Summary: Agmatine is an amino acid that offers a wide of cognitive boosting benefits. It also has excellent effects on reducing neuropathic pain, as well as drug addiction habits. It is neuroprotectant and can reduce tolerance built to many medications like benzodiazepines, morphine, and other painkillers. It also synergizes with SSRI's & cannabis.
Agmatine is a form of amino acid that derives from L-Arginine. It has been shown to inhibit receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays a major role in memory and reasoning.
Agmatine supplement also regulates levels of Nitric Oxide by the affecting nitric oxide synthase enzyme. It controls cellular energy levels by influencing polyamine metabolism and function.
In some studies, it has been shown to enhance the effects of both morphine and fentanyl to increase pain killing, reduce tolerance, and lower addiction, as well as working synergistically with marijuana.
It is also found naturally in every day foods, including beer, wine, coffee, and other fermented foods.
Because it is capable of targeting multiple receptors, agmatine may benefit a spectrum of complex diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, opioid addiction, mood disorders, and even cancer. Furthermore, agmatine may enhance cognitive function, stress resiliency, mood, and athletic performance. The highest levels of agmatine are found in the gut, where it is produced by the microbes living there. It is also found in dietary form, mainly in fermented foods, and in supplemental form like agmatine sulfate. Agmatine is also produced in small amounts within the body by the mitochondria in the liver.
Agmatine sulfate benefits the body and mind in many different ways and depending on the method it is taken. Some of the most notable agmatine benefits are:
Reduces Pain Sensitivity
In research studies, Agmatine shows to be an effective way for pain relief. Especially in the case of thermal hyperalgesia, a condition where the body is sensitive to changes in temperatures. The body becomes hypersensitive to heat or cold.
Agmatine improves those pain sensations, which is a result of its pro-circulations effect.
In studies looking at pain reduction in neuropathic conditions or inflammatory pain, agmatine was not found to produce a statistically significant effect. However, anecdotal, first-hand reports show that it actually did work for neuropathic conditions. So in this specific situation, it seems to be subjective to each individual.
Agmatine exhibits antidepressant effects and promotes mood improvement as well as anxiety reduction and relief. It helps the brain and body manage and overcome stress by reducing anxiety and promoting a sense of well-being.
By increasing NRF2, agmatine prevents depressive behavior by protecting brain cells from high levels of stress hormone cortisol. [R]
Agmatine increases adenylate cyclase in the prefrontal cortex, and decreases levels of adenylate cyclase which associate with depression. [R, R].
Furthermore, it blocks the NMDA receptor, prevents calcium overloading, as well as reverses the decrease of monoamines such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Depression often associates with a reduction of monoamines in the brain [R, R]
Studies and Research
A small pilot study on three patients suffering depression, Agmatine supplement caused a complete disappearance of depression symptoms in all patients. It most likely did so through NMDA receptor-blocking and not through serotonin pathways. [R]
Agmatine also reduced anxiety in rats when they were put in swimming and maze navigation tests. [R]
Agmatine acts as an anti-oxidant and is continuously under more research for its anti-aging and longevity potential. It has been found to exhibit neuroprotective effects against oxidative damage and injuries to the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is also believed to limit the activity of glutamate receptors and thus, the over-excitation of neurons within the brain.
Additionally, by inhibiting iNOS and nNOS and increasing eNOS, Agmatine protects against brain damage from stroke. Increasing eNOS protects the brain by dilating the blood vessels to increase blood flow. This prevents damage during times of lack of oxygen from reduced blood flow to the brain (also known as ischemic stroke).
Agmatine decreases iNOS and nNOS, two enzymes that contribute to brain damage from stroke. [R]
A Study on Effects of Agmatine Sulfate on Nerve Injury:
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy.
METHODS: The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination.
RESULTS: Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004).
CONCLUSION: Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration. PMID: 28122652
Improves Weight Loss and Prevents Weight Gain
Individuals who struggle to gain weight can benefit from Agmatine supplements. In some studies, subjects increased food consumption rates by 44% to 54% in 24 hours.
Moreover, in the following studies, Agmatine shows an increase in fat burning, a decrease in fat composition, and an increase in muscle mass [R], which also contributes to the next benefit of Agmatine:
Agmatine stimulates the production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Increasing these hormone levels lead to an increase in testosterone levels.
By increasing testosterone levels, Agmatine contributes to an optimal hormonal environment for muscle growth, enhances athletic performance, and fastens recovery. [R]
Agmatine also increases insulin sensitivity and the uptake of glucose into the muscle. Increasing insulin sensitivity results in more effective shuttling of amino acids as well as glucose into the tissues for growth and repair. [R] [R]
Studies show that L-arginine is involved in the process of cell replication, in addition to enhancing blood circulation, so it can help improve both sperm production and motility.
Men dealing with cardiovascular issues due to low levels of NO in the blood are more prone to experience erectile dysfunction and fertility problems because an erection requires a relaxation of smooth muscles, which Nitric Oxide triggers.
Although it doesn't apply to every person, a significant rate of male infertility cases (92%) is treatable with L-arginine supplements in combination with dilators, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatories. [R]
Research suggests that high-stress levels lower L-arginine levels in the sperm production pathway. Therefore, men with chronic stress specifically can benefit from Agmatine supplement.
According to Dr. Axe, a combination of L-arginine, L-glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride is a common way of treating erectile dysfunction. And it works better than L-arginine alone. [R]
“In fact,” he says, “many of the most frequently prescribed medications for ED work similarly to L-arginine: by increasing nitric oxide production.”
Furthermore, there’s research suggesting treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and L-arginine together can help balance hormones naturally and restore normal sexual function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and estrogen imbalances.
Other studies suggest that L-arginine with herbs such as chasteberry, green tea extract, and antioxidant supplements improve pregnancy rates in women struggling to conceive. [R]
Insulin resistance could cause an increase of plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Agmatine prevents cognitive decline by rescuing insulin signaling and avoiding potential accumulation of those tangles. [R]
Helps Alcohol & Morphine Withdrawal
Agmatine reduces and to an extent, prevents, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as “wet dog shakes,” anxiety, flashes, and shakings. [R] [R]
Agmatine has several mechanisms. It can inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as activate imidazoline receptors. Agmatine can also inhibit nitric oxide synthase enzymes, which allows it to regulate elevated levels of nitric oxide. Agmatine can inhibit calcium channels and specific serotonin receptors as well. Further research is needed to determine the full extent of agmatine mechanisms. [R]
Agmatine was found to exert modulatory actions directly and indirectly at multiple key molecular targets underlying cellular control mechanisms of cardinal importance in health and disease. It is considered capable of exerting its modulatory actions simultaneously at multiple targets. The following outline indicates the categories of control mechanisms and identifies their molecular targets:
Neurotransmitter receptors and receptor ionophores. Nicotinic, imidazoline I1 and I2, α2-adrenergic, glutamate NMDAr, and serotonin 5-HT2A and 5HT-3 receptors. Ion channels. Including: ATP-sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs).
Membrane transporters. Agmatine specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine transporters (ENT), polyamine transporters, and mitochondrial agmatine specific-selective transport system. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis modulation. Both differential inhibition and activation of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms is reported.
Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT), and inducer of antizyme. Protein ADP-ribosylation. Inhibition of protein arginine ADP-ribosylation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Indirect down-regulation of the enzymes MMP 2 and 9. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Direct blockade of AGEs formation. NADPH oxidase. Activation of the enzyme leading to H2O2 production. Wikipedia
There is currently no standard dosage for agmatine sulfate because there haven’t been enough human studies for determination. These numbers are rough estimates to give an idea of typical, experimental dosing:
For treatment of neuropathic pain: 1,000 to 2,500 mg of agmatine (daily)
For improving cognitive function: 200 to 500 mg of agmatine (daily)
For vasodilation and enhanced recovery: 500 to 1000 mg of agmatine (30 minutes pre-workout)
Note: Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine
“There are no standard dosages for agmatine because of the lack of human evidence for its effects. However, a single human study used 1,300-2,670mg of agmatine, daily for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The estimated human dose for improving cognition is 1.6-6.4mg/kg of agmatine, taken orally.
This is based off of the 10-40mg/kg dosage range for rats, and is equivalent to 217-435 mg for a 150lb person. Supplementation should not exceed 6.4mg/kg of bodyweight. Studies on agmatine use a daily dosing protocol.
Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine. Further research is needed to determine if oral agmatine supplementation provides the same benefits as were observed in animal studies.”
“The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.”
According to studies conducted so far, it appears that Agmatine Sulfate is safe even in relatively high doses. While there have been few studies conducted thus far, they have not shown any side effects to be associated with this supplement.
If you follow the recommended Agmatine sulfate dosage protocol and do not have any pre-existing contraindications for use, the risk of serious adverse effects is very low. Minor side effects included nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting in a small percentage of participants, which cleared up after a few days of discontinuing use. [R]
“Not only does it have varied anti-addiction properties to Opioids, amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine & alcohol, but it also seems to make other drugs, and medicines more potent in their effects. It also shares the properties of Ketamine's antidepressant effects, via the mTOR AMPA pathway. A small study found a robust antidepressant effect; all patients reported remission of depression. Considering that, shutting down Serotonin production via parachlorophenylalanine, did not reverse the antidepressant effects, shows how punchy this substance is. It's also a painkiller. I'd recommend this be added to everyone's stack, provided they aren't too fond of Alcohol, as I noticed it definitely seems to blunt the good feelings of certain drugs.” Reddit user
Agmatine Sulfate is a biogenic amine that is derived from the amino acid L-Arginine. This happens by a process called decarboxylation, which is better known as the removal of carboxylic acid group from the amino acid.
Is Agmatine safe?
Yes. And here is a 5 year-long, daily high dosage of Agmatine in order to measure and proof its safety: Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. [R]
How long does Agmatine take to work?
Agmatine starts working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption. Users can expect to experience an increase in muscle pumps, vascularity and muscular endurance within this timeframe. [R]
How much Agmatine should I take?
The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.
Can you take Agmatine with creatine?
This is the reason creatine and protein work so well together, in a nutshell. Bodybuilders can cut out the creatine middle man by supplementing with agmatine sulfate directly. … You take creatine to improve the protein effects. You take nitric oxide to improve the creatine effects.
Summary: Huperzine A is a natural neuroprotectant based on plants that can improve memory and increase general cognition. Huperzine A was first recognized in the 1980s as an alkaloid compound extracted from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata, but Chinese herbal medicine has been using plant extracts for centuries.
What is Huperzine A?
Although it is typically used in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, the nootropic potential of huperzine A is making it more popular among learners and otherwise healthy people who want to think more obviously, learn faster, and remember more correctly. Huperzine A's advantages and effects offer benefits for both the brain and body.
Huperzine A's capacity to safeguard the brain from oxidative damage, one of the most prevalent issues connected with aging, is one of the most significant advantages. Oxidative damage is at the core of most age-related diseases and is thought to play an essential part in the growth of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Oxidative damage begins with an abnormality that occurs when oxygen molecules are divided into individual atoms, a normal process that occurs continuously. Ideally, each particle should be encircled by pairs of electrons orbiting the atom in layers, but as we grow older, the method becomes less reliable, and a growing proportion of fresh particles are created without a complete electron complement. The imbalanced atoms, called free radicals, scavenge surrounding cells in search of electrons suitable for balancing their layer of particles.
They generate a chain of possibly harmful chemical reactions when free radicals attack neighboring cells and eventually destabilize the cells they “borrow” electrons from. The existence of antioxidants or molecules that can “donate” an electron to a free radical without becoming themselves volatile can offset this impact. The method can effectively be useful if free radicals and antioxidants are present in equilibrium, but if free radical activity exceeds antioxidant activity, the outcome is oxidative stress that damages lipids, proteins, and DNA.
Over time, this harm can result in several debilitating and even lethal age-related illnesses, including diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, artery atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
Huperzine A is a powerful antioxidant that has been shown to have a positive effect on oxidative balance and is regarded as a secure, efficient, and well-tolerated adjunct therapy for Alzheimer's disease.
Glutamate is an active, exciting neurotransmitter responsible for sending signals between nerve cells. When present at normal levels, it plays a significant part in learning and memory, but when concentrations are too large, it can become poisonous and can result in cell damage and even death.
Chronic glutamate toxicity induced by over-sensitive receptors is a typical characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, causing anxiety, restlessness, enhanced pain sensitivity, and reduced focusing or concentration capability.
This syndrome is particularly dangerous for older people, as age seems to increase the sensitivity of the receptor and make neurons more susceptible to glutamate toxicity. It has been shown that Huperzine A acts as an antagonist to glutamate receptors in the brain, preventing neurons from being overactivated by glutamate.
A 2016 review of three clinical trials indicate that Huperzine A supplementation may be efficient in alleviating the symptoms of cognitive impairment of significant depressive disorders.
A total of 238 individuals aged 16 to 60 participated in studies that compared the efficacy of antidepressant therapy with Huperzine supplemented antidepressant treatment. While the addition of Huperzine A did not appear to treat depressive illnesses, the group that took both antidepressants and Huperzine A showed considerably higher improvement in both mental functioning and quality of life.
Huperzine A is a water-soluble alkaloid that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes quickly across all brain areas. It appears within 5–10 minutes in the blood in humans, and maximum concentration is reached in about an hour. Its half-life is roughly 10 hours and mostly eliminated within 24 hours through urine.
Huperzine A inhibits the formation in the brain of the G4 isoform of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that degrades and decreases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine concentrations. This intervention efficiently elevates levels of acetylcholine, which is profoundly connected with all aspects of cognition and shown to be a crucial role in new memory formation. High concentrations of acetylcholine also enhance brain signaling and increase cortical circuit response time, while at the same time reducing exciting feedback that may impede memory recovery.
Studies indicate that huperzine A has a potency equal to or even higher than prescription inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. It has also been shown that huperzine A acts as a potent antioxidant, neutralizing and in some instances preventing or even reversing oxidative damage induced by free radicals in the brain.
This antioxidant capacity is regarded as essential to the importance of huperzine A in treating Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders as an adjunct therapy.
Huperzine A is also known to assist safeguard the brain from the toxicity of glutamate by blocking certain glutamate receptor kinds. This intervention prevents the overactivation of brain cells and helps to normalize glutamate concentrations, stopping the toxicity of acute glutamate typically associated with dementia and other neurological disorders connected with age.
There is no medically known guideline for Huperzine A dosage, but it has been securely administered as follows in clinical study studies: 50–200 mcg twice daily for the therapy of Alzheimer's illness, 100 mcg twice daily for improved memory in teenagers, and 30 mcg twice daily for the treatment of senile or pre-senile dementia. It can be taken with food or without.
Cycling can be helpful because of its long half-life of over 10 hours. A supplementation cycle of 2–4 weeks followed by a supplementation break is typical, although no ideal cycle duration was recognized.
While huperzine A is going to have an impact alone, accumulating it with the correct parts can produce even better outcomes.
Huperzine A may boost the quantity of acetylcholine in the brain in conjunction with a choline source such as Alpha GPC, further improving the impact of huperzine A.
