Creativity

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OverviewBenefitsMechanisms of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Piracetam is a designer nootropic made to enhance brain function. It's the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.

Piracetam Video TTS

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Overview

What is Piracetam?

Piracetam is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It's been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.

Nootropics such as Aniracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Fasoracetam, Sunifiram and Pramiracetam are all derivatives of this compound.

“Synthetic molecule designed to enhance brain function. Piracetam is the basic ‘racetam' molecule of a family of related compounds”

Examine

Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.

“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.”

Wikipedia


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Piracetam Benefits

What Are Piracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Enhances Cognitive Function
  3. Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
  4. Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
  5. Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
  6. Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
  7. Helps with Schizophrenia

Supporting Research

Improves Memory

Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result. [1] [2]

Enhances Cognitive Function

There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits. [3] [4] [5]

Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration

Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. Prevention is of often the best medicine there is. [6] [7]

Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought

There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. [8]

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression

In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. Use with caution. With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social [9] [10] – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)

Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics

Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time. [11] [12]

Helps with Schizophrenia

Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus. [13] [14]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Piracetam Work?

Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. Piracetam' mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.

“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).

Piracetam review
Piracetam Skeletal Structure

The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.

Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine

Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.


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Dosage

How to Take Piracetam?

Typically, the Piracetam dosage for adults is between between 1,200 to 4,800 mg per day.

The most effective and agreed upon Piracetam dose is 1,600 mg. It can be taken once per day, or up to three times per day, totaling a maximum of 4,800 mg per day.

If new to Piracetam and taking it for the first time, start with 1,600 mg and wait and observe your reaction to it. Few hours later, you can choose whether you want to take another dose, or if one is enough for your needs.

For optimal results pair it with 300mg of Alpha GPC, CDP-choline, or your choline source of choice.


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Side Effects

What Are Piracetam Side Effects?

Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. [15]

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-Gpc, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.

Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. [16]


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User Experience

Reddit

A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:

So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i've never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions. I've lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i'ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety. With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me. Now I focus on what is important and I don't care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I've started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions. I've also noted i'm more honest and don't feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour. I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i've been an asshole my whole life) Even so I'm still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they're only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself. Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don't have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.

Another Reddit review

So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.) But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn't expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.


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Conclusion

Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.

Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Is Piracetam Legal in the US?

It's legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.

What's the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”

Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”

What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?

Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked' in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.

What is the correct way to take Piracetam?

“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”

Why does piracetam take so long to act?

Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down's syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.

Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?

The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:

1. Enhance some form of cognition.
2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

For the first Qualifier:

Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.

Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focus, memory, and learning.

Second Qualifier:

Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]

Check out the Ultimate Nootropics Information FAQ for more FAQs


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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceFAQs

Summary: Fasoracetam is a newer addition to the racetam family. It's a nootropic that helps in relieving anxiety, enhancing memory, and improving overall cognition. It’s reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms.

Fasoracetam Video TTS

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Introduction

What is Fasoracetam?

Fasoracetam is a promising and exciting addition to the racetam family. It's reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms. Even though Fasoracetam is a new name on the nootropic scene, it was developed by a Japanese pharmaceutical company more than 20 years ago as a potential treatment for vascular dementia. However, it was put on hiatus after a failed trial.  The clinical data were then bought by NeuroFix in 2013. Clinical trials began in 2016 with its focus on treating ADHD symptoms in children. The experiments have shown a great promise as a potential ADHD treatment.

In 2016, the FDA accepted the substance for evaluation.

Fasoracetam is a research chemical of the racetam family. It is a putative nootropic that failed to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials for vascular dementia. It is currently being studied for its potential use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Wikipedia


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory Cognition
  2. Relieves Anxiety and Depression
  3. Potential ADHD Treatment
  4. Increases Creativity and Motivation

Supporting Research:

Fasoracetam Improves Memory Cognition

Fasoracetam minimizes memory decline, forgetfulness, and amnesia. Individuals who use it report it positively impacts their memory. That is due to the chemical that it produces, which increases learning, memory and cognitive functions. (R)

Fasoracetam Relieves Anxiety and Depression

Fasoracetam relieves anxiety, improves mood, and eases depression by acting on glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). By up-regulating GABA and suppressing the excess production of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, Fasoracetam offers a non-jittery and smooth feeling of calmness, relaxation and improved mood. [R] [R]

Potential ADHD Treatment

A study on 30 individuals ranging between 12 to 17 years old test the impact of Fasoracetam on ADHD patients. The subjects were receiving fasoracetam for five weeks, after which improvements were observed relating to ADHD symptoms. [R]

Increases Creativity and Motivation

With more research done on Fasoracetam, the improvement in creativity and motivation progresses as well. Many users report that not only it makes them inspired by nature but keeps them motivated too. These self-reports are credible for boosting moods and ability to increase the release and production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is responsible for cognition and learning.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Fasoracetam Work?

