Anxiety

This page contains all website entries whether pages, posts, updates, or blog entries that are tagged under Anxiety.

OverviewWhat is Aniracetam?Benefits and EffectsDosageFocus StackAnxiety StackSide EffectsUser Experiences


Summary: Aniracetam is a multipurpose nootropic that provides several benefits. It produces remarkable anxiolytic effects, thereby improving cognition and enhancing mood by ridding anxieties. It also sharpens focus, increases verbal fluency, information processing, as well as expands the brain’s capability of digesting and processing information. Furthermore it produces sense of clarity and well-being.

Aniracetam TTS on Youtube

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Overview

What is Aniracetam?

Aniracetam (systematically known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, and trade names Ampamet, Memodrin, and Pergamid ) is an invention from the 1970’s which has been since standing as one of the most popular racetams. It is more potent than Piracetam, the original racetam that led to the invention of the large family of racetams that exists today. However, Aniracetam and Piracetam work in different fashions, respectively. Aside from being a best-selling across racetams on many vendor websites, it's also peaking among the most expensive ones. The majority of individuals using Aniracetam, myself included, report its anxiolytic and mood enhancing effects as remarkable, profound, and most noticeable.

The majority of individuals using Aniracetam report its anxiolytic and mood enhancing effects as remarkable, profound, and most noticeable.

Furthermore notable is the increase in social and verbal confidence as well as improvement of verbal fluency. Both advantages are likely to the anxiety-relieving characteristic of Aniracetam. In individuals with generalized and social anxieties, the effects are profound: relaxing and relieving anxiety levels to a significant degree due to feeling the overall mood enhancement and worrying less about random thoughts such as ones that are unchangeable. Freeing the accumulated anxiety leads to make space available for better, positive thoughts, thus leading to an open and welcoming approach to situations as well as human connections.

Aniracetam' anti-anxiety and mood enhancing properties, strong cognitive improvements, and its minimal side effects, has made it one of the most popular nootropics. Besides improving mood and reducing anxiety, it also promotes creativity, verbal fluency, and memory.

Although immediate effects from taking Aniracetam are notable,  the most significant improvements are notable after a prolonged period of daily consumption.


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Aniracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves and Enhances Memory
  2. Provides Neuroprotection and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  3. Heightens Focus and Concentration
  4. Relieves Anxiety (Especially Social Anxiety)
  5. Relieves Depression Symptoms
  6. Improves Memory and Learning Capacity
  7. Supports Management of Alzheimer’s Disease
  8. Additional Benefits of Aniracetam

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Supporting Research:

Improves and Enhances Memory

In two different rodent studies, Aniracetam proved to improve behavioral performance, and even reverse memory loss. In the second study on rodents aniracetam improved amnesia-like memory loss that was a result of sleep deprivation. [1] [2]

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Provides Neuroprotection to the Brain

Aniracetam acts as a neuroprotectant for brain cells. It helps to protect the brain damage that occurs from external influences. Furthermore, it assists in reversing brain damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption. [3], [4], [5]

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Heightens Focus and Concentration

Aniracetam is remarkable in heightening concentration and focus. It exhibits effects such as increasing noradrenaline release in the brain, which is the reason for the stimulating effect of cognition boost as well as in concentration and focus. [6], [7]

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Relieves Anxiety and Stress

Aniracetam shows strengths in reducing anxiety. Studies show that it affect anxiety by increasing social interactions and improving performance in fear and stress tests. With an increase in serotonin and dopamine, individuals feel a noticeable reduction in anxiety. Thus, becoming a general anxiety relieving agent. Although there are studies that support and verify this process, it is also useful to read personal experiences from Reddit and Longevity communities, where many reports it being far better than Piracetam, Coluracetam, Phenylpiracetam and similar nootropics in the field of anxiety reduction. [8], [9]

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Relieves Depression Symptoms

It's been proved to be useful as an antidepressant in rodent studies. In Japan, it has been used to treat stroke, depression, and anxiety. The release of dopamine and serotonin enhances mood and associating positive feelings. The impact of Aniracetam on AMPA receptors help with easing depression rising from cognitive degeneration conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. The effects of Aniracetam on depression are a result of the increase in acetylcholine and dopaminergic receptor stimulation. [10], [11]

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Improves Memory and Learning Capacity

One of the main advantages of using Aniracetam is the profound findings on memory improvement and expansion of learning capacity. It enhances the formation of memories as well as the consolidation. Aniracetam increases the blood flow in the brain’s frontal cortex. The primary function of the frontal cortex is assisting in holistic thinking and the ability to form and connect ideas and thoughts. A study on the cognitive function of rodents observes that it also helps in improving parts of the memory and learning to promote an increase in productivity and task completion, which also assists individuals with ADHD. [12], [13]

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Supports Alzheimer’s Disease Management

Aniracetam is helpful for elderly individuals. A study on patients with Alzheimer’s-related dementia found a significant improvement in comparison to another group receiving high doses of Piracetam. Over a year period, individuals receiving Aniracetam showed higher cognitive function abilities and an increase in overall emotional stability. Studies show the likelihood of Aniracetam as a preventative as well as a remedy for Alzheimer and disorders that result from central nervous system damage [14]

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Additional Benefits

Aniracetam is said to promote and improve REM stage sleep according to this study. [15]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Aniracetam Work?

Aniracetam is fat soluble which mean the compound breaks down at a slow pace thereby extending its effect. It has a half-life of 3 hours. Its pyrrolidinone structure makes it fall into the group of racetams. It's one of the most common structures when it comes to this class of drugs. It has an additional methoxy group with an anisoyl ring at the para position. It is absorbed and metabolized in less than 30 minutes thereby rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier [16], [17]. Although not all of its mechanisms are understood, an extensive amount of research compiling on Aniracetam and they hint that it works by modulating the following:

aniracetam benefits
Aniracetam Skeletal Structure

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Glutamate Neurotransmission

Aniracetam is essential in improving information and memory retention because of its effectiveness in transmitting glutamate. This neurotransmitter is vital in the activation of neurons. The glutamate receptors connect strongly with storage of information and preservation of memory. Aniracetam has a long-term effect on improving neuroplasticity. [18], [19]

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Dopaminergic Neurotransmission

In rodents, the oral ingestion of 50 mg/kg has effects of minimizing the rates of dopamine in the striatum and decreasing dopamine rates in the striatum and hypothalamus. The levels of serotonin reduce in the hypothalamus but add in the striatum and cortex, where it decreases hypothalamus turnover and increases brainstem, striatum and cortex turnover. [20]

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Acetylcholine Neurotransmission

Aniracetam has effects of improving the cognitive functions by enhancing the action throughout. This is important in attention span, memory and learning speed. It works by associating to acetylcholine receptors, stopping receptor desensitization and endorsing the synaptic discharge of acetylcholine. [21]


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Dosage

How to Take Aniracetam?

Aniracetam has a short half-life of about 1 to 3 hours. Therefore, many users advice to take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day to prolong the effect. I only take one 750 mg dose in the morning and am satisfied with this regime.

Aniracetam powder form is also available, though not as in favor as the capsule form due to its strong, bitter taste.

The recommended as well as typical dosage is 750 to 1500 mg, subjective to the individual. Taking smaller doses of as little as 400 mg has been found to be effective. Hence, it is wise to start at the lowest effective dose and build up from there as desired.

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Stack

Best Stack for Increasing Focus

For work as well as learning, Aniracetam can produce remarkable benefits and effects when taken alongside other nootropics and supplements.

It goes without a saying that stacking Aniracetam with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-GPC is a must. Leaving the potentiating effect aside, what makes it a must is the fact that many racetams work by utilizing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. Once acetylcholine is utilized and starts getting to a low or depletion levels, the user would then feel a headache. And depending on what racetam did you take and at which dose, it can be a very nasty one.

Aside from that, it really works as a great potentiator. You will feel like both nootropics are working at a better level.

Another nootropic that I like to stack with Citicoline & Aniracetam is Lion's Mane Mushroom.

Although many don't feel an onset effect, I find that it works very well in that stack even if I am taking it on random basis. Often, I would only use this stack for the days where I have to go to work early and know that I will be there all day from 8 to 4. (or maybe 9 to 3 but you get my point).

On the same occasion, I would also take N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine 350mg. I found that it helps me tremendously in keeping myself working on an ongoing task rather than taking a 5 minutes break every 2 minutes. I am ADHD, and NALT has been one of the greatest discoveries for me in that regard. It also lets me focus better.

If I have time to have coffee before heading out, I would also add L-Theanine to the stack. The synergizing effect of caffeine and L-Theanine is one of my favorite (and now seems old school) combos.

Last but anything from being least, Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR). When I first started experimenting with it I found it very effective on me and was taking 500mg three times a day. Eventually though, I was developing a weird allergy-like symptoms as well as feeling light, needle-like numbing in random parts of my body.

I can't blame it on ALCAR just like that but after a while of carefully observing, I noticed that it had almost disappeared since I lowered the dosage to 0 for a while, and then got back to taking 500mg per day only. Now when I think about it, I did not get those symptoms pretty much since that time. Interesting note to self.