Many people in their diets lack adequate choline, so supplementation can be useful.
Also, a racetam is an excellent option for Huperzine A stacking. It is believed that racetams activate glutamate receptors situated close receptors of acetylcholine. This activity sensitizes the receptors of acetylcholine to enable them more probably. Stimulating the receptors with a racetam and raising the quantity of Huperzine A acetylcholine enhances both drugs ‘ nootropic impact.
Also, Huperzine A is often coupled with Noopept, a potent nootropic synthetic.
Huperzine A appears to be secure and well tolerated when taken in moderation, although there has been no study of long-term safety or safety during pregnancy. No toxicity incidence was recorded in Huperzine A research and tests. Side effects are rare and transitory when taken in quantities frequently used for supplementation and consist primarily of minor digestive upset.
Huperzine A can trigger nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea when taken in massive doses, slurred speech, twitching of muscles, drooling, incontinence, increased blood pressure, and slow heart rate.
Huperzine A may communicate with anticholinergic drugs such as atropine and scopolamine; it may also interact with antihistamines and antidepressant medicines. Individuals taking these medicines or having heart disease, hypertension, or taking anticholinergic medication for Alzheimer's or glaucoma should talk to their doctor about huperzine A before taking it.
Summary: Piracetam is a designer nootropic made to enhance brain function. It's the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.
Piracetam is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It's been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.
Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.
“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.”
Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result.  
Enhances Cognitive Function
There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits.   
Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. Prevention is of often the best medicine there is.  
Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. 
Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. Use with caution. With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social   – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)
Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time.  
Helps with Schizophrenia
Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus.  
Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. Piracetam' mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.
“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).
The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.
Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine
Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.
Typically, the Piracetam dosage for adults is between between 1,200 to 4,800 mg per day.
The most effective and agreed upon Piracetam dose is 1,600 mg. It can be taken once per day, or up to three times per day, totaling a maximum of 4,800 mg per day.
If new to Piracetam and taking it for the first time, start with 1,600 mg and wait and observe your reaction to it. Few hours later, you can choose whether you want to take another dose, or if one is enough for your needs.
Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. 
Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-Gpc, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.
Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. 
A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:
So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i've never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions. I've lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i'ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety. With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me. Now I focus on what is important and I don't care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I've started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions. I've also noted i'm more honest and don't feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour. I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i've been an asshole my whole life) Even so I'm still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they're only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself. Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don't have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.
Another Reddit review
So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.) But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn't expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.
Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.
Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.
It's legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.
What's the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?
Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”
Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”
What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?
Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked' in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.
What is the correct way to take Piracetam?
“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”
Why does piracetam take so long to act?
Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down's syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.
Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?
The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:
1. Enhance some form of cognition. 2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.
For the first Qualifier:
Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.
Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focus, memory, and learning.
Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]
Summary: Ashwagandha is an excellent herb in Ayurveda medicine. It has become a popular nootropic due to its numerous health benefits. It is able to eliminate stress and anxiety. Research suggest that it helps in improving depression symptoms.
It also increases testosterone levels and significantly boosts sperm quality and fertility in men. Furthermore, it increases muscle mass, reduces body fat and increases strength.
Ashwagandha KSM-66 is the best form of Ashwagandha to supplement with for nootropic purposes.
Ashwagandha is a herb that belongs to the night shade family of plants. The nightshade family of plants is a very interesting one and includes a lot of vegetables that make up large parts of many diets. Notable nightshade members are potatoes, tomatoes, chili peppers, goji berries and even tobacco! Another name for the nightshade family is Solanaceae. This is where Ashwagandha gets its Latin name from; Withania somnifera. Ashwagandha is a short perennial shrub, with a large root system that develops small deep orange fruits. The fruits resemble a small cherry and the leaves look frosty due to the many tiny hairs that are on them. This one of the reasons why Ashwagandha is also referred to as ‘winter cherry’. Traditionally, the Ashwagandha root is used, however new research has found high concentrations of key components in the leaves too. Various manufacturers have taken notice of this. One of the most notable being Natreon who produce a specialized extract of Ashwagandha called Sensoril. Sensoril is made from the leaves of Ashwagandha, giving it a unique chemical composition, which produces noticeable calming effects.
Sensoril Ashwagandha is standardized to 10% glyco withanolides making it a potent and calming extract. Sensoril is made from a blend of Ashwagandha root and leave extracts, which is part of the reason why it is so potent. Sensoril is best taken during periods of high stress, or to help enhance sleep quality.
Ashwagandha KSM-66 is extracted using milk. Traditionally, Ashwagandha root powder is mixed with milk to enhance absorption, and thus Ixoreal Bioscience decided to use milk as its extraction solvent. The end result is an Ashwagandha root only extract that is very well balanced. Effect-wise, KSM-66 is very uplifting and can help support healthy stress levels.
basic Ashwagandha is made from both Ashwagandha root and leaves, and is standardized to 4-5% withanolides. Effects wise, it appears to be a perfect blend of both KSM-66 and Sensoril. This Ashwagandha extract is uplifting and calming without being too calming or too energizing. Many people tend to prefer this Ashwagandha extract because it is so well balanced. In a blind test we did around the office, a vast majority of us preferred the regular Ashwagandha. However, if you are looking for specific effects, such as an extract that is very calming or an extract that is very uplifting, then this is not the Ashwagandha extract for you. – Nootropics Depot
Ashwagandha is best known for its ability to fight stress and to ease different types of anxieties (R) by eliminating stressors. It serves the body's overall health, and empowers the immune system. Thereby preventing the damage of excessive cortisol. It enhances mood, sense of well-being, and all-around cognition.
Clinical trials verify Ashwagandha possess robust anxiety relief capabilities. As well as reducing symptoms of generalized & social anxiety. Particularly useful for those suffering chronic stress (R).
Another study further reveals its potential as a treatment for mild depression and panic disorder (R).
A 60-day regimen of Ashwagandha seems to efficiently decrease levels of serum cortisol in individuals with chronic stress. The finding is significant because high cortisol levels lead to health complications. Those range from immune system weakness to bone density. In many cases it further extends to weight gain, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
Studies on Ashwagandha enhancing memory and intelligence are few. However, at the same time, studies are confirming that anxiety is a significant cause of cognitive decline, impairing memory and attentiveness. Stress deregulates the body and brain natural processes. Normalizing those functions is, therefore, the critical element to restoring optimal cognition (R).
Individuals who frequently worry, stress out, or suffer from depression are the ones to benefit most from Ashwagandha.
A 2015 Indian study comprising more than 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that after using Ashwagandha for several weeks, more than half those participants had a notable reduction in arthritic symptoms, including pain, movement difficulties, sore and swollen joints. (R)
Reverses Deficits Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer's is the continuous impairing in memory and cognitive functions. After a 30-day course treatment using Ashwagandha, a complete reverse of the behavioral deficits is marked. This result shows how ashwagandha reverses the behavior of Alzheimer’s disease. It is achievable by the improvement of low-density lipoprotein protein in liver (R).
A study of 52 people diagnosed with chronic stress revealed that two daily doses of 300 mg of Ashwagandha resulted in a significant reduction in stress and food cravings, along with a decrease in serum cortisol and body mass. (R)
A series of studies on healthy men reveal that using 300 mg to 1250 mg of Ashwagandha on a daily basis show a measurable increase in muscle strength and intensity. In comparison to participants receiving a placebo, those on the Ashwagandha were able to increase their bench press and leg extension. Moreover, notable increases in muscle mass, testosterone, and muscle recovery. (R)
A pilot study of 46 men suffering weak sperm production found a remarkable result when using 675 mg of Ashwagandha daily for two weeks. Another finding from that clinical trial is an impressive rise of 167% in sperm count, a 53% rise in semen mass, and a 57% rise in sperm fluidity. Animal studies similarly confirm Ashwagandha enhance sexual performance, improve testicular sperm production, and boost serum testosterone levels. [R]
Studies indicate that Ashwagandha leads to a measurable decrease in blood pressure. In research involving 100 participants using Ashwagandha for about six months, an average 1.6% decrease in systolic pressure and 5.6% decline in diastolic pressure is witnessed, along with a minor reduction in heart rate.