There is no clear evidence to support how it works to improve cognition. The theories that exist that describe that it as an interaction with the receptors of glutamate and GABA and the cholinergic system.

nootropic fasoracetam
Fasoracetam Skeletal Structure

Fasoracetam works of a specific group of glutamate receptors known as metabotropic glutamate receptors, which play multiple roles in the brain and body mainly relating to memory, learning, and anxiety.

In increasing acetylcholine fasoracetam is a powerful cholinergic, significantly increasing the uptake of choline in the cortex and hippocampus.

The brain uses the additional choline to produce more acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter most strongly associated with learning, memory, and overall cognition.


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Dosage

How to Take Fasoracetam?

A 20 mg dose is a good starting point.

Anecdotal reports suggest smaller doses of 15 to 30 mg per day, while dosages used in clinical trials for ADHD were 100, 200, and 400mg twice a day.

Personally I tried anywhere from 20 mg per dose to 60 mg per dose. The difference was barely notable to me.

Always pair it with Alpha GPC or any choline source to potentiate the effect and prevent a headache.


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Side Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Side Effects?

Fasoracetam is safe when taken responsibly. The most common side effect, similar to all racetams, including fatigue, headache, and digestive discomfort.

The is no scientific evidence available on the specific interactions between other drugs and fasoracetam.


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User Experience

Here is an ongoing discussion thread on Reddit's stack advice regarding Fasoracetam usage that is packed with both information on the nootropic, as well as different user experiences (myself included), suggestions, and thoughts on the nootropic:

Any positive feedback on fasoracetam for anxiety?

Some of the interesting & diverse comments from that thread:

Not from me, unfortunately. Made me feel worse. I've lost any faith in common nootropics because they do nothing for me. Oxetine

10-20mg gave me near instantaneous relief from anxiety—sublingual that is. tawatson2

While it seemed to help somewhat with anxiety (not a magic bullet) I also felt like some cognitive abilities were actually reduced by it. I had problems carrying out my work with usual performance and with internalizing new tasks. Sometimes you can't judge if a nootropic really helps much of anything at all but in case of fasoracetam the downsides seemed pronounced enough for me not to continue. sheldonopolis


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Conclusion

Fasoracetam (as well as Coluracetam) is a new nootropic but has had numerous experiments done on it. However, it has already developed a strong force in the nootropic community.

Many people find it an excellent choice to relieve anxiety and depression. Some people also say that it helps in cognition, clarity, and focus. It works well when used responsibly.

An excerpt from Wikipedia's page:

Fasoracetam is a research chemical of the racetam family. It is a putative nootropic that failed to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials for vascular dementia. It is currently being studied for its potential use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Fasoracetam appears to agonize all three groups of metabotropic glutamate receptors and has improved cognitive function in rodent studies. It is orally bioavailable and is excreted mostly unchanged via the urine.

Fasoracetam was discovered by scientists at the Japanese pharmaceutical company Nippon Shinyaku, which brought it through Phase 3 clinical trials for vascular dementia, and abandoned it due to lack of efficacy.

Scientists at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia led by Hakon Hakonarson have studied fasoracetam's potential use in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hakonarson started a company called neuroFix Therapeutics to try to bring the drug to market for this use; neuroFix acquired Nippon Shinyaku's clinical data as part of its efforts. neuroFix was acquired by Medgenics in 2015. Medgenics changed its name to Aevi Genomic Medicine in 2016. Clinical trials in adolescents with ADHD who also have mGluR mutations started in 2016.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What's the effect of Fasoracetam?