So in a morning where I am going to be at work all day, which is a massive corporation that drains me sometimes, this would be my stack:

  1. Aniracetam 750mg
  2. Alpha-GPC 300mg
  3. Lion's Mane Mushroom 500mg
  4. N Acetyl L-Tyrosine 350mg
  5. Acetyl L-Carnitine 500mg
  6. Caffeine 100mg
  7. L-Theanine 200mg (if I'm having coffee)

Of course the stack is ever changing, but when it comes to Aniracetam, I remember that stack being one I liked and found to be very effective on me. It made me focused at work, energized throughout the day (esp. on days where I also took Adrafinil), diminished my occasional social anxiety, and made me very productive at my job.

Every now and then, I would take a 15 to 20mg of Noopept and take it after lunch break (not that I have lunch during those breaks, I'm just drawing the timing picture here) to get a little boost and prolong the effects of…all the above.

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Stack for Anxiety and Stress Relief

Another Aniracetam Stack that I really like for either when you are running late (I say this mainly for the ADHD readers, I know the struggle very well…), or just not in the mood to go after 10 containers getting one pill from each, and rather like the convenience. I often use this one when I am on the go and its

It's a very easy and convenient stack. Simply 3 pills and you are good to go. Sometimes I would take another serving of MindLab in the afternoon as needed. The maximum allowance is 2 servings (4 pills) every 24 hours. I think its the best nootropic formula in that situation.

Note to self: re-order MindLab Pro – you used the last remaining pill today.


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Side Effects

What Are Aniracetam Side Effects?

Side effects of supplementing are mild and only occur when consuming high doses. High doses can result in digestive discomfort and nervousness.

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is almost a rule to pair racetam drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha-GPC or CDP-choline). Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, but it will also work synergistically together firing cognitive function (21).


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User Experiences

Below are a few randomly selected Aniracetam user experiences from people within the Reddit nootropic community:

“My first aniracetam trial at only 250 mg made me feel a little out of it for a couple hours, and “loopy” would probably be the right word had I started out with three times that much. This may refer to what is often described as an anxiolytic effect.

On the other hand, once this passed I felt more clear than usual. Others have reported such a “biphasic” effect as well. There are a number of things you can do, one of which is obviously not to use it again. Others are to try a lower dose, especially to begin with, until you become more accustomed to how it affects you. When you take it matters too; if you get this biphasic effect then take that into account when timing your use. With some experience, you also may find stacking it with another supplement, for example, phenylpiracetam, helpful. In any case, I always start low when trying anything new just as a general safety practice and to avoid unpleasant surprises.”

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Reddit

Another reddit user also wrote:

“I've been experimenting with nootropic stacks for awhile now and I decided to foray into the racetams. Per Dave Asprey (Bulletproof Exec) I decided to start with aniracetam because of its comparative potency to other the racetams, as well as it's anxiolytic effect. I bought 30g online (I googled and found Health Supplement Wholesalers, fair-priced) and immediately noticed several changes in various aspects of my day to day life.

First and foremost I have found myself much more resilient to stress than I would normally be. Things that would spin me up in the past are barely even noticeable, and it is exponentially easier to shrug off all but the largest of stressors as if they did not even occur. I have had an elevated mood also. Feelings of happiness and contentment come much more easily to me, and I will catch myself smiling without understanding why. It is a very pleasant change from my previous baseline. I have a much easier time focusing on tasks, and accomplishing goals. My mind feels not only ready, but excited to take on challenges and meet them.

Mental plasticity is a definite benefit of this product. One of my favorite aspects to this is there is no type of mental fog, but instead complete clarity. I feel very sharp and aware, noticing things about my surroundings that I would not have noticed before. It has even given me a new appreciation for music as the tranquility and clarity of mind have allowed me to listen and pick out parts of the music that I would never have noticed before. I highly recommend getting some to anyone seeking any or all of these benefits, as everyone I've shared it with has asked me where to buy it for themselves. Pretty excited I found this; I'm anxious to try the other racetams as well.”

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And a third experience:

“Certainly not placebo imo. I've tried numerous supplements and a couple other nootropics with the same hope that I would be able to make a significant difference, but without any luck. Aniracetam has been the only one to actually provide me with tangible results. But you guys are free to speculate and make your judgements.”


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Conclusion

Diverse effects of Aniracetam make it an outstanding nootropic. It promotes calmness and improves mood. Moreover, it enhances performance and reduces social anxiety. It is useful for performing artists, public speaking, and overall anxiety reduction. It has shown positive results on cognitive functions making learning quicker and more pleasant.

Furthermore, it heightens focus and concentration over prolonged periods, making it appealing to students and researchers. Aniracetam users report a boost in creativity and an improvement in visuals and self-awareness. It has proved to offer many advantages taken at recommended doses with infrequent adverse effects.

Aniracetam reviews are very encouraging and reddit experiences will make you want to buy yourself some right away.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Can I take Aniracetam every daiy?

No. While it is completely ok to take Aniracetam on regular basis, as well as daily basis. It does not mean you can or should take it every single day for the rest of your life. Moderation is key. And too much of a good thing isn't necessarily good. I personally have taken it for periods of months continuously, anywhere between 2 to 4 months. Then I would stop it for a while, “cycle,” if you may. If you are taking it every day, do what I often do, which is stopping (cycling it off) once I run out, then prolong the period until I repurchase and refill.

Can you snort Aniracetam?

No. Aniracetam is fat-soluble. It's meant to be administered orally. Unlike Noopept, for example, which people have reportedly snorted (taste is terrible and the cons outweigh the pros, not recommended). If you snort Aniracetam, due to the dosage, it wouldn't really be absorbed much.

How does Aniracetam work?

Aniracetam is fat soluble which mean the compound breaks down at a slow pace thereby extending its effect. It has a half-life of 3 hours. Its pyrrolidinone structure makes it fall into the group of racetams. It's one of the most common structures when it comes to this class of drugs. It has an additional methoxy group with an anisoyl ring at the para position. It is absorbed and metabolized in less than 30 minutes thereby rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier.

How to take Aniracetam?

Aniracetam can be taken any time really. Although fat-soluble, it can still be well-absorbed with little and even no food. Therefore, you can take it any time. Personally, I like to take it in the morning after having my breakfast which is usually a cup of coffee. However, it is advised to avoid taking Aniracetam in the evening so it doesn't stimulate you and keep you up and unable to fall asleep.

How long does it take for Aniracetam to kick in?

Aniracetam is considered to be fast-acting, and able to cross the blood-brain barrier in 30 minutes only.

How long does Aniracetam lasts?

Aniracetam has a short half-life of about 1 to 3 hours. Therefore, many users advice to take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day to prolong the effect.

How much Aniracetam can I take on daily basis?

The recommended starting point and the effective dose is 750mg, which is also the dosage I take in the morning. If you prefer to prolong the feeling throughout the day, you may take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day. For example, instead of one 750 mg in the morning, you can split that into 3 doses of 250 mg, and take it once in the morning, then in the early afternoon, and again in the early evening. I personally prefer a one-time larger dose, and later in the day, use another potentiator to re-up the feeling (usually that would be CoQ10 or Noopept 15mg)

What is Aniracetam used for?

Aniracetam is often used for memory enhancement, neuroprotection, focus, concentration, anxiety relief, depression, increasing learning capacity, as well as to support in the management of alzheimer's disease.

Where to buy Aniracetam?

Many vendors online sell Aniracetam and I can only recommend something I have personally tried and still use to this day, which is Nootropics Depot' Aniracetam. If in Dubai, check this page: Nootropics Dubai. Or simply email us.

How does the mechanism of piracetam differ from that of aniracetam?

Neither drug's mechanism is fully understood, so you will not get a definitive answer to this question. However, I can tell you what difference is suggested by literature on this subject. Aniracetam is known to possess anxiolytic abilitys that piracetam does not. Receptor binding profiles (among other things) for aniracetam were investigated in vitro to see if there was any obvious explanation for this effect. It was determined that Aniracetam affects Dopamine D2 receptors, as well as Serotonin 2a receptors. The exact nature of its effect on these receptors is not understood; nobody has looked into it in more detail than the initial study. Piracetam's mechanism of action has been investigated more thoroughly, however and direct interaction with these two receptors has indeed been ruled out. So we can be reasonably certain that Aniracetam differs in this respect from the prototypical compound from which it is derived (Piracetam), but not much more than that.

Where to buy Aniracetam in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, or the UAE?

Our sister company Nootropix is the sole provider of Aniracetam in Dubai or the UAE.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Racetams 101 (FAQ)Nootropics 101
  2. Piracetam, Sunifiram, Oxiracetam, Fasoracetam

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Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Tianeptine is a potent mood brightener and a nootropic, cherished for its effects on wellbeing and cognition, providing immediate and also extended term benefits. Within an hour of use, it gives mental stability and clarity, functioning as a medium duration productivity tool. Additionally, its beneficial effects compound over extended use, resulting in a long-term impact which reduces feelings of stress, sadness, and anxiety.

What is Tianeptine?

