Memory tag archive. A collection listing every nootropic published on the website tagged under Memory.

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

OverviewBenefitsMechanisms of ActionDosageStackSide Effects

Summary: Picamilon is a nootropic that enhances cognitive function and increases mental energy while reducing stress and anxiety. Its unique blend of energizing and relaxing impacts makes picamilon an outstanding supplement for learners during examination periods or anyone in stressful circumstances who could benefit from faster, clearer thinking.


What is Picamilon?

Picamilon is a distinctive nootropic that enhances cognitive function and increases mental energy while reducing stress and anxiety emotions. Its unique blend of energizing and relaxing impacts makes picamilon an outstanding supplement for learners facing examinations or for anyone in stressful circumstances who wants to think rapidly and clearly.

Picamilon's unique traits make it a truly distinctive supplement. It boosts brain function like all nootropics, enhancing memory, concentration, motivation, the span of attention, and overall productivity. However, its energizing impacts are only half the image; it also calms, relaxes, and generates a tranquilizing effect that decreases stress and anxiety emotions considerably.

This combination of energizing and calming effects, along with its low price, prepared accessibility, and absence of severe side effects, makes picamilon an increasingly common option for anyone who wishes to handle stress and anxiety while maximizing their cognitive skills.

Picamilon was first created in Russia somewhere between the years 1969 and 1971 as part of the Institute's studies into possibly performance-enhancing substances.

Today, picamilon is a prescription drug in Russia and is used to treat a range of conditions and disorders ranging from depression to migraine, neuroinfections, senile psychosis, certain kinds of glaucoma, and even acute intoxication with alcohol.

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Benefits and Effects

  1. Improves Learning and Memory
  2. Supports Concentration, Focus, and Mental Stamina
  3. Mood Stabilization
  4. Relaxes Without Causing Drowsiness
  5. Reduces Blood Pressure
  6. Improves Sleep Quality

Supporting research:

Improves Learning and Memory

The wide variety of impacts of Picamilon includes both cognitive enhancement and mood management. It has been shown to promote faster and more comfortable learning pace as well as enhancing both memory retention and