I have been dosing for 3 days now. I started noticing my legs were becoming relaxed as if I took a benzo combined with that sense of horniness phenibut gave me when I first began taking it. Typically after a few days of Phenibut use dopamine builds up which leads to euphoria combined with anxiolytic effects. Those effects have been long gone and I've basically just been taking about 1.6 grams to avoid withdrawals. I've gotten off it a few times only to go back on. Now i'm feeling the orginal effects coming back stronger after each dose of Fasoracetam. I can honestly say I don't feel many other effects aside from the Phenibut now. I'm dosing Phenibut low so its amazing that the effects are coming back with such low doses. I'm wondering if Fasoracetam will completely abolish all Phenibut Withdrawal. It almost seems like that may be the case since its Re-upregulating Gaba B. I wish I understand the Upregulation and Downregulation process on a deeper level.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Fasoracetam (with the addition of another compound, a new formula) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for ADHD
  2. Phenylpiracetam
  3. Nootropics FAQ

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Coluracetam is a new member to the racetam family of nootropics. Early scientific trials confirm that it is beneficial in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder as well as with Generalized Anxiety, in addition to its a bunch of nootropic value it offers.

Coluracetam TTS on Youtube

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Introduction

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a drug that falls in the racetam family. The way it works and its structure are different from other racetams. Despite it being in the racetam family, this drug has gained a widespread reputation on its uniqueness in memory boosting and reduction of anxiety and depression. It is popular in the nootropic community to raise optic properties.

However, additional studies are needed to realize the mechanism that supports these benefits. It was initially synthesized in 2005 by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in Japan as a probable cure for Alzheimer’s disease. BrainCells, Inc. later licensed it for more study after it did not make to reach its clinical endpoint.

Brain Cells began to conduct experiments on its effects. Most of these tests were on rats due to lack of enough participants to undertake the clinical trial. From the clinical analysis carried out, coluracetam showed to improve memory retention and relieve anxiety.


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Coluracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory and Learning
  2. Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression
  3. Reduces Anxiety
  4. Promotes Neurogenesis
  5. Helps with Schizophrenia
  6. Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam Improves Memory and Learning

Coluracetam benefits proves to work in enforcing cognitive and memory function in rats and similar effects on humans. Brain Cells Inc. conducted a study which reveals an improvement of mind in rats after receiving AF64A for eight days. The development continued to last even beyond treatment. Alzheimer’s disease leads to lower levels of acetylcholine. By growing acetylcholine in the hippocampus, coluracetam will increase symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease such as learning disorders and poor memory. [R] [R]

Coluracetam Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression

In a study of 101 individuals with depression, who did not achieve result treatment with antidepressants, it had a constructive impact on the apparent improvement in the quality of life at 80 mg 3 times a day. However, this is the only study on humans. The capacity it holds to minimize glutamate noxiousness may be liable for its positive impacts in the depression treatment. [R]

Coluracetam Reduces Anxiety

In a rat study, dosing 21 days of coluracetam shows a 20% improvement in anxiety, which was higher than the 12% effect valium impact in a single dose in the same study. [R]

Promotes Neurogenesis

Some studies mention that  it helps with neurogenesis. The primary mechanism is still not clear, but it relates to the administration of it for several weeks, which increase in acetylcholine in the hippocampus area.

“Patents state that it promotes nerve cell growth (neurogenesis). The mechanism is unknown, yet is thought to be related to the increase in hippocampal acetylcholine when coluracetam is dosed daily for a few weeks.” [R]

Helps with Schizophrenia

Coluracetam increases the activity of ChAT in rats with nerve cell damage. This increase suggests it may benefit patients with schizophrenia through this same enzyme. More research directly on people with schizophrenia is undergoing. [R] [R]

Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam has shown its optic strengths such as improved color recognition, vision, and vividness. Specifically, it promotes nerve growth for the degenerative retinal disease. Numerous studies mention better color vision and sharpening of the eyesight, but no scientific research has confirmed these effects. [R]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Coluracetam Work?

It works through the process of high-affinity choline uptake. That's its mechanism of action. The brain chemical responsible for storing cognitive abilities and memories is acetylcholine.

Coluracetam review
Coluracetam Skeletal Structure

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine within our brain. Studies on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove vital for improving learning, memory, and cognition.

It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine in the brain. Many studies done on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove very important for improving learning, memory formation, and typically cognitive abilities. It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.


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Dosage

How to Take Coluracetam?