Tianeptine, sold under the brand names Stablon and Coaxial among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used mainly in the treatment of major depressive disorder, although it may also be used to treat anxiety, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. Tianeptine has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects with a relative lack of sedative, anticholinergic, and cardiovascular side effects.

It has been found to act as an atypical agonist of the μ-opioid receptor with clinically negligible effects on the δ- and κ-opioid receptors.[16] μ-Opioid receptor agonists typically induce euphoria, as does Tianeptine at high doses well above the usual therapeutic range. There are concerns about the potential for abuse.

Tianeptine was discovered and patented by the French Society of Medical Research in the 1960s. Currently, Tianeptine is approved in France and manufactured and marketed by Laboratories Servier SA; it is also sold in a number of other European countries under the trade name Coaxial as well as in Asia (including Singapore) and Latin America as Stablon and Tatinol, but it is not available in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, or the United States.

Depression

Tianeptine was as effective as several classical antidepressants in patients with major depression, dysthymia, or adjustment disorder. Also, extended treatment with Tianeptine decreased the incidence of relapse/recurrence of depression.

In an open, non-comparative clinical study in patients with Parkinsons' disease (PD), Tianeptine decreased the severity of depression and also improved the quality of life in these patients.

Anxiety, Stress, and PTSD Symptoms

In elderly depressive patients, a drug regimen of Tianeptine or escitalopram improved anxiety symptoms and subjective and objective neurocognitive functions.

In panic disorder patients tianeptine appeared to reduce their reaction to panic challenge.

Benefits Memory and Learning

Anti-inflammatory Effects

Pain Relief

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Mechanism of Action

Dosage

The usual dosage is 12mg 3x a day for a healthy weight individual, but some people go up to 25mg at a time.

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Side Effects

Tianeptine's side-effects are similar to the side-effects of other SSRI's. These include nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, headaches, dizziness, and changes in dreaming.

Older patients should take a smaller dosage of Tianeptine, as should patients with renal failure.

Dosage does not need to be adjusted in patients with alcoholism or hepatic impairment, or patients on dialysis.

Tianeptine Decreases Emotional Memory
Healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single dose of Tianeptine (12.5 mg) or placebo, and subsequently completed a battery of tasks measuring emotional processing, including facial expression recognition, emotional memory, and attentional vigilance, as well as working and verbal memory. Tianeptine-treated subjects were less accurate at identifying facial expressions and showed reduced memory related to emotion and reduced attentional vigilance to positive stimuli.

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User Experiences

“Tianeptine Sodium and its sibling's Sulfate, Free Acid, and even the new tianeptine oxalate have many more than these 7 benefits, which are just the tip of the iceberg, really. The problem isn't the Tianeptine itself, the problem is finding a reliable vendor to buy tianeptine sodium that doesn't sell it as a chemical for research purpose because those impurities ware hard on your body. I used to get Stablon, but now I only order from Supplements for Work. As good as sodium gets.” – Steven

“I am an evangelist for tianeptine sodium and have personally tested (multiple times) both tianeptine sulfate and Tianeptine in free acid form. Neither two worked as effectively for me as tianeptine sodium. In fact, the free acid was so ineffective I converted it myself to tianeptine sodium.

That said, it's my understanding that tianeptine sulfate is more useful for those who want a steadier, longer lasting effect. What might register as a slight increase in energy and mood in me can be felt as anxiety in others? For them, sulfate is their ideal form.

As for a dose equivalence, if you were used to 15mg Tianeptine sodium 3x/day, you'd want to take roughly 45mg 1x/day to achieve a similar therapeutic effect.

As a side note (to anyone on the fence about trying it), I think Tianeptine is criminally under-appreciated in the US both as a pharmaceutical, and as an antidepressant. But even more than that, Tianeptine is (uniquely) a “pro mood” agent, neuroprotectant, opioid dependence modulator (and my favorite nootropic by far).” – Quora member Christian

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IntroductionBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageStackSide EffectsUser Experience


Summary: Sulbutiamine is a nootropic that boosts energy levels and reduces fatigue. It's an ideal choice on days when you're feeling tired, slow, or hungover. Furthermore, Sulbutiamine elevates mood and has a substantial impact on memory.

Sulbutiamine Video TTS

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Introduction

What is Sulbutiamine?

Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion) is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). In France, it is used to treat symptoms of weakness or fatigue. It also sells as a dietary supplement.

Sulbutiamine dose
Sulbutiamine Structure

Sulbutiamine is a discovery from Japan as part of an effort to develop useful thiamine derivatives. [R]

It is an upgraded version of vitamin B1. Japanese researchers developed it in the 1960s while trying to address a growing vitamin B1 deficiency in the Japanese population. [R]

Sulbutiamine supplement is unusually bioavailable — in other words, you absorb it very well, and unlike standard vitamin B1, sulbutiamine passes through your blood-brain barrier, supplying your brain with the precious B vitamin.[R]


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Sulbutiamine Benefits?

  1. Decreases Fatigue and Improves Mood
  2. Relieves Anxiety, Depression
  3. Boosts Motivation
  4. Enhances Memory
  5. Improves Sexual Health & Performance

Supporting research:

Sulbutiamine Decreases Fatigue, Improves Mood

Several extensive studies have found that sulbutiamine significantly increases energy in people who are feeling fatigued. Sulbutiamine benefits Increase energy & stamina.

Enerion was used in the treatment of 40 patients with psychovegetative syndrome and asthenia. Before treatment, the patients have pronounced asthenia appearances, anxiety disorders, relevant autonomic disorders, mild depression and decrease of working capacity, attention concentration and memory. The treatment conducted as monotherapy during 28 days with enerion dosage 400 mg/day. After treatment, expression of autonomic and asthenic disorders was reduced significantly, along with improvement of psychometric and neurophysiological indices. High efficacy of the medication was in 75% of the patients and moderate one–in 25%.

PMID: 14628585

Sulbutiamine Relieves Anxiety, Depression, and Social Avoidance

Sulbutiamine has no antidepressive effect but it can hasten the resorption of psycho-behavioural inhibition occurring during major depressive disorder and thereby facilitate the rehabilitation of patients in their social, professional and family life functioning. [R]


Sulbutiamine Boosts Motivation

There is also some evidence that sulbutiamine increases dopamine and glutamate in your prefrontal cortex, which links to increased motivation and good mood. [R]

It has a growing number of fans in the nootropic community, many of whom report improved mood and heightened mental endurance.

Sulbutiamine for Memory

Sulbutiamine is made up of two vitamin B1 molecules attached together, which could explain its effect on memory. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in acetylcholine synthesis in your brain. In fact, it’s the only vitamin that regulates acetylcholine levels, keeping them from getting too low or too high. [R]

What is acetylcholine?

It’s a substance found throughout your nervous system, that acts as a neurotransmitter. Your brain uses most of its acetylcholine to control your muscles, which could explain why taking sulbutiamine helps so much with fatigue. But acetylcholine also plays a key part in memory; it helps you consolidate new memories and remember old ones.” [R]

Improves Sexual Performance

Sulbutiamine treatment for 30 days restored sexual performance in 16 patients out of 20 (open-label) with erectile dysfunction (caused by psychological issues) [R]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Sulbutiamine Work?

Sulbutiamine is a molecule which is two Thiamine (B1) molecules linking together, similar to how Pyritinol is two Pyridoxine (B6) molecules link together.

Sulbutiamine is a isobutyryl thiamine disulfide and sometimes goes by its brand names of Ereon or Arcalion. It is most commonly in use for Asthenia, or weakness (part neurological and part myopathic) as well as treatment of somatic and psychic inhibition. It doesn't possess psychostimulant properties, although it is designed to act centrally (in the brain). [1]

Sulbutiamine synthesizes from Thiamine, where after the opening of the thiazole ring of Thiamine and dimerization to a disulfide compound it is then esterified. [2]

Sulbutiamine is a fat-soluble molecule that crosses the blood-brain barrier more readily than thiamine. Once in your brain, it increases levels of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is directly involving in the citric acid cycle in the brain.

This cycle breaks fatty acids, amino acids, and monosaccharides into smaller molecules that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. And provide the building blocks of the electrons needed to generate brain cells. [Examine]


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Dosage

How To Take Sulbutiamine?

How to take: Sulbutiamine supplement recommendation dose is 400mg. However, caution is necessary in regards to cycling sulbutiamine and not supplementing on daily basis.

Sulbutiamine dosage: 200-600 mg/day, taken in the morning. Sulbutiamine is fat-soluble (in fact, that’s the reason it can pass the blood-brain barrier and have all these nootropic properties), so be sure you take it with a fat source; otherwise, you won’t absorb it. [R]

Stack

Sulbutiamine Stack

It’s quite rare to find recommendations of stacking sulbutiamine and out of all that I have come across, I think the best stack, or at least one that I would personally consider, is sulbutiamine, aniracetam, and choline stack. For example:

Sulbutiamine 200mg
Aniracetam 750mg
Alpha-GPC 300mg

Aniracetam & choline stack has been one of the most effective I have ever tried. Sulbutiamine supposedly stacks well with racetams and is a common choice due to similarities of effects on cognitive function. [R]


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Side Effects

How To Take Sulbutiamine?