A 2013 trial involving more than 100 breast cancer individuals in all stages of the disease revealed that Ashwagandha efficiently reduced fatigue and weakness caused by chemotherapy. It also enhanced the quality of living. Even though it is not a treatment for cancer, it is a genuinely useful addition to the therapy for cancer patients. [R]
A comprehensive analysis of studies, data, and research on Ashwagandha confirm that it provides a variety of therapeutic effects without toxicity. The review concludes that Ashwagandha possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-stress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and rejuvenating qualities. It can exert a positive impact on the central nervous system. [R]
The exact mechanisms by which Ashwagandha works remain non-entirely understood, but it appears that the active components are alkaloids and steroidal lactones that are collectively known as withanolides.
It is this combination of elements that are thought to have the potential for physiological action.
Effects on GABA
One of the acknowledged mechanisms of the withanolide components of Ashwagandha is the modulation of circulating levels of MAO and GABA in the cerebellum. GABA is an amino that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, countering to some extent the effects of the stimulatory neurotransmitter glutamate and therefore helping as a natural tranquilizer. Animal studies show that Ashwagandha further indicates GABA-like attributes and improves calmness without producing drowsiness. It has also been revealed to possess anti-depressant effects (R). It appears to work exceptionally well in combination with SSRIs for compulsion-related mental disorders. As well as with GABAergic anxiolytics, including alcohol.
The active withanolides in Ashwagandha are also thought to produce stable antioxidant properties, which makes them a helpful brain protectant. Antioxidants are chemical molecules that restrict conceivably damaging oxidizing causes from harming cells in the cerebellum and body. Cells remained influenced by oxidation can convert to free radicals, particles that harm circling cells. The free radicals triggers a series response of cellular damage that affects the aging process and a variety of complications.
Ashwagandha seems to be a powerful anti-inflammation tool. Inflammation is a response of the body’s immune system; however, when the immune system is pushed to overactivity, inflammation converts into a health obstacle. Inflammation is correlating with a variety of disorders. From arthritis and joint discomfort to obesity, heart disease, fatigue, blood vessel damage, and even cancer. The anti-inflammatory attributes of Ashwagandha are at the core of many of its benefits. That includes shielding as well as enriching the immune system. Furthermore enhancing memory, improving the learning experience and reaction time, and preventing brain cell degeneration.
Ashwagandha promotes the development of dendrites, branching neuronal extensions that carry and generate electrochemical stimulation from cell to cell. Increasing dendrite development is a marker of connectivity improvement in the cerebellum.
Typically, Ashwagandha dose ranges between 300 mg to 600 mg as the highest. Its not advisable to take more than 600mg when using on daily basis.
Take Ashwagandha with food and divide into two doses per day. If you prefer once a day, do so in the morning after breakfast.
It is not-advisable to use Ashwagandha in combination with JK inhibitors or MAO inhibitors.
There is not one universal Ashwagandha dosage due to the different levels of standardization. However, in general, an Ashwagandha powder extract dosage is going to be around 300-500 mg. This general Ashwagandha dosage falls in line with the various extracts we carry. For example, the Ashwagandha dosage for KSM-66 is 300 mg and the Ashwagandha dosage for our basic Ashwagandha powder extract is 500 mg. The Ashwagandha dosage for Sensoril is a little bit of an outlier, at 125 mg, but this is due to the fact that it is such a potent extract. – Nootropics Depot
The most common side effects of Ashwagandha include:
Ashwagandha is safe and digests well in reasonable doses. No severe side effects report using high doses over a short period. These side effects are brief; if they grow in severity or persist over a long time, discontinue using it and seek medical advice.
Ashwagandha is both a potent adaptogen that supports the brain and body in handling and managing stress. It's a safe, well-tolerated anxiolytic proven to relief anxiety.
In addition to mood enhancement, it assists in regulating the sleep cycle, and improve memory. It further increases brain signaling by promoting neuronal vitality. It is efficient and with no record of severe side effects or toxicity; all while at an affordable price. This makes it a very worthwhile nootropic.
“Ashwaganda seems to have reduced my social anxiety. In a v subtle way as well – I don’t find Ashwaganda mood altering, it’s rather there’s just an absence of anxiety. So subtle I only reflected on it & then realised I’d had reduced social anxiety. I’m using KSM 66 & using a high dose – 600mg/day.”
Nootropics Depot Review
“This was my first experience with Ashw. and it has been an excellent one. I take it before bedtime and it provides me with a better night of REM sleep, including dreams that are sometimes extremely involved. I love the stuff and have recommended it to my coworkers who have sleep difficulties.”
“I've tried all three versions of shwagandha that ND sells, and this is my favorite. It just also happens to be the cheapest! Sensoril is great for bed, but makes me sleepy during the day. KSM66 works well during the day, but isn't as calming as I would like. This version provides that nice balance between them.“
Ashwagandha leaf extract helps to manage your weight by lowering the level of stress hormones called Cortisol. Elevated cortisol levels increase hunger and craving for sweets, fried food, and soft drinks. These cravings result in increased calorie consumption leading to weight gain. Ashwagandha reduces the level of cortisol and decreases stress-induced cravings. This helps in better weight management. Tip: Take Ashwagandha leaf extract in churna form. Take 1-2gm churna twice a day with lukewarm water after taking a light meal.
Can Ashwagandha be consumed for months regularly?
It can be consumed regularly for months because of its health benefits. It helps gaining weight to o if consumed with milk at night..but as too much of anything can also be dangerous so one should consume in restricted quantity.
One of the reishi mushroom's most significant impacts is that it can increase your immune system. While some information is still unsure, test-tube trials have demonstrated that reishi can influence the genes in white blood cells that are critical components of your immune function. Moreover, trials have discovered that some types of reishi in white blood cells can actually change infection processes.
Research in cancer patients showed that some of the fungus molecules can boost the production of a sort of white blood cell called natural killer cells. Natural killer proteins combat the body's diseases and cancer.
Another research discovered that reishi in those with the colorectal disease may boost the amount of other red blood neurons (lymphocytes). Although most of the reishi mushroom's immune system advantages are seen in those who are sick, there is some proof that it can also assist right individuals.
In one research, the lymphocyte function enhanced in individuals subjected to stressful circumstances. However, after 4 weeks of getting reishi extract, another study in healthy adolescents shows no enhancement in immune function or swelling. Overall, it is evident that reishi imacts white blood cells and immune function.
There is a need for more study to determine the magnitude of the provs vs the cons.
Reishi mushroom can improve immune function through its impacts on white blood cells that assist battle cancer and infection. This can happen mainly in sick people, as blended outcomes have been seen in good people. Because of its prospective cancer-fighting characteristics, many individuals eat this fungus.
In reality, one research of more than 4,000 victims of breast cancer discovered that about 59% eaten reishi fungus. Moreover, several test-tube trials have shown that it can cause cancer organisms to die. However, the findings of this research do not necessarily correspond to animal or human efficacy.
Some study has studied whether reishi might benefit prostate cancer because of its impacts on the hormone testosterone. While one instance research shows that molecules discoveries in this fungus could reverse human liver disease, the results are not supporting a more prominent follow-up.
Reishi fungus is also in exploration for its function in the prevention or control of colorectal disease.