Typically, the recommended starting dose is 20mg due to that being the manufactured one. There are claims that researchers testing coluracetam dosage of 240 mg per day are finding no side effects. However, the source link to that claim is broken. [R] [R]

My Personal Experience

The maximum I've taken is 60mg in single dose. It caused me a slight headache and yield no special outcome.

Advise: Take it with a choline source. It can be in supplement form (Alpha-GPC. Citicoline), or from foods in your own diet.

Pairing coluracetam with a choline source will both, increase its effect, and prevent an associating headache.


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Side Effects

What Are Coluracetam Side Effects?

There isn’t enough evidence regarding the side effects of coluracetam. The human brain and body are well receiving this nootropic drug. Taking coluracetam does not have many side effects, but when they appear, they are similar to other recitals. Some of the concerns are nausea and irritability which are rare.


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User Experiences

Here's a couple of randomly selected reddit users experiences of Coluracetam:

“Definitely my favorite nootropic besides phenibut. The anxiolytic effects are great, also a very nice mood enhancer. And I noticed it significantly improved my vision, my short and long term memory, and even improved my verbal fluency.
I suffer from depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizo effective disorder. 20 to 100 mg Coluracetam seems comparable to Zoloft in terms of helping anxiety. It also helps me keep calm during my delusion induced panic attacks. I highly recommend it. In overall satisfaction for Coluracetam I rate it 9/10. I ordered my Coluracetam from Nootropics Depot.” u/sunflesh [
link]

“I know that coluracetam is pretty controversial to begin with, but I went into my use of it hopeful because I've heard of lots of crazy benefits some people were getting out of it. Sadly, when I tried it I experienced nothing except for a phenomenally bad mood. I've never been so angry in my life, and it's not because I'm disappointed, it just put me into this hyper aggressive pessimist mood. I had been microdosing LSD for about 2 weeks prior to trying coluracetam and it seemed to completely reverse the effects of microdosing and actually put me into a worse mood overall than before I started microdosing. I had high hopes for this product, and maybe I'll try it again because it could just be circumstantial, but for now I don't plan on using it for a long time.” [link]

This one is a bit more extensive, but quite informative. A self-trial by another reddit user:

“History with Nootropics: in 2015 I began my journey working on my bachelors in Psychology. During my second semester I came across Nootropics Depot while searching for a reasonably priced Bacopa, and that's when I found Noopept. Sublingually I usually took around 20mg or less nightly with decent results. This went on for around 3 months and my test taking abilities definitely grew more fluent. My expectations may have been too high though as I found it just wasn't giving my the edge I was looking for. I moved to Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pram/Phenyl, and I just wasn't getting marginal results in my focus, productivity, or recall.

Recent Finding: I gave Nootropics a break for years until about a week ago when I read up on Fasoracetam and Coluracetam. Package arrived yesterday and i took 15mg of both sublingually. Within 30min my head was clear and the flow of my work almost effortless. I work as an Inventory Auditor, so i'm constantly counting, doing long math, and finding patterns. Today was the breeziest day at work, I was honestly on my A game. I found a flaw in previous audits and had my work done about a quarter of the time ahead of schedule. I understand these may be placebo feelings and coincidence occurrences, that is why i am making this post. I will update bi weekly with logic test results. At the end of each month i will post links to graphs of progression in answer response times if any.

Update 2/23/19
Tomorrow will be the first logic test results update but i just wanted to pop in and relay a few things. I have noticed a tad of unclear thought with the faso, I dosed only colur this morning just to see any marked difference and the colur definitely clears and focuses my mind more. For the sake of this trial i did make sure to dose faso later in the day and will give it around a month to see if the foggy feeling leaves. Also, a strange but incredibly noticeable thing as happened. I cant tell which of the two may be causing it, but in dark situations or driving at night i have realized my eyes have been adjusting almost immediately and to a higher degree than normal. I can see relatively everything, not like a cat lol but its definitely a lot clearer than normal.

Update #1:
Logical reasoning testing. Took 2 different tests one 10 questions the other 18 questions. Neither having the same questions, and varying difficulties. The first test took 3min, got 7 out of 10 correct. 2nd took me 12min getting 8 out of 18 correct. About average logical reasoning. At the end of the next test taking session (2 weeks from today) results will be added to the post along with statistics. Also, choline supplementation is being introduced tomorrow morning due to moderate headaches.