At standard doses (200-1000 mg), side effects could include a headache, nausea, and trouble sleeping.

People doing self-experiments with sulbutiamine, though, occasionally report anxiety and negative thoughts from taking higher doses (most of these side effects showed up around 1000-2000 mg). Others say they feel anxiety from taking sulbutiamine for too long without a break. [R]


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Conclusion

If you decide to use sulbutiamine, be sure to cycle it. When you don’t take the occasional day off from sulbutiamine, it’s likely you’ll build a tolerance to its effects, and the sulbutiamine will stop working unless you increase the dose. [R]

Experiment is key to finding the dosage and cycle that's just right for you and your body composition.

Its a great choice to consider on days where you need extra mental functionality.

Sulbutiamine is becoming more and more popular in the biohacking community. If you’re curious, give it a try and see how you feel.


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User Experience

Here is a sulbutiamine Reddit user experience from someone who's ADD (high five!) and prescribed Adderall:

…I only heard about nootropics for the first time around 9 months ago. Used to take Adderall for many years, but quit over 5 years ago because it was causing daily headaches and I suspected it was causing my chronic insomnia.

I have legit ADD, as well as what I would call brain fog, low level depression, lack of motivation. I've taken sulbutiamine a few times, and I have really good results with it. I only take it occasionally, when I have a big project I need to get done (because I don't want it to stop working, like I've read that it will if you take it often). I took it today because I had a lot of organization tasks I needed to do, and since I hate these kinds of tasks, I often lack motivation to start or complete them.

When I take my capsule, I can actually feel it start to kick in around 20-30 minutes after taking it. It reminds me a lot of how Adderall worked/felt but without that unexplainable “buzzy” feeling. I felt motivated and energized, and really got into my work. Just thought I'd share for any other noobs out there who haven't tried it yet.

Related Nootropics

  1. Agmatine Sulfate
  2. Bacopa Monnieri
  3. Melatonin

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Summary: Rhodiola Rosea is a naturally growing flower plant from the wild Arctic regions of Europe, widely used in Chinese, Scandinavian and Russian traditional medicine. It is believed to be the perfect remedy for fatigue and burnouts. Moreover, Rhodiola is useful for the brain; protecting it from toxin damage as well as boosting memory and productivity.


Introduction

What is Rhodiola Rosea?

Rhodiola Rosea is thought to be the perfect remedy for fatigue and burnout. It is useful for the brain, protecting it from toxin damage, and boosting memory capacity as well as productivity. Recent research confirms that this high-altitude herb prevents the harmful effects of stress by restoring energy, improving mood,  and enhancing cognition. Furthermore, Rhodiola seems to promote longevity, combat fatigue, reduce anxiety, in addition to serving as a general neuroprotectant.


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Rhodiola Rosea Benefits?

  1. Minimizes Fatigue
  2. Promotes Cognitive Enhancement
  3. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  4. Reduces Symptoms of Mild Depression
  5. Neuroprotective

Supporting research:

Rhodiola Rosea Minimizes Fatigue

Rhodiola is an excellent fatigue fighter. Typically decreasing the harmful physical and mental consequences of minor physical exhaustion (R). It is most useful in combating the kind of fatigue produced by prolonged repetitive low-intensity exertion or extended periods of stress (R). It is observed to increase the length of active exercise time [R], but opinions vary on whether it improves athletic performance from intense exertion.

While Rhodiola may be minimally competent as a performance enhancer for athletes [R], it can be extremely of use for students, late workers, and individuals who need to keep going with everyday life after fatigue gets the best of them. Rhodiola relieves many physical symptoms of fatigue, even diminishing them. Of such example are muscle aches, soreness, feelings of exhaustion, headaches, and sleepiness (R).

Rhodiola Rosea Promotes Cognitive Enhancement

Rhodiola is proven to address many of the cognitive symptoms of fatigue; including irritability, impaired judgment or decision-making ability, and declining brain capacity (R). A vast number of clinical trials continuously indicate this herb notably increases cognitive skills. It improves the memory, increases motivation, and also increase the capacity to endure more challenging work (R).  Many consider Rhodiola a powerful fatigue-independent nootropic, and its potential cognitive benefits remain under a lot of clinical trials.

The most intriguing trials involved a group of healthy physicians on night duty over a period of six weeks (R). The double-blind placebo-controlled study revealed that the participants receiving Rhodiola outscored those receiving placebo on several complex mental capabilities. That included associative thought, short-term memory, calculation, concentration, keen speed, and overall level of mental fatigue. (R)

Rhodiola Rosea Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Recent studies on Rhodiola add to its well-earned reputation as an excellent adaptogen aiding the body to achieve systemic balance and restore itself to normal function after exposure to stress (R). This therapeutic process is a valuable benefit for users who frequently deal with intense situations, hectic schedules, and high expectations, which seems to describe the average 9 to 5 person in most developing cities today.

Furthermore, clinical trials involving participants with chronic stress symptoms exhibit measurable improvements in all stress marks across the board; low energy, headache, muscular aches and discomfort, depression, mood swings, and sleep disorders (R).

In another double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of students taking exams; Rhodiola shows to considerably improve general well-being and physical fitness, reduce mental fatigue, and improve scores on a battery of neuro-motoric tests (R). The students taking Rhodiola were scoring  8.4% higher on their exams in comparison to students on placebo. (R)

Rhodiola Rosea Lowers Symptoms of Depression

Rhodiola has potential as a reliable and efficient treatment for mild depression (R). Research remains ongoing, but clinical trials indicate that twice-daily doses of Rhodiola resulted in a significant lessening of depression, insomnia, emotional instability and other symptoms in patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression. (R)

Rhodiola Rosea is Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegenerative Diseases

Many enzymes in Rhodiola have potent antioxidant properties (R). Not only do these enzymes guard neurons against oxidative damage and prolong cell life, but they also represent a potential therapy for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease, which is defined by significant oxidative stress and neuronal damage[R]. Animal studies show that Rhodiola can reduce oxidative damage to the cellular mitochondria and therefore has the potential to of being a decent addition to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. [R]

Though research is ongoing and results remain uncertain, Rhodiola still has the possibility of being a remedy for a broad scope of conditions, including high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, heart disease, cancer, and longevity.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Rhodiola Rosea Work?

It seems to act primarily by modulating a variety of signaling pathways and molecular networks in the brain. It affects this modulation to no small extent via many phytochemical components.

These components help to prevent the removal of serotonin and dopamine; primarily chemicals associated with making us feel happy. It also increases the availability of epinephrine and norepinephrine, compounds related to giving us drive and energy. Through these alterations, Rhodiola positively impacts mood, reduces fatigue perception, and enhances cognitive abilities.

Rhodiola promotes movements for chemicals in our brain, improving processing and reaction time. It also helps with stress system by suppressing the cortisol (stress-inducing hormone) and promoting beta-endorphins and opiate peptides (stress reducing hormones).


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Dosage

How To Take Rhodiola Rosea?

Safe and effective at doses ranging from 50 mg to 680 mg daily. It is best to take on an empty stomach, in a periodic cycle, thereby preventing tolerance build up.

A 100 mg dose effectively improves memory and focus, but a 400 mg is more effective at relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety.


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Side Effects

What Are Rhodiola Rosea Side Effects?

Rhodiola is generally safe and non-addictive at moderate doses (50 mg – 680 mg daily) for a period up to 10 weeks. The most common side effects are mild to moderate dizziness, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, nausea, restlessness, and increased libido. Those side effects exist in consuming high doses. Therefore, it is essential to start with the minimum effective dose and increase as needed.

Conclusion

Rhodiola as a tonic has become a tradition at this point after maintaining its reputation for generations. Moreover, it is still growing in popularity today as we learn more about its potential uses and capabilities. It is a powerful adaptogen and reliable neuroprotectant that help manage the adverse effects of stress. Therefore, it is a great supplement to consider for individuals interested in pushing up mental and physical performance to the optimum.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Is Rhodiola the best adaptogen nootropic?

Rhodiola rosea has a large number of beneficial qualities that make it an excellent herb for you to use to aid your health. It is one of the best herbs for stress. It is not only an adaptogen, but it is also an antidepressant and an antioxidant, as well as being one of the herbs to aid a viral infection.

It is the rhodiola rosea root that is used to make herbal remedies, that are powerful aids for heart problems. Its active ingredients are cardio-protective and anti-arrhythmic, meaning that it protects you from irregular heart beats.

The root of this plant has been in use in Siberia, Russia and China for around two thousand years. It is one of the adaptogenic herbs that only grows in certain locations at high elevations in mountainous regions.

It has an excellent action to aid mental alertness and to help fatigue. It is also helpful to stimulate your memory and to help protect your liver from chemical damage.

Can Rhodiola Rosea be taken while taking antidepressants or SSRI's like Sertraline (Zoloft, etc.)?

Rhodiola Rosea does seem promising, but as there is still insufficient evidence on the safety of this combination, I would strongly advise you to consult your psychiatrist first, before combining Zoloft with it. There is a potential for adverse drug interactions when combining SSRI antidepressants with Rhodiola, the latter of which has strong MAOI effects.
It should also be noted that Rhodeola Rosea can inhibit the CYP3A4 enzyme in the liver; although these were in-vitro studies, the potential exists for in-vivo inhibitions. Whilst this enzyme plays a minor role in the metabolism of Zoloft, it plays a large role in the metabolism of many other psychotropics.