Some study has shown that the amount and volume of lesions in the large intestine declined by one year of reishi therapy. Moreover, a thorough study of various research stated that cancer patients may benefit from the fungus.
These advantages included enhancing the production of red blood cells in the body that assist combat cancer and improving the quality of life in people with cancer.
Researchers, however, say that reishi administration should be in conjunction with traditional therapy instead of being a replacement. Moreover, many of the reishi plant and cancer research have not been of high quality.
This requires much more studies.
While reishi fungus seems to retain some commitment to prevent or treat cancer, more data is essential before it becomes a component of conventional therapy. In some instances, however, it may be suitable to use other than ordinary care.
Moreover, Reishi Mushroom has other prospective benefits. These include a reduction in exhaustion and anxiety and an improvement in the quality of life.
One research examined its impacts in 132 individuals with neurasthenia, a poorly characterized disease connected with aches, pains, dizziness, headaches, and irritability.
Scientists are discovering that after 8 weeks of getting the supplements, fatigue in fact decreases, and senses of well-being are notably increasing.
Another research discovered decreased pain and enhanced quality of life after 4 weeks of getting reishi dust in a community of 48 victims of breast disease. Moreover, the study's individuals also encountered less stress and depression.
While reishi fungus may hold promise for individuals with certain diseases or diseases, it is unclear whether it would help those who are otherwise healthy.
Some preliminary trials have shown that reishi fungus is capable of reducing fear and depression and improving the quality of life in those with certain medical circumstances.
Reishi fungus is undergoing research for its future to enhance other health elements concerning its impacts on the immune mechanism and quality of life.
A 12-week research of 26 individuals indicates that reishi fungus could boost “healthy” HDL cholesterol and reduce triglycerides. However, there was no enhancement in these risk variables for heart illness in other functional adult studies
Also, after examining five separate trials comprising around 400 individuals, a significant assessment showed no positive impacts on heart health. Researchers discovered no improvement in cholesterol by consuming reishi fungus for up to 16 weeks. More study on reishi fungi and heart health is undergoing.
Several trials shows that animal blood sugar can go in reduction by molecules found in reishi fungus. Similar results are showing in preliminary human studies. However, this advantage has not been inclusive in many studies.
Researchers found no benefits for fasting blood sugar after assessing hundreds of respondents.
Mixed outcomes were observed after dinners for blood sugar. Reishi fungus decreased blood sugar in some instances, but in other cases, it was worse than placebo. Here, too, more study is required.
Antioxidants are molecules that can assist avoid cell harm. Due to this significant feature, there is considerable interest in ingredients and supplements that can improve the body's antioxidant status.
Many argue that for this purpose, reishi fungus is efficient. However, after consuming the plant for 4 to 12 weeks, several trials discovered no shift in the concentrations of two vital antioxidant proteins in the body.
A tiny quantity of studies has shown that healthy cholesterol or blood sugar can be improved by reishi fungus. However, most research shows that cholesterol, blood sugar, or antioxidants are not enhanced in the body.
Tianeptine is a potent mood brightener and a nootropic, cherished for its effects on wellbeing and cognition, providing immediate and also extended term benefits. Within an hour of use, it gives mental stability and clarity, functioning as a medium duration productivity tool. Additionally, its beneficial effects compound over extended use, resulting in a long-term impact which reduces feelings of stress, sadness, and anxiety.
What is Tianeptine?
Tianeptine, sold under the brand names Stablon and Coaxial among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used mainly in the treatment of major depressive disorder, although it may also be used to treat anxiety, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. Tianeptine has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects with a relative lack of sedative, anticholinergic, and cardiovascular side effects.
It has been found to act as an atypical agonist of the μ-opioid receptor with clinically negligible effects on the δ- and κ-opioid receptors. μ-Opioid receptor agonists typically induce euphoria, as does Tianeptine at high doses well above the usual therapeutic range. There are concerns about the potential for abuse.
Tianeptine was discovered and patented by the French Society of Medical Research in the 1960s. Currently, Tianeptine is approved in France and manufactured and marketed by Laboratories Servier SA; it is also sold in a number of other European countries under the trade name Coaxial as well as in Asia (including Singapore) and Latin America as Stablon and Tatinol, but it is not available in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, or the United States.
Tianeptine was as effective as several classical antidepressants in patients with major depression, dysthymia, or adjustment disorder. Also, extended treatment with Tianeptine decreased the incidence of relapse/recurrence of depression.
In an open, non-comparative clinical study in patients with Parkinsons' disease (PD), Tianeptine decreased the severity of depression and also improved the quality of life in these patients.
Anxiety, Stress, and PTSD Symptoms
In elderly depressive patients, a drug regimen of Tianeptine or escitalopram improved anxiety symptoms and subjective and objective neurocognitive functions.
In panic disorder patients tianeptine appeared to reduce their reaction to panic challenge.
Benefits Memory and Learning
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Mechanism of Action
The usual dosage is 12mg 3x a day for a healthy weight individual, but some people go up to 25mg at a time.
Tianeptine's side-effects are similar to the side-effects of other SSRI's. These include nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, headaches, dizziness, and changes in dreaming.
Older patients should take a smaller dosage of Tianeptine, as should patients with renal failure.
Dosage does not need to be adjusted in patients with alcoholism or hepatic impairment, or patients on dialysis.
Tianeptine Decreases Emotional Memory Healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single dose of Tianeptine (12.5 mg) or placebo, and subsequently completed a battery of tasks measuring emotional processing, including facial expression recognition, emotional memory, and attentional vigilance, as well as working and verbal memory. Tianeptine-treated subjects were less accurate at identifying facial expressions and showed reduced memory related to emotion and reduced attentional vigilance to positive stimuli.
“Tianeptine Sodium and its sibling's Sulfate, Free Acid, and even the new tianeptine oxalate have many more than these 7 benefits, which are just the tip of the iceberg, really. The problem isn't the Tianeptine itself, the problem is finding a reliable vendor to buy tianeptine sodium that doesn't sell it as a chemical for research purpose because those impurities ware hard on your body. I used to get Stablon, but now I only order from Supplements for Work. As good as sodium gets.” – Steven
“I am an evangelist for tianeptine sodium and have personally tested (multiple times) both tianeptine sulfate and Tianeptine in free acid form. Neither two worked as effectively for me as tianeptine sodium. In fact, the free acid was so ineffective I converted it myself to tianeptine sodium.
That said, it's my understanding that tianeptine sulfate is more useful for those who want a steadier, longer lasting effect. What might register as a slight increase in energy and mood in me can be felt as anxiety in others? For them, sulfate is their ideal form.
As for a dose equivalence, if you were used to 15mg Tianeptine sodium 3x/day, you'd want to take roughly 45mg 1x/day to achieve a similar therapeutic effect.
As a side note (to anyone on the fence about trying it), I think Tianeptine is criminally under-appreciated in the US both as a pharmaceutical, and as an antidepressant. But even more than that, Tianeptine is (uniquely) a “pro mood” agent, neuroprotectant, opioid dependence modulator (and my favorite nootropic by far).” – Quora member Christian
Summary: N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, an essential antioxidant in the body. NAC supports glutathione replenishment which has been found to bind to the glutamate recognition sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. It also promotes healthy inflammatory responses.
N-Acetyl Cysteine (also known as Acetylcysteine or NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, an essential antioxidant in the body. NAC supports glutathione replenishment which has been found to bind to the glutamate recognition sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. It also promotes healthy inflammatory responses. Acetylcysteine was initially patented in 1960 and licensed for use in 1968. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines and is easily accessible for a very affordable price.
“Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine, is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It can be taken intravenously, by mouth, or inhaled as a mist. Some people use it as a dietary supplement.” Wikipedia
Combinations of NAC with other antioxidants improve cognition in both healthy older people and those with mild cognitive impairment. (R) (R)
NAC has many studies on enhancing cognitive function in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and schizophrenia. Currently, it’s under research for boosting cognitive performance after general anesthesia. (R)
N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Symptoms of Depression
NAC helps people with depression by balancing glutamate levels within the brain. Doing so, it reduces inflammation and increases the growth of new brain cells. R
In a study of more than 500 participants, NAC shows an improvement in symptoms of depression and overall functionality. At 2000mg per day, it improves mood in people diagnosed with depression. (R), (R)
N-Acetyl Cysteine Helps Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder and Mania
NAC improves chronic health issues such as heart disease and hormonal imbalance in people with Bipolar Disorder. In a 6-month study, NAC indirectly shows to affect overall health, antioxidant and inflammation levels, as well as mood. (R)
Another study on 17 subjects with bipolar disorder, NAC shows improvements in low moods and reduction in overall associating symptoms after six months of supplementation. (R)
In a study of 15 individuals suffering from mania, NAC also shows improvement after a six-month regime. The group receiving NAC had a reduction in symptoms versus the one receiving placebo. However, mood swings seem to worsen as a result. (R)
N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Symptoms of OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
NAC balances glutamate levels as well as increases antioxidants within the brain. In a study of 44 subjects with OCD, a NAC dose of 2000mg added to standard medication shows to improve symptoms, even in severe cases. R
Another study of 48 subjects who didn't respond to typical treatment, NAC shows to improve symptoms after a 3-month period safely. (R)
NAC is useful for obsessive-compulsive disorders according to extensive research. It shows promising benefits and has very few side-effects. (R)
N-Acetyl Cysteine Improves Male Fertility
In addition to helping women with PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome), NAC may help increase fertility in men. Oxidative stress damages the sperm’s DNA, which results in reducing fertility. (R)
A study done on 120 infertile men receiving NAC, improvements were notable in semen quality and antioxidant status after a period of three months. (R)
Other studies look at the fertility benefits of NAC in combination with other antioxidants such as B vitamins, vitamin C and D. The combination improves the sperm count in those with low sperm count. (R)
In an extensive study of almost 500 infertile men, NAC with selenium show improvement in fertility after a six month period. (R)
Some men are sub-fertile — they are less fertile without an apparent reason. In 84 of subfertile men trying to conceive, NAC combination supplement called Condensyl (with vitamins, zinc, fig extract, and vitamin E) increased pregnancy rates. It raises the “fertility potential” of subfertile men increasing the rate of successful pregnancy. (R)
The typical NAC dose for improving fertility in those studies was 600 mg/day.
N-Acetyl Cysteine Boosts Skin Health
Interestingly, NAC can be used as a cream or gel to improve skin health. It boosts glutathione in the skin protecting it from damage. Furthermore, NAC reduces skin inflammation and normalizes skin cell division. It’s used for eczema, skin irritation, radiation-induced skin damage, wound healing, and acne. In a study of 100 participants, a 5% NAC gel shows to reduce mild to moderate acne. (R)
Overall, NAC skin formulations are promising and very safe. Case reports and animal studies support this wide range of skin benefits of NAC.
N-Acetyl Cysteine May Improve Autism
NAC seems to benefit children with autism. In a study of 33 autistic children, NAC (900-2,700 mg/day) shows to reduce irritability after three months period. (R)
In 2 different studies with 80 autistic children, those receiving NAC as an add-on to their medication (risperidone) show less irritability and hyperactivity after two months period. (R), (R)
N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Muscle Fatigue
Overall, NAC tends to help muscles improve blood flow during intense training as well as recover faster after a workout.
It also seems to help older individuals in improving fitness and enhancing endurance in athletes on the short-term. However, long-term NAC with exercise may prevent muscle recovery.
N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Antibiotic Side Effects
Antibiotic side effects arise from free radicals damage. As a potent antioxidant, NAC (1,200 mg/day) reduces side effects, prevents kidney and ear damage from several strong antibiotics in 2 studies of 100 people. (R, R)
NAC also protects the liver from the harmful effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs as shown in a study of 60 participants. Those receiving NAC show intact liver after treatment, while 40% of those who didn’t take NAC suffer liver damage. (R)
N-Acetyl Cysteine Reliefs ADHD Symptoms
In a study of nearly 100 ADHD participants, NAC shows to reduce ADHD symptoms in patients with as well as improving cognition, impulsivity, and overall symptoms.
Participants were receiving up to 5g per day during this study. (R)
Other N-Acetyl Cysteine Benefits
According to Health Line, the following are the 9 top benefits of NAC:
Essential for Making the Powerful Antioxidant Glutathione
Helps With Detoxification to Prevent or Diminish Kidney and Liver Damage
May Improve Psychiatric Disorders and Addictive Behavior
Helps Relieve Symptoms of Respiratory Conditions
Boosts Brain Health by Regulating Glutamate and Replenishing Glutathione
May Improve Fertility in Both Men and Women
May Stabilize Blood Sugar By Decreasing Inflammation in Fat Cell
May Reduce Heart Disease Risk by Preventing Oxidative Damage
Ability to Boost Glutathione Levels May Improve Immune Function
N-Acetyl Cysteine is a safe substance with very few known side effects. Although occasionally, it can cause nausea, diarrhea, or constipation.
Large doses in a mouse model showed that acetylcysteine could potentially cause damage to the heart and lungs. They found that acetylcysteine was metabolized to S-nitroso-N acetylcysteine (SNOAC), which increased blood pressure in the lungs and right ventricle of the heart (pulmonary artery hypertension) in mice treated with acetylcysteine.
The effect was similar to that observed following a 3-week exposure to an oxygen-deprived environment (chronic hypoxia).
The authors also found that SNOAC induced a hypoxia-like response in the expression of several important genes both in vitro and in vivo.
The typical dose for general wellness and gut health is 500mg per day taken in the morning on an empty stomach 800to2,400mg are the most common across clinical studies. However, for a chronic health condition, consider a higher dose. Studies concerning addiction and mental health issues use doses closer to 3000 mg/day.
Both the reviews/experiences below are customer reviews posted on Nootropic Depot's product page. You can only write a review for a product you actually purchased:
NAC is the supplement of choice for helping to mitigate nasal congestion. I've found even with a cold, taking a large dose divided up into several small doses separated by 2-4 hours throughout the day significantly controls the nose situation. Recently while going through this routine, I also noticed heightened mental clarity which quickly was attributed to the NAC as nothing else in my regular stack had changed. Combined with the fact the loose powder is inexpensive, NAC has high opinion from me. Con, it tastes terrible. It seriously tastes like butt if that was made from rubber. Capsulating it yourself is highly recommended!
NAC is an essential part of my daily routine. I take 2000mg every morning and if I feel a cold coming on I also take 1000 or 2000mg of an evening. Every winter I get a cold which precipitates a severe chest infection. It is now halfway through winter and I have not yet even caught a cold, despite the fact that the rest of my family has been sick with colds. My nose usually runs all winter but the mucous dissolving properties of NAC somehow even ameliorate that. I use Nootropics Depot's NAC because I know it's pure and independently tested. It comes in user friendly packaging, it's inexpensive, the postage is tracked and it arrives quickly.
N Acetyl L Cysteine, also known as N Acetyl Cysteine or NAC, is an acetylated form of L Cysteine. NAC is one of few natural mucolytic agents. Mucolytic agents help thin out mucus which makes it easier to cough up mucus. NAC is also used to enhance the production of glutathione when it is normally depleted. Glutathione benefits are plentiful and thus, supplementing with NAC can provide many of the glutathione benefits we would see with glutathione supplementation.