Update #2:
i've noticed that my arithmetic based thought processes have grown extremely fluent. Long math has become increasingly easier while done mentally. I've always attempted to do most math in my head than ended up writing down the problems but since about a week and a half ago, writing the problems down is pointless. I began dosing Alpha GPC around 2 weeks ago instead of bitartrate due to the low bioavailability of the latter. Choline source is a must with the amount of racetams I supplement (colur, faso, ani).

Most recent update:
Alrighty guys and gals it has now successfully been over a month spent testing these racetams. Memory and short/long term recall is definitely better than it was before this trial. The tests may not be giving marginal results, but I can vouch for a stronger attention span. I find myself noticing details and patterns, more observant of daily obstacles. My LR tests I took today resulted in a 4/7 on both, with both taking 3.5 minutes. Im seeing that my ability to not need to read the questions more than once to retain it and find the answers. Faso has had marked effects on my baseline depression, with more motivation for a few hours after dose. Colur has been reminiscent of past noopept experiences. I've also narrowed down the increase in serotonin levels to the aniracetam.


Find the full thread with more information and discussions here [link]


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Conclusion

Coluracetam doesn't have extensive amount of research, the studies available do show a great potential for its use.

It is one of the more new-gone-mainstream racetams, alongside Fasoracetam. However, recently, the FDA has approved an “enhanced” form of Fasoracetam for the treatment of ADHD.

The relating information on that announcement can be found on the blog post here.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a nootropic agent of the racetam family. It was initially developed and tested by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation for Alzheimer's disease. Coluracetam increases the production of acetylcholine, and also speeds up its flow in brain synapses. The product was first registered in 2005 and phase 2A trials were completed back in 2010.

What is Coluracetam half-life?

The half-life of Coluracetam is about 3 hours.

What is coluracetam and how does it compare with other racetams?

“It’s not a hardcore focus drug like Modafinil, nor does it give me a bunch of energy and pep like caffeine or Piracetam. What it really does is just add a subtle and underlying positivity to my mood. There’s a noticeable difference on it and off it, especially in this dreadfully, gloomy part of the world.

A Youtube commenter suggested stacking Coluracetam with L-Theanine, which I tried and it's actually a pretty good stack, especially in combination with some delicious Bulletproof Coffee. The creative mindset that L-Theanine puts me in, is nicely complimented by the optimism that Coluracetam stimulates, this has actually become my go to stack since I ran out of Piracetam. Speaking of coffee, anecdotally Coluracetam has this really cool effect of reversing caffeine tolerance. I unfortunately did not experience this, at least not noticeably. Another really consistent way to reverse caffeine tolerance is just to stop consuming caffeine for about 10 days and your caffeine tolerance will almost completely go away, and after consuming just a single cup of coffee you will again feel like a Greek god consuming ambrosia in the fields of Elysium. Coluracetam did not have the same effect for me.

It's has a rocky, clumpy consistency that reminds me of cocaine – the tiny rocks feel like boulders under my tongue. You may need to break it up before consumption. I've been taking it sublingually, because it's so damn expensive that I don't want to waste a single granule of it. It's taste is not pleasant and it kind of lingers on your palette, I don't recommend taking it before a meal. It doesn't taste great but it's not as bad as some drugs I've tried.

Scienceguy suggested it potentiates Oxiracetam, I've taken it now a couple of time with Caballo which has Oxiracetam but I'm not sure if I've experienced this yet…

One day I was operating on about 4 hours of sleep, so somewhat sleep deprived and kept slipping back into an unfocused funk. I took Coluracetam around 1PM and 4PM and there was a disappointing absence of effect.

I wish I could rate Coluracetam higher, but I'm deducting 2 stars because it's just not a great value, there's plenty of Nootropics that gram for gram, cost a 3rd or 4th of Coluracetam and have just as helpful effect on mood, focus and memory. For mere economics, I wouldn't reorder it.”

Jonathan Roseland

Additional Nootropics FAQs can be found here [link]

Further and Related Readings

Coluracetam – Wikipedia

Coluracetam – Scientific Review – Examine

Other Racetam Nootropics

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Piracetam
  3. Pramiracetam
  4. Oxiracetam
  5. Fasoracetam
  6. Phenylpiracetam
  7. Sunifiram

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