Related Nootropics

  1. Bacopa Monnieri
  2. Cordyceps Mushroom
  3. Lion's Mane Mushroom
  4. Melatonin

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What is Pramiracetam?Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsFAQs

Summary: after a study showing an outstanding success rate of 96% in reversing amnesia, surpassing the original and most popular racetam (Piracetam) – Pramiracetam started drawing more and more attention until eventually getting to stand out amongst racetams the way it does today. Additionally, it boosts cognition and improves memory, increases concentration, learning capacity, and supports engaging in, and maintaining prolonged focus sessions.

Pramiracetam Video TTS

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Introduction

What is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is one of the best-selling nootropics today due to being the highest in potency out of all racetam nootropics.

It has a distinctive mechanism of action that allows for efficient utilization of brain capabilities, thereby improving memory recall, learning capacity, concentration, and focus. Serves as an excellent supplement on its own and furthermore, a powerful potentiator to other nootropics, intensifying as well as prolonging effects. It is quickly rising towards a well-deserving reputation for its profound effects.

A synthetic derivative of piracetam, Pramiracetam is an invention of Parke-Davis from the 1970s. It is a highly effective nootropic, up to 30 times more potent than piracetam. It is marketed in Europe under brand names Neupramir, Pramistar, and Remen; often as a prescription for individuals with dyslexia, ADHD, dementia, and memory impairment due to neurodegenerative conditions. It was a patent in the US in 1979 but without the support nor the approval of the US FDA.

Regardless, it is popularly used off-label as a different approach to cognitive challenges and memory impairments. Its also undergoing further trials as a potential treatment for a variety of nervous system disorders.

Pramiracetam is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. It is marketed by Menarini under the brand name Pramistar as a treatment for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative and vascular dementias in Italy and some Eastern European countries.

Wikipedia


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Benefits?

  1. Enhances Overall Cognitive Function
  2. Enhances Memory Formation
  3. Reduces Symptoms of Depression & Relieves Anxiety
  4. Increases Learning Capacity
  5. Promotes Thought & Sense of Clarity
  6. Increases Social Fluency & Sociability
  7. Enhances Sensory Perception
  8. Helps in Memory Restoration and Recall

Supporting research:

Enhances Overall Cognitive Function

Pramiracetam optimizes brain performance and produces noticeable cognitive enhancement, especially regarding memory, in both formation of as well as consolidation. Due to the euphoric-like focus, it induces along with a sense of “emotional blunting,” users report the feel of it being comparable to Ritalin.

Pramiracetam Enhances Memory

Due to stimulating the hippocampus, the section of the cerebellum that's accountable toward the formation of new memories, pramiracetam is raising in acknowledgment as a sharp memory enhancer. Users report significant improvement in memory formation and speed of recall; a claim confirmed by animal studies. (R)

Additionally, extensive studies find that it significantly improves long-term memory, and able to reverse amnesia to surprising levels. The findings of that study led to the synthesizing and production the drug.  (R) (R)

Pramiracetam Reduces Depression and Anxiety

Pramiracetam reports show it improves cognitive deficits associating with traumatic brain injuries. Studies demonstrate and confirm its neuroprotective effects. Studies show that its overall impact on lowering symptoms of depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. Nevertheless, it was beneficial for both. (R)

Increases Learning Capacity

Users allegedly report pramiracetam makes learning faster, more efficient, as well as more pleasant. Such finding can be explained, at least in part, by pramiracetam facilitation of higher neuroplasticity and support of long-term memory. The latter seems to be more accurate as per the following study: (R)

Pramiracetam Increases Sense of Clarity

Anecdotal reports from the nootropic community tell that pramiracetam provides them with a strong sense of mental awareness, clarity, with a deeper understanding of life; similar to many of those reporting the same effects from piracetam.

Pramiracetam Promotes Social Fluency

Furthermore, a lot of people taking pramiracetam report enjoying socializing whereas before, they avoided social settings for lack of interest. This could be due to the cognitive boost or the emotional blunting effect, which is likely to reduce social anxieties (R).

Enhances Sensory Perception

Another report backed by a clinical study shows that pramiracetam indeed enhances sensory perception and heightens observation. That is including amplified and more vibrant sound and more precise, richer visual perception with distinct color contrast. (R)

Pramiracetam Aids Memory Restoration

In clinical experiments, pramiracetam has been noted to be an efficient remedy approach for memory impairment and other cognitive difficulties caused by brain injuries(R). It is also one of the various nootropics that are carried out to examine in the US as a potential treatment for memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease amongst other neurological disorders. There is a study that shows it to be capable of reversing chemically produced amnesia in healthy volunteers of 18-65 years of age(R).

Pramiracetam

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Pramiracetam Work?

Similar to several nootropics, pramiracetam affects the release of neurotransmitters, brain chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. Though pramiracetam performs it indirectly, in different fashion than that of other racetams, and it excites the brain in different methods as well. Pramiracetam is fat-soluble which means the bloodstream absorbs it via fatty acids. It reaches peak concentrations and highest bioavailability, usually within 30 minutes, and has a somewhat long half-life of 4 to 6 hours.

Racetams work by directly stimulating neurotransmitter receptor sites, thus increasing production and release of specific neurotransmitters. However;  pramiracetam doesn't directly produce alterations in neurochemical levels, neither does it seem to possess an affinity for any vital neurotransmitter.

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter thoroughly engaging in cognitive processes including learning pace, thought recall, and attention. By inciting choline uptake, it indirectly modulates the release of acetylcholine and triggers increased activity within the hippocampus. Due to this part of the brain being crucial to revival function, the generalized stimulation that pramiracetam formulates can enhance both the creation of new memories and the retention of reference or long-term memories.

Cerebral Blood Flow

The improving action in the hippocampus also improves cerebral blood flow, which enhances attentiveness and boosts cognitive capabilities. Besides, Pramiracetam has additional mechanisms of action. Neuroscientists hypothesize that in addition to influencing the brain, pramiracetam serves outer sections that rely upon the adrenal glands. (R)

Concerning Membrane Fluidity

Animal studies imply that pramiracetam may additionally improve or repair brain membrane fluidity, which promotes cell signaling (R). Pramiracetam does not seem to alter either alertness or emotional states actively. This advantage is understandable by pramiracetam low impact on the generation and release neurotransmitters that possess the most notable results on tranquility, stress, and anxiety levels such as serotonin, GABA, and dopamine.


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Dosage

How to Take Pramiracetam?

Recommended Pramiracetam dosage is 1200 mg per day, split into two 600 mg or three 400 mg doses throughout the day.

This is the lowest effective dose. On an individual level, it should be adjusted as required to accomplishing the desired effect.

Currently, the evidence using pramiracetam in humans uses either 400mg thrice daily or 600mg twice daily; both of these dosing regimens totals 1,200mg of pramiracetam daily.

It is unsure if pramiracetam should be taken with meals, and it is not clear if 1,200mg is the optimal dosage or not. This does, however, does appear effective.

Examine


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Side Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Side Effects?

Studies testing Pramiracetam doses found it to be safe and not causing any side effects at doses of 400 mg and up to 1,600 mg (R).

Furthermore, a study concerning Alzheimer's disease shows it's safe even at doses as high as 4,000 mg. (R)

Headache may occur due to low acetylcholine levels in the brain. Therefore, it is wise to pair racetams drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha GPC). Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, they will furthermore work synergistically together firing cognitive function. (R)


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Conclusion

Pramiracetam is a powerful nootropic that is relatively new to many of the nootropics community. Yet is rapidly attaining a well-deserved recognition. Due to having more complications in synthesizing, it costs more than most other racetams. Users often complain about that, however, the distinct potency proposes that lower doses are required to achieve the results. Users also have mixed reactions to the Ritalin-like emotional blunting outcome of the supplement. For some, it creates refreshing objectivity and easing of social anxiety, while others find it makes them feel somewhat disengaged. Pramiracetam is generally unique nootropic, notably enhancing memory creation and recollection, learning pace, and overall mental clarity. Its usually a worthy addition to nootropic stacks. Often existing there as an agent for prolonging their effects. Pramiracetam is safe, effective, fast-acting, and reasonably long-lasting.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Where to buy Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is available on many vendors if you simply do a quick Google search. If I had to pick one of the many choices, I would recommend Nootropics Depot because I have personally used almost every racetam they offer, and I trust their product quality.

Can you snort Pramiracetam?

Although it is reportedly possible, it's not recommended due to the large powder amount required as well as the associated pain. Unlike certain substances that yield results with small amount, snorting Pramiracetam wouldn't be worth the effort.

How long does Pramiracetam last?

Pramiracetam reaches its peak concentration in about 30 minutes after ingestion and has an average half-life of 5 hours.

What does Pramiracetam do?

Pramiracetam enhances memory formation and memory recall, increases learning ability, reduces social anxiety, and could potentially treat amnesia as well as prevent neurodegeneration.