What are N Acetyl L Cysteine Benefits?
Supports respiratory health Promotes skin health Supports organ health Promotes vitality
What is N Acetyl L Cysteine Good For?
Studies observing glutathione levels after taking a NAC supplement found that NAC elevated glutathione levels. This is significant because the supplementation of glutathione on its own did not significantly increase glutathione levels. Since NAC is able to increase glutathione, NAC benefits have been linked to skin health, organ health, and promoting vitality. Additionally, taking a NAC supplement is believed to have some detoxification effects since it allows more glutathione to be produced. In addition, NAC benefits include organ protective properties when exposed to alcohol. A study on rats found that a NAC supplement taken 30 min before alcohol exposure seemed to produce a protective effect while administration 4 hrs after alcohol exposure elevated organ tissue damage. Additionally, these protective behaviors increased when alcohol consumption was stopped. Additional trials confirmed that the protective properties NAC has against alcohol only work when taken prior to alcohol consumption. Again, it is important to note that NAC should only be taken prior to consumption of moderate quantities of alcoholic drinks. NAC should never be taken after the consumption of alcoholic drinks as it may have an opposite and detrimental effect on the liver. This is important to note as many hangover supplements, intended to be taken after the consumption of alcoholic drinks, contain N Acetyl L Cysteine. The cystine-glutamate antiporter on astrocytes is known to regulate synaptic levels of glutamate by taking up cystine, the oxidized dimer form of Cysteine, in exchange for glutamate release. It is believed that additional Cysteine through N Acetyl L Cysteine supplementation may provide more substrate to further reduce glutaminergic stimulation. This is important, as glutamate can over-excite neurons, which can cause neuronal damage. This is part of the reason why some people avoid the consumption of monosodium glutamate, which is more commonly known as MSG. It is falsely believed that the consumption of MSG will result in too much glutamate in the brain, which could then cause neurotoxic effects. The claims that MSG has negative effects in the brain have long been disproven, however, glutamate levels may increase independently from MSG consumption. It is believed that higher Cysteine levels in the brain may lower glutaminergic transmission by lowering the amount of glutamate release. It has been found that glutamate levels can be reduced within 1 hour of orally administering a NAC supplement, making NAC a great neuroprotective agent. Other N Acetyl L Cysteine uses were studied after the relationship between glutathione and NAC supplementation were established. Researchers were interested in NAC for its vitality enhancing effects. Studies on sprint performance found vitality enhancing effect when subjects used a NAC supplement but only a slight increase in vitality from baseline was achieved with a large dose.
What Are N Acetyl Cysteine Food Sources?
The body converts N Acetyl L Cysteine which converts into Cysteine which is then converted to glutathione. Cysteine is an amino acid produced by the body but it requires methionine to do so. Cysteine is primarily found in animal proteins such as chicken, pork, sausage, turkey, fish and duck. Dairy sources of cysteine include yogurt, ricotta cheese, eggs, and cottage cheese. Cysteine is also found in some plant sources for vegetarians and vegans. Foods such as broccoli, red pepper, onion, granola and oat flakes are all good sources of Cysteine. Other sources include garlic, bananas, linseed, soy beans, and wheat germ. Low levels of Cysteine can delay growth in children and lower immunity. Weakness and muscle loss may also occur as a result of a low Cysteine die
How much N Acetyl Cysteine should I take?
As a dietary supplement, take one 500mg of N-Acetyl L-Cysteine once daily.
Where to buy N Acetyl Cysteine Powder?
Nootropics Depot offers 200 gram, 400 gram and 1 kilogram jars of high quality N-Acetyl L-Cysteine powder. Nootropics Depot's N-Acetyl L-Cysteine has been lab-tested and verified for both product purity and identity.
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CBD is one of the (more or less) 113 cannabinoids identified in help plants. Also, it accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. That is a lot. A lot of extensive research is ongoing about cannabidiol, most of which is on anxiety, cognition, movement disorders, and pain. 
CBD is one of over 60 compounds found in cannabis that belong to a class of ingredients called cannabinoids.
THC is one of the other 60 compounds, and it is what got mainstream attention, and everyone got to know it because its an ingredient in cannabis and produces the psychoactive effect.
Although CBD is also an ingredient in marijuana, it doesn't seem to provide the same psychoactive effects the way THC does, yet still offers many benefits nevertheless.
CBD is a component of sativa. Moreover, it can be beneficial in many different ways with more and more research showing up every day along with an equal amount of marketing advertisements. It may be helpful on such a broad spectrum that is from anti inflammation to antioxidation to anxiolytic to antipsychotic. That’s the anti’s part. Furthermore, it is a potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, anxiety, and even schizophrenia. 
What is CBD Oil?
Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is oil that is extracted from the annual herbaceous flowering plant cannabis. The oil taken from the plant's secretions is used as a food supplement and as a medicine (we retail it as a food supplement). It was discovered in 1940 and the plant has over 400 additional compounds, which have been used throughout the world for millennia.
CBD is a product that helps to communicate with the body to complete its natural maintenance and regenerative functions. Activating these CB1 & CB2 receptors in your body will give it balance, helping the natural signals of these bodily systems flow.
With the United Nations: Cannabidiol is not scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances or any other UN drug treaty. In 2018, the World Health Organization recommended that CBD remains unscheduled. [R]
I think that by itself explains the explosion of online vendors and the increase in the sale of CBD oil as well as CBD isolate.
A 2011 study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test on healthy control patients and treatment-naive patients with a social anxiety disorder. A total of 24 never-treated patients with a social anxiety disorder were given either CBD or placebo 1.5 hours before the test. Researchers found that pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alertness in anticipation of their speech. The placebo group presented stress, anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort. 
CBD has also shown antidepressant-like effects in several animal studies. 
Social Anxiety Disorder
Early research shows that taking cannabidiol at a dosage of 300 mg daily didn't improve anxiety in people with social anxiety disorder. However, another research suggests that taking a higher dose (400-600 mg) notably improves anxiety, especially that which is related to public speaking and medical tests in people with social anxiety disorders. 
According to researchers, CBD has antidepressant effects in mice. These depression-reducing effects of CBD in mice were fast, maintained over time, and as strong as a standard antidepressant (common tricyclic medication imipramine, also known as Tofranil) [R] [R]
A 2014 survey conducted by researchers at Stanford University on 19 subjects who suffered epilepsy and had previously tried up to 12 antiepileptic drugs. 84% of the participants had a reduction in seizure frequency while taking CBD. Furthermore, 11% reported complete diminishing symptoms of seizure altogether. 
CBD Benefits Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Aside from all the research I came across supporting this, I just remembered that one of my friends’ sisters who has been suffering multiple sclerosis for a long time, told us the day she tried cannabis had been a turning point in her life regarding easing her symptoms to new levels. Moreover, with my knowledge of the plant, I can believe everything about this study, and it makes total sense to me.
Relieves Pain and Inflammation
CBD significantly suppresses neuropathic pain as well as chronic inflammation in rodents without causing tolerance. It inhibits the neuronal transmission within the pain pathways. With those findings and many more surfacing from all over the world, researchers are now suggesting that CBD and other ingredients of cannabis – those that don’t produce psychoactive effects, might be representing a novel class of therapeutic remedies for treating chronic pain. 
Furthermore, it is also said to lower the incidence of diabetes, relieve nausea, promote cardiovascular health, and much more. It sounds like an all-in-one ointment that you have to keep around in the house for when necessary. It can heal a wound if you have one or in another day gets you to relax and unwind. I thought I'm over it after my experiment, but now after researching it again a year later, I think I might give it another shot — although definitley not vaping it this time.
