further enhances mental versatility.

Increases Focus and Supports ADHD Treatment

A study on ADHD patients shows 77% of participants receiving L-Tyrosine alone showed significant improvement over a period of 10 weeks. Further studies indicate that the simultaneous use of L-Tyrosine especially boosted the effect of ADHD medication such as Ritalin and Adderall. Non-ADHD nootropic users report that tyrosine improves focus. Therefore it is commonly added in nootropic stacks for that purpose. (R)


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Mechanism of Action

How Does N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine Work?

L-Tyrosine forms in the body from a range of high dietary sources such as meats, fish, seeds, milk, yogurt, and cheese. It develops as a result of the precursor aminoalkanoic acid, known as essential amino acid, metabolizing within the liver. After metabolizing into L-Tyrosine, it further metabolizes by an associate protein known as hydroxylase, which prepares L-Tyrosine to be in use for the creation of different neurotransmitters. Once the protein hydrolyzes it, L-Tyrosine is carried in plasma and may metabolize into catecholamines in various membranes.

The discharge is activated by stimulation of adrenergic neurons within the brain, creating a restrictive interior system that maintains adequate internal secretion levels when the body is experiencing stress. Once there's a high demand on the body’s stores of the vasoconstrictor, the brain responds with the release of adrenergic transmitters. The release, therefore, increases the quantity of the modifying protein discharged. A lot of L-Tyrosine transforms into catecholamines, thereby preventing deficits. This process is associating evidence in favor of L-Tyrosine supplement.

Once the discharge multiplies over a sustained amount, internal secretion synthesis is assumed to be addicted to concentrations of amino acid. Moreover, supplementation could increase internal secretion synthesis and unleash by making a certain sufficiency of amino acid throughout prolonged periods of stimulation.


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Dosage

How To Take N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT)?

The NALT dosage, however, is lower due to its higher bioavailability. With NALT, the typical daily dosage is 300 mg.

How To Take L-Tyrosine?

The standard L-Tyrosine dosage is 500-1000 mg daily, divided into 2 to 3 doses, half-hour before meals.

“Studies in humans showing most anti-stress promise for acute supplemental L-Tyrosine use a dosage range of 100-150mg/kg bodyweight which can be taken 60 minutes before exercise; this is a dosage range of 9-13.5g for a 200lb person and 7-10g for a 150lb person.

If using higher doses and finding digestive issues, this may be split into two doses separated by half an hour (30 and 60 minutes prior to acute stress).” as mentioned on Examine.com


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Conclusion

L-Tyrosine is highly effective at improving cognition in situations involving intense stress. A robust body of research indicates that L-Tyrosine prevents cognitive decline in these situations. Furthermore, studies show that it enhances memory, increases cognitive flexibility, and improves mental performance under stress and cognitive demand.

The clinical studies, as well as anecdotal data from the nootropic community, indicate that L-Tyrosine is useful to everyone; not necessarily limited to those experiencing military-grade stress.

Working or studying long hours, struggling with anxiety, and even intense exercise are all stressors that impact cognition. Because L-Tyrosine is available through familiar dietary sources, supplementation is a choice rather than a health necessity. In situations that involve acute environmental stressors, it is a wise choice that will boost cognition. Therefore, tyrosine is worthy of consideration as a day to day supplement.


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User Experiences

From Reddit user experience:

I have been taking l-tyrosine with some other amino acids and supplements every day 3 times a day for a while now. I take it bc I am on Adderall and Wellbutrin, so I like to give support to those systems they affect. I've had no side effects. I think they are doing great for my mood, but that could be the dl-phenylalanine, too.

Another Reddit user, taking L-Tyrosine for ADHD:

I have been taking L-Tyrosine for 15 years or so as part of my ADHD stack. I do 500mg once a day 3-5 days a week. It can elevate anxiety levels and I find it seems to elevate norepinephrine more than dopamine based on my experience with other nootropics and meds. I notice if I go more than three or four days without it I start to feel foggy and don’t have the same level of mental clarity. But I take it with Taurine to take the edge off. If I take it for a couple of days without Taurine I also notice that it makes me a little edgy. It’s definitely a balance with this one.


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Frequently Asked Questions

How does L Tyrosine help with fatigue?

The amino acid tyrosine (500 – 1000 mg each morning) is the raw material your body uses to make the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. These both stimulate energy. There can be some immediate boost, but it takes six weeks to see the full steady-state effect

Does taking L-tyrosine supplements actually increase dopamine production in the brain?

A study of 22 individuals shows L-Tyrosine supplementation enhances cognitive flexibility as well as the ability to switch between tasks and thoughts. This result is attributed to L-Tyrosine's capability to increase dopamine in the brain, which further enhances mental versatility.

Can L-Tyrosine ease depressive symptoms in a patient being treated for ADHD with stimulant medication?

Yes, it is helpful in relieving stress, building adrenaline stores, improving mood and in improving mental acuity. … Some studies show that children suffering from ADHD usually have low levels of Tyrosine. Both my sons take L-Tyrosine with their Adderall and Concerta respectively. I tried a lot of things before I finally let them try medication. Bingo! That was the magic bullet for them.

Further and Related Readings

Tyrosine – Wikipedia

L-Theanine – Nootropics Information

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) – Nootropics Information


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