When to take Pramiracetam?

Ideally, the best timing to take Pramiracetam would be once after breakfast, and another dose after lunch, keeping a 5-hour time interval between the two dosages.

How to take Pramiracetam?

Although it is recommended to take Pramiracetam after food for optimal absorption, it can still be taken without food. So if absorption is your concern, it does not matter much. It depends on your personal preference.

How long does Pramiracetam last?

On average, Pramiracetam effect lasts somewhere between 4 to 6 hours.

Why is Pramiracetam so expensive?

Regardless of all the forum talks of Pramiracetam being so expensive, and whether this used to be true in the past or not; the actual price of Pramiracetam powder from Nootropics Depot is $9.99 for 5g, and $26.99 for 15g.

How much choline to take with Pramiracetam?

Personally, I would take and recommend 300 mg of Alpha-GPC with each Pramiracetam dose. If you prefer Citicoline instead (as the choline source) then the recommended dosage would be 250 mg

For more Frequently Asked Questions, check out the following pages:

  1. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ List
  2. Racetams 101: Guide & FAQs

Further and Related Readings

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Sunifiram
  3. Oxiracetam
  4. Fasoracetam
  5. Coluracetam
  6. Citicoline (CDP-choline)
  7. Noopept

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsSide EffectsDosageUser ExperienceFAQ

Summary: N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, an essential antioxidant in the body. NAC supports glutathione replenishment which has been found to bind to the glutamate recognition sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. It also promotes healthy inflammatory responses.

NAC Video TTS

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Introduction

What is N-Acetyl Cysteine?

N-Acetyl Cysteine (also known as Acetylcysteine or NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, an essential antioxidant in the body. NAC supports glutathione replenishment which has been found to bind to the glutamate recognition sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. It also promotes healthy inflammatory responses. Acetylcysteine was initially patented in 1960 and licensed for use in 1968. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines and is easily accessible for a very affordable price.

“Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine, is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It can be taken intravenously, by mouth, or inhaled as a mist. Some people use it as a dietary supplement.” Wikipedia


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Benefits & Effects

What Are N-Acetyl Cysteine Benefits?

  1. Improves Cognitive Function
  2. Reduces Symptoms of Depression
  3. Helps Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder and Mania
  4. Reduces Symptoms of OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
  5. Improves Male Fertility
  6. Boosts Skin Health
  7. May Improve Autism
  8. Reduces Muscle Fatigue
  9. Reduces Antibiotic Side Effects
  10. Reliefs ADHD Symptoms
  11. Other Benefits

Supporting Research:

N-Acetyl Cysteine Improves Cognitive Function

Combinations of NAC with other antioxidants improve cognition in both healthy older people and those with mild cognitive impairment. (R) (R)

NAC has many studies on enhancing cognitive function in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and schizophrenia. Currently, it’s under research for boosting cognitive performance after general anesthesia. (R)


N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Symptoms of Depression

NAC helps people with depression by balancing glutamate levels within the brain. Doing so, it reduces inflammation and increases the growth of new brain cells. R

In a study of more than 500 participants, NAC shows an improvement in symptoms of depression and overall functionality. At 2000mg per day, it improves mood in people diagnosed with depression. (R), (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Helps Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder and Mania

NAC improves chronic health issues such as heart disease and hormonal imbalance in people with Bipolar Disorder. In a 6-month study, NAC indirectly shows to affect overall health, antioxidant and inflammation levels, as well as mood. (R)

Another study on 17 subjects with bipolar disorder, NAC shows improvements in low moods and reduction in overall associating symptoms after six months of supplementation. (R)

In a study of 15 individuals suffering from mania, NAC also shows improvement after a six-month regime. The group receiving NAC had a reduction in symptoms versus the one receiving placebo. However, mood swings seem to worsen as a result. (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Symptoms of OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)

NAC balances glutamate levels as well as increases antioxidants within the brain. In a study of 44 subjects with OCD, a NAC dose of 2000mg added to standard medication shows to improve symptoms, even in severe cases. R

Another study of 48 subjects who didn't respond to typical treatment, NAC shows to improve symptoms after a 3-month period safely. (R)

NAC is useful for obsessive-compulsive disorders according to extensive research. It shows promising benefits and has very few side-effects. (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Improves Male Fertility

In addition to helping women with PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome), NAC may help increase fertility in men. Oxidative stress damages the sperm’s DNA, which results in reducing fertility. (R)

A study done on 120 infertile men receiving NAC, improvements were notable in semen quality and antioxidant status after a period of three months. (R)

Other studies look at the fertility benefits of NAC in combination with other antioxidants such as B vitamins, vitamin C and D. The combination improves the sperm count in those with low sperm count. (R)

In an extensive study of almost 500 infertile men, NAC with selenium show improvement in fertility after a six month period. (R)

Sub-fertility Conditions

Some men are sub-fertile — they are less fertile without an apparent reason. In 84 of subfertile men trying to conceive, NAC combination supplement called Condensyl (with vitamins, zinc, fig extract, and vitamin E) increased pregnancy rates. It raises the “fertility potential” of subfertile men increasing the rate of successful pregnancy. (R)

The typical NAC dose for improving fertility in those studies was 600 mg/day.

N-Acetyl Cysteine Boosts Skin Health

Interestingly, NAC can be used as a cream or gel to improve skin health. It boosts glutathione in the skin protecting it from damage. Furthermore, NAC reduces skin inflammation and normalizes skin cell division. It’s used for eczema, skin irritation, radiation-induced skin damage, wound healing, and acne. In a study of 100 participants, a 5% NAC gel shows to reduce mild to moderate acne. (R)

Overall, NAC skin formulations are promising and very safe. Case reports and animal studies support this wide range of skin benefits of NAC.

N-Acetyl Cysteine May Improve Autism

NAC seems to benefit children with autism. In a study of 33 autistic children, NAC (900-2,700 mg/day) shows to reduce irritability after three months period. (R)

In 2 different studies with 80 autistic children, those receiving NAC as an add-on to their medication (risperidone) show less irritability and hyperactivity after two months period. (R), (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Muscle Fatigue

Overall, NAC tends to help muscles improve blood flow during intense training as well as recover faster after a workout.

It also seems to help older individuals in improving fitness and enhancing endurance in athletes on the short-term. However, long-term NAC with exercise may prevent muscle recovery.

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Antibiotic Side Effects

Antibiotic side effects arise from free radicals damage. As a potent antioxidant, NAC (1,200 mg/day) reduces side effects, prevents kidney and ear damage from several strong antibiotics in 2 studies of 100 people. (RR)

NAC also protects the liver from the harmful effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs as shown in a study of 60 participants. Those receiving NAC show intact liver after treatment, while 40% of those who didn’t take NAC suffer liver damage. (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reliefs ADHD Symptoms

In a study of nearly 100 ADHD participants, NAC shows to reduce ADHD symptoms in patients with as well as improving cognition, impulsivity, and overall symptoms.

Participants were receiving up to 5g per day during this study. (R)

Other N-Acetyl Cysteine Benefits

According to Health Line, the following are the 9 top benefits of NAC:

  1. Essential for Making the Powerful Antioxidant Glutathione
  2. Helps With Detoxification to Prevent or Diminish Kidney and Liver Damage
  3. May Improve Psychiatric Disorders and Addictive Behavior
  4. Helps Relieve Symptoms of Respiratory Conditions
  5. Boosts Brain Health by Regulating Glutamate and Replenishing Glutathione
  6. May Improve Fertility in Both Men and Women
  7. May Stabilize Blood Sugar By Decreasing Inflammation in Fat Cell
  8. May Reduce Heart Disease Risk by Preventing Oxidative Damage
  9. Ability to Boost Glutathione Levels May Improve Immune Function

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Side Effects

What Are N-Acetyl Cysteine Side Effects?

N-Acetyl Cysteine is a safe substance with very few known side effects. Although occasionally, it can cause nausea, diarrhea, or constipation.

Large doses in a mouse model showed that acetylcysteine could potentially cause damage to the heart and lungs. They found that acetylcysteine was metabolized to S-nitroso-N acetylcysteine (SNOAC), which increased blood pressure in the lungs and right ventricle of the heart (pulmonary artery hypertension) in mice treated with acetylcysteine.

The effect was similar to that observed following a 3-week exposure to an oxygen-deprived environment (chronic hypoxia).

The authors also found that SNOAC induced a hypoxia-like response in the expression of several important genes both in vitro and in vivo.

Wikipedia


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Dosage

How To Take N-Acetyl Cysteine?

The typical dose for general wellness and gut health is 500mg per day taken in the morning on an empty stomach 800to2,400mg are the most common across clinical studies. However, for a chronic health condition, consider a higher dose. Studies concerning addiction and mental health issues use doses closer to 3000 mg/day.

Daily doses should be taken at 2-3 times a day.


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User Experience

Both the reviews/experiences below are customer reviews posted on Nootropic Depot's product page. You can only write a review for a product you actually purchased:

NAC is the supplement of choice for helping to mitigate nasal congestion. I've found even with a cold, taking a large dose divided up into several small doses separated by 2-4 hours throughout the day significantly controls the nose situation. Recently while going through this routine, I also noticed heightened mental clarity which quickly was attributed to the NAC as nothing else in my regular stack had changed. Combined with the fact the loose powder is inexpensive, NAC has high opinion from me. Con, it tastes terrible. It seriously tastes like butt if that was made from rubber. Capsulating it yourself is highly recommended!

NAC is an essential part of my daily routine. I take 2000mg every morning and if I feel a cold coming on I also take 1000 or 2000mg of an evening. Every winter I get a cold which precipitates a severe chest infection. It is now halfway through winter and I have not yet even caught a cold, despite the fact that the rest of my family has been sick with colds. My nose usually runs all winter but the mucous dissolving properties of NAC somehow even ameliorate that. I use Nootropics Depot's NAC because I know it's pure and independently tested. It comes in user friendly packaging, it's inexpensive, the postage is tracked and it arrives quickly.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What is N Acetyl L Cysteine Powder?

N Acetyl L Cysteine, also known as N Acetyl Cysteine or NAC, is an acetylated form of L Cysteine. NAC is one of few natural mucolytic agents. Mucolytic agents help thin out mucus which makes it easier to cough up mucus. NAC is also used to enhance the production of glutathione when it is normally depleted. Glutathione benefits are plentiful and thus, supplementing with NAC can provide many of the glutathione benefits we would see with glutathione supplementation.

What are N Acetyl L Cysteine Benefits?

Supports respiratory health
Promotes skin health
Supports organ health
Promotes vitality

What is N Acetyl L Cysteine Good For?

Studies observing glutathione levels after taking a NAC supplement found that NAC elevated glutathione levels. This is significant because the supplementation of glutathione on its own did not significantly increase glutathione levels. Since NAC is able to increase glutathione, NAC benefits have been linked to skin health, organ health, and promoting vitality. Additionally, taking a NAC supplement is believed to have some detoxification effects since it allows more glutathione to be produced. In addition, NAC benefits include organ protective properties when exposed to alcohol. A study on rats found that a NAC supplement taken 30 min before alcohol exposure seemed to produce a protective effect while administration 4 hrs after alcohol exposure elevated organ tissue damage. Additionally, these protective behaviors increased when alcohol consumption was stopped. Additional trials confirmed that the protective properties NAC has against alcohol only work when taken prior to alcohol consumption. Again, it is important to note that NAC should only be taken prior to consumption of moderate quantities of alcoholic drinks. NAC should never be taken after the consumption of alcoholic drinks as it may have an opposite and detrimental effect on the liver. This is important to note as many hangover supplements, intended to be taken after the consumption of alcoholic drinks, contain N Acetyl L Cysteine. The cystine-glutamate antiporter on astrocytes is known to regulate synaptic levels of glutamate by taking up cystine, the oxidized dimer form of Cysteine, in exchange for glutamate release. It is believed that additional Cysteine through N Acetyl L Cysteine supplementation may provide more substrate to further reduce glutaminergic stimulation. This is important, as glutamate can over-excite neurons, which can cause neuronal damage. This is part of the reason why some people avoid the consumption of monosodium glutamate, which is more commonly known as MSG. It is falsely believed that the consumption of MSG will result in too much glutamate in the brain, which could then cause neurotoxic effects. The claims that MSG has negative effects in the brain have long been disproven, however, glutamate levels may increase independently from MSG consumption. It is believed that higher Cysteine levels in the brain may lower glutaminergic transmission by lowering the amount of glutamate release. It has been found that glutamate levels can be reduced within 1 hour of orally administering a NAC supplement, making NAC a great neuroprotective agent. Other N Acetyl L Cysteine uses were studied after the relationship between glutathione and NAC supplementation were established. Researchers were interested in NAC for its vitality enhancing effects. Studies on sprint performance found vitality enhancing effect when subjects used a NAC supplement but only a slight increase in vitality from baseline was achieved with a large dose.

What Are N Acetyl Cysteine Food Sources?

The body converts N Acetyl L Cysteine which converts into Cysteine which is then converted to glutathione. Cysteine is an amino acid produced by the body but it requires methionine to do so. Cysteine is primarily found in animal proteins such as chicken, pork, sausage, turkey, fish and duck. Dairy sources of cysteine include yogurt, ricotta cheese, eggs, and cottage cheese. Cysteine is also found in some plant sources for vegetarians and vegans. Foods such as broccoli, red pepper, onion, granola and oat flakes are all good sources of Cysteine. Other sources include garlic, bananas, linseed, soy beans, and wheat germ. Low levels of Cysteine can delay growth in children and lower immunity. Weakness and muscle loss may also occur as a result of a low Cysteine die

How much N Acetyl Cysteine should I take?

As a dietary supplement, take one 500mg of N-Acetyl L-Cysteine once daily.

Where to buy N Acetyl Cysteine Powder?


Nootropics Depot offers 200 gram, 400 gram and 1 kilogram jars of high quality N-Acetyl L-Cysteine powder. Nootropics Depot's N-Acetyl L-Cysteine has been lab-tested and verified for both product purity and identity.

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Summary: CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabis extract. It is a potent anti-inflammatory that fights cancer, helps with IBS, schizophrenia, anxiety, and needless to say, promote quality of sleep.

what is cbd oil
Cannabidiol CBD Skeletal Structure

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Introduction

What is CBD Cannabidiol?

CBD is one of the (more or less) 113 cannabinoids identified in help plants. Also, it accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. That is a lot. A lot of extensive research is ongoing about cannabidiol, most of which is on anxiety, cognition, movement disorders, and pain. [1]

CBD is one of over 60 compounds found in cannabis that belong to a class of ingredients called cannabinoids.

THC is one of the other 60 compounds, and it is what got mainstream attention, and everyone got to know it because its an ingredient in cannabis and produces the psychoactive effect.

Although CBD is also an ingredient in marijuana, it doesn't seem to provide the same psychoactive effects the way THC does, yet still offers many benefits nevertheless.

CBD is a component of sativa. Moreover, it can be beneficial in many different ways with more and more research showing up every day along with an equal amount of marketing advertisements. It may be helpful on such a broad spectrum that is from anti inflammation to antioxidation to anxiolytic to antipsychotic. That’s the anti’s part. Furthermore, it is a potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, anxiety, and even schizophrenia. [2]

What is CBD Oil?

Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is oil that is extracted from the annual herbaceous flowering plant cannabis. The oil taken from the plant's secretions is used as a food supplement and as a medicine (we retail it as a food supplement). It was discovered in 1940 and the plant has over 400 additional compounds, which have been used throughout the world for millennia.

CBD is a product that helps to communicate with the body to complete its natural maintenance and regenerative functions. Activating these CB1 & CB2 receptors in your body will give it balance, helping the natural signals of these bodily systems flow.

Legal Status

With the United Nations: Cannabidiol is not scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances or any other UN drug treaty. In 2018, the World Health Organization recommended that CBD remains unscheduled. [R]

I think that by itself explains the explosion of online vendors and the increase in the sale of CBD oil as well as CBD isolate.


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Benefits and Effects

What Are the CBD Benefits?

  1. CBD Reduces Anxiety and Depression
  2. CBD Treats Seizures, Epilepsy & Neurological Disorders
  3. CBD Benefits Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  4. Relieves Pain and Inflammation
  5. CBD Benefits Schizophrenia
  6. Anti-Cancer Properties
  7. Additional Benefits

CBD Reduces Anxiety and Depression

A 2011 study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test on healthy control patients and treatment-naive patients with a social anxiety disorder. A total of 24 never-treated patients with a social anxiety disorder were given either CBD or placebo 1.5 hours before the test. Researchers found that pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alertness in anticipation of their speech. The placebo group presented stress, anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort. [3]

CBD has also shown antidepressant-like effects in several animal studies. [4]

Social Anxiety Disorder

Early research shows that taking cannabidiol at a dosage of 300 mg daily didn't improve anxiety in people with social anxiety disorder. However, another research suggests that taking a higher dose (400-600 mg) notably improves anxiety, especially that which is related to public speaking and medical tests in people with social anxiety disorders. [5]

Depression

According to researchers, CBD has antidepressant effects in mice. These depression-reducing effects of CBD in mice were fast, maintained over time, and as strong as a standard antidepressant (common tricyclic medication imipramine, also known as Tofranil) [R] [R]

Treats Seizures, Epilepsy & Neurological Disorders

A 2014 survey conducted by researchers at Stanford University on 19 subjects who suffered epilepsy and had previously tried up to 12 antiepileptic drugs. 84% of the participants had a reduction in seizure frequency while taking CBD. Furthermore, 11% reported complete diminishing symptoms of seizure altogether. [6]

CBD Benefits Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Aside from all the research I came across supporting this, I just remembered that one of my friends’ sisters who has been suffering multiple sclerosis for a long time, told us the day she tried cannabis had been a turning point in her life regarding easing her symptoms to new levels. Moreover, with my knowledge of the plant, I can believe everything about this study, and it makes total sense to me.

Relieves Pain and Inflammation

CBD significantly suppresses neuropathic pain as well as chronic inflammation in rodents without causing tolerance. It inhibits the neuronal transmission within the pain pathways. With those findings and many more surfacing from all over the world, researchers are now suggesting that CBD and other ingredients of cannabis – those that don’t produce psychoactive effects, might be representing a novel class of therapeutic remedies for treating chronic pain. [7]

Furthermore, it is also said to lower the incidence of diabetes, relieve nausea, promote cardiovascular health, and much more. It sounds like an all-in-one ointment that you have to keep around in the house for when necessary. It can heal a wound if you have one or in another day gets you to relax and unwind. I thought I'm over it after my experiment, but now after researching it again a year later, I think I might give it another shot — although definitley not vaping it this time.

CBD Benefits Schizophrenia

While the psychoactive THC in cannabis seems to trigger psychotic episodes, especially in those with schizophrenia, CBD has opposite, antipsychotic effects. More and more studies are pointing to CBD as a natural alternative to antipsychotic drugs but with far fewer side effects. [R]

Anti-Cancer Properties

CBD decreases the energy production in cancers, triggering their death. It makes cancer cells kill themselves (apoptosis), stopping both cancer growth and spreading. [R] [R]

Furthermore, in test-tube and animal studies, CBD has demonstrated anti-tumor effects. In animals, it has been shown to prevent the spread of breast, prostate, brain, colon, and lung cancer. [R]

Additional Benefits

Antipsychotic effects

Studies suggest that CBD may help people with schizophrenia and other mental disorders by reducing psychotic symptoms [R]

Substance Abuse Disorder Treatment

CBD has been shown to modify circuits in the brain related to drug addiction. In rats, CBD has been shown to reduce morphine dependence and heroin-seeking behavior. [R]

Diabetes Prevention

In diabetic mice, treatment with CBD reduced the incidence of diabetes by 56% and significantly reduced inflammation. [R]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does CBD Work?

CBD supports your complete wellbeing by working with your Endocannabinoid System (ECS). In the 1990s, the first Endocannabinoid System receptors were cloned: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors have an effect on the brain, and nervous system and how our bodies feel overall. CB2 receptors influence appetite and immune system function. CB2 receptors also control the management of pain throughout the nervous system. It uses 2-AG and binds with enzymes throughout the Endocannabinoid system. The Endocannabinoid system also uses (2-AG) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol to control these body systems.

Cannabidiol has antipsychotic effects. The exact cause for these effects is not apparent. However, cannabidiol seems to prevent the breakdown of a chemical in the brain that affects pain, mood, and mental function. Preventing the breakdown of this chemical and increasing its levels in the blood seems to reduce psychotic symptoms associated with conditions such as schizophrenia. Cannabidiol might also block some of the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Furthermore, cannabidiol seems to reduce pain and anxiety. [R]

The Endocannabinoid System

The Endogenous Cannabinoid System, also known as the ECS system, are cell receptors that communicate with various parts of the body to tell them when to start or to tell the process when to stop such as:

  1. The brain
  2. Organs
  3. Connective Tissues
  4. Glands
  5. Immuno Cells

The goal of the ECS is to achieve the overall balance of the body’s systems. The ECS chemical keys are the CB1 and CB2 receptors within the body, which lock and unlock systems of the body. Since cannabinoids play a significant role within the body’s functions, they constitute an important tool to maintain our overall wellbeing.


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Dosage

How to Take CBD?

CBD dosage can vary anywhere from 100 mg up to even 3 g per day, depending on the health issue on target.For protecting the brain (such as in Alzheimer’s) and reducing inflammation and muscle twitching (MS), doses of 100 to 600 mg of CBD were used in clinical studies. In some studies, patients took as much CBD oil as they needed to feel pain or muscle spasm relief.

Doses up to 800 mg CBD daily were used for psychosis and schizophrenia.

The highest CBD doses used in studies were up to 3.5 g of CBD oil daily for very severe drug-resistant seizures in children and young adults with epilepsy. 300 mg per day was enough to reduce anxiety in clinical studies.

Typically, it is recommended to take 150 mg of CBD oil twice a day for tackling anxiety, and for inflamation relief.

For multiple sclerosis: A spray delivering 2.5 mg of cannabidiol under the tongue per dose is positivley reported.

How is CBD Oil Used?

CBD oil is used to support the overall wellbeing of the body and mind. Today, it is used widely as a food supplement that activates receptors that communicate with the different systems of the body. CBD supports your overall feeling of wellbeing throughout the body, but does not give a sensation of “being high”, which is why THC, the other well-known active substance from the Cannabis plant, has been prohibited in most countries and considered a drug.


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Side Effects

What Are The CBD Side Effects?

CBD is generally well tolerated, and safe at high doses, and with chronic use in humans. [R]

Cannabidiol sprays used under the tongue have been used in doses of 2.5 mg for up to 2 weeks.

Some reported side effects of cannabidiol include dry mouth, low blood pressure, lightheadedness, and drowsiness.

This is what I can second as well, from my personal experience with CBD.


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User Experience

My Personal Experience

Although my method of administration was slightly different, during my experimental period with CBD oil I was inhaling it through a vape.

I can confirm that at many times it had an incredible effect on me especially regarding anxiety and on my hypertension. However, most often than not, I was experiencing side effects rather than the benefits. To me, those were dry mouth, which is tolerable and expected. However, I often suffered somewhat an anxiety rebound instead of ease. And I believe it stemmed from analyzing and paying attention to how my heart starts beating fast and I feel altogether uncomfortable. It's like being on a bad trip and without even the psychoactive effect.

I tried several types. Some of the very potent and concentrated and some were diluted and had lower concentrations. I had very mixed feelings about it and decided to give away the oil along with the vape all together a long time ago. However, I might give it another try this time leaving the vape away and taking it orally instead.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Does CBD Oil Help Anxiety?

CBD was recommended to me for anxiety and depression about a month ago.
I've suffered anxiety and depression for as long as I can remember. I managed it for a while with vitamins and exercise, but a little over a year ago the depression and anxiety became overwhelming. They helped, but it was still there. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety meds have been recommended, but the idea of an adverse reaction making it worse was terrifying. A few months ago PMDD (pre menstral dysphoric disorder) appeared. A week or so before my period, anxiety went in to overdrive. I would wake up terrified. I was afraid to leave my house, go to work, I convinced myself I was a terrible mother and my daughter would be better off somewhere else. Horrible, awful, crippling fear. Even auditory hallucinations. I felt borderline psychotic, like I wasn't in control of my thoughts. All created soley by out of whack hormones. And this happened every month!! Enter CBDs. I started taking 20Mg CBD capsules every morning about a month ago. Within a couple days, I felt better. In less than a week, anxiety and depression significantly dissipated and I just feel normal. I’m positive and energetic. I'm eating better, exercising again, and I don't have a lead weight on my chest that prevents me from making decisions or doing what I need to. PMDD hasn't shown up whatsoever. I've had unusually strong cravings for chocolate milkshakes the last couple days, but I'll take that over the bs I was going through. My experience with CBDs has been phenominal, with absolutely no side effects. Everyone is different, but its helped me immensly with anxiety and depression.

What Does CBD Oil Do?

CBD has show promise for many health related issues, but still needs to be studied more closely. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) just realesed their findings on CBD ad the recognized they could not find any side effects associated with CBD and they found it MAY be useful for various issues, including:
Alzheimer's disease: anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiapoptotic in in vitro and in vivo models of Aβ-evoked neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses.
Parkinson's disease: Attenuation of the dopaminergic impairment in vivo; neuroprotection; improvement of psychiatric rating and reduction of agitation, nightmare and aggressive behaviour in patients.
Multiple sclerosis: Improved signs of EAE in mice, antinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties.
Huntington's disease: Neuroprotective and antioxidant in mice transgenic models; no significant clinically important differences in patients.
Hypoxia-ischemia injury: Short term neuroprotective effects; inhibition of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in rodent models.
Pain: Analgesic effect in patients with neuropathic pain resistant to other treatments.
Psychosis: Attenuation of the behavioural and glial changes in animal models of schizophrenia; anti-psychotic properties on ketamine-induced symptoms
Anxiety: Reduction of muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue, problems in concentration, improvement of social interactions in rodent models of anxiety and stress; reduced social anxiety in patients.
Depression: Anti-depressant effect in genetic rodent model of depression.
Cancer: Antiproliferative and anti-invasive actions in a large range of cancer types; induction of autophagy-mediated cancer cell death; chemopreventive effects.
Nausea: Suppression of nausea and conditioned gaping in rats
Inflammatory diseases: Antinflammatory properties in several in vitro and in vivo models; inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pathways.
Rheumatoid arthritis: Inhibition of TNF-α in an animal model
Infection: Activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Inflammatory bowel and Crohn's diseases: Inhibition of macrophage recruitment and TNF-α secretion in vivo and ex vivo; reduction in disease activity index in Crohn's patients.
Cardiovascular diseases: Reduced infarct size through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo.
Diabetic complications: Attenuation of fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction

Related Natural Nootropics

  1. Bacopa Monnieri
  2. Ginkgo Biloba
  3. Ashwagandha
  4. Cordyceps Mushroom
  5. Lion's Mane Mushroom

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