CBD Benefits Schizophrenia
While the psychoactive THC in cannabis seems to trigger psychotic episodes, especially in those with schizophrenia, CBD has opposite, antipsychotic effects. More and more studies are pointing to CBD as a natural alternative to antipsychotic drugs but with far fewer side effects. [R]
CBD decreases the energy production in cancers, triggering their death. It makes cancer cells kill themselves (apoptosis), stopping both cancer growth and spreading. [R] [R]
Furthermore, in test-tube and animal studies, CBD has demonstrated anti-tumor effects. In animals, it has been shown to prevent the spread of breast, prostate, brain, colon, and lung cancer. [R]
Studies suggest that CBD may help people with schizophrenia and other mental disorders by reducing psychotic symptoms [R]
Substance Abuse Disorder Treatment
CBD has been shown to modify circuits in the brain related to drug addiction. In rats, CBD has been shown to reduce morphine dependence and heroin-seeking behavior. [R]
In diabetic mice, treatment with CBD reduced the incidence of diabetes by 56% and significantly reduced inflammation. [R]
CBD supports your complete wellbeing by working with your Endocannabinoid System (ECS). In the 1990s, the first Endocannabinoid System receptors were cloned: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors have an effect on the brain, and nervous system and how our bodies feel overall. CB2 receptors influence appetite and immune system function. CB2 receptors also control the management of pain throughout the nervous system. It uses 2-AG and binds with enzymes throughout the Endocannabinoid system. The Endocannabinoid system also uses (2-AG) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol to control these body systems.
Cannabidiol has antipsychotic effects. The exact cause for these effects is not apparent. However, cannabidiol seems to prevent the breakdown of a chemical in the brain that affects pain, mood, and mental function. Preventing the breakdown of this chemical and increasing its levels in the blood seems to reduce psychotic symptoms associated with conditions such as schizophrenia. Cannabidiol might also block some of the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Furthermore, cannabidiol seems to reduce pain and anxiety. [R]
The Endocannabinoid System
The Endogenous Cannabinoid System, also known as the ECS system, are cell receptors that communicate with various parts of the body to tell them when to start or to tell the process when to stop such as:
The goal of the ECS is to achieve the overall balance of the body’s systems. The ECS chemical keys are the CB1 and CB2 receptors within the body, which lock and unlock systems of the body. Since cannabinoids play a significant role within the body’s functions, they constitute an important tool to maintain our overall wellbeing.
CBD dosage can vary anywhere from 100 mg up to even 3 g per day, depending on the health issue on target.For protecting the brain (such as in Alzheimer’s) and reducing inflammation and muscle twitching (MS), doses of 100 to 600 mg of CBD were used in clinical studies. In some studies, patients took as much CBD oil as they needed to feel pain or muscle spasm relief.
Doses up to 800 mg CBD daily were used for psychosis and schizophrenia.
The highest CBD doses used in studies were up to 3.5 g of CBD oil daily for very severe drug-resistant seizures in children and young adults with epilepsy. 300 mg per day was enough to reduce anxiety in clinical studies.
Typically, it is recommended to take 150 mg of CBD oil twice a day for tackling anxiety, and for inflamation relief.
For multiple sclerosis: A spray delivering 2.5 mg of cannabidiol under the tongue per dose is positivley reported.
How is CBD Oil Used?
CBD oil is used to support the overall wellbeing of the body and mind. Today, it is used widely as a food supplement that activates receptors that communicate with the different systems of the body. CBD supports your overall feeling of wellbeing throughout the body, but does not give a sensation of “being high”, which is why THC, the other well-known active substance from the Cannabis plant, has been prohibited in most countries and considered a drug.
Although my method of administration was slightly different, during my experimental period with CBD oil I was inhaling it through a vape.
I can confirm that at many times it had an incredible effect on me especially regarding anxiety and on my hypertension. However, most often than not, I was experiencing side effects rather than the benefits. To me, those were dry mouth, which is tolerable and expected. However, I often suffered somewhat an anxiety rebound instead of ease. And I believe it stemmed from analyzing and paying attention to how my heart starts beating fast and I feel altogether uncomfortable. It's like being on a bad trip and without even the psychoactive effect.
I tried several types. Some of the very potent and concentrated and some were diluted and had lower concentrations. I had very mixed feelings about it and decided to give away the oil along with the vape all together a long time ago. However, I might give it another try this time leaving the vape away and taking it orally instead.
CBD was recommended to me for anxiety and depression about a month ago. I've suffered anxiety and depression for as long as I can remember. I managed it for a while with vitamins and exercise, but a little over a year ago the depression and anxiety became overwhelming. They helped, but it was still there. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety meds have been recommended, but the idea of an adverse reaction making it worse was terrifying. A few months ago PMDD (pre menstral dysphoric disorder) appeared. A week or so before my period, anxiety went in to overdrive. I would wake up terrified. I was afraid to leave my house, go to work, I convinced myself I was a terrible mother and my daughter would be better off somewhere else. Horrible, awful, crippling fear. Even auditory hallucinations. I felt borderline psychotic, like I wasn't in control of my thoughts. All created soley by out of whack hormones. And this happened every month!! Enter CBDs. I started taking 20Mg CBD capsules every morning about a month ago. Within a couple days, I felt better. In less than a week, anxiety and depression significantly dissipated and I just feel normal. I’m positive and energetic. I'm eating better, exercising again, and I don't have a lead weight on my chest that prevents me from making decisions or doing what I need to. PMDD hasn't shown up whatsoever. I've had unusually strong cravings for chocolate milkshakes the last couple days, but I'll take that over the bs I was going through. My experience with CBDs has been phenominal, with absolutely no side effects. Everyone is different, but its helped me immensly with anxiety and depression.
What Does CBD Oil Do?
CBD has show promise for many health related issues, but still needs to be studied more closely. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) just realesed their findings on CBD ad the recognized they could not find any side effects associated with CBD and they found it MAY be useful for various issues, including: Alzheimer's disease: anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiapoptotic in in vitro and in vivo models of Aβ-evoked neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses. Parkinson's disease: Attenuation of the dopaminergic impairment in vivo; neuroprotection; improvement of psychiatric rating and reduction of agitation, nightmare and aggressive behaviour in patients. Multiple sclerosis: Improved signs of EAE in mice, antinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Huntington's disease: Neuroprotective and antioxidant in mice transgenic models; no significant clinically important differences in patients. Hypoxia-ischemia injury: Short term neuroprotective effects; inhibition of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in rodent models. Pain: Analgesic effect in patients with neuropathic pain resistant to other treatments. Psychosis: Attenuation of the behavioural and glial changes in animal models of schizophrenia; anti-psychotic properties on ketamine-induced symptoms Anxiety: Reduction of muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue, problems in concentration, improvement of social interactions in rodent models of anxiety and stress; reduced social anxiety in patients. Depression: Anti-depressant effect in genetic rodent model of depression. Cancer: Antiproliferative and anti-invasive actions in a large range of cancer types; induction of autophagy-mediated cancer cell death; chemopreventive effects. Nausea: Suppression of nausea and conditioned gaping in rats Inflammatory diseases: Antinflammatory properties in several in vitro and in vivo models; inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pathways. Rheumatoid arthritis: Inhibition of TNF-α in an animal model Infection: Activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Inflammatory bowel and Crohn's diseases: Inhibition of macrophage recruitment and TNF-α secretion in vivo and ex vivo; reduction in disease activity index in Crohn's patients. Cardiovascular diseases: Reduced infarct size through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. Diabetic complications: Attenuation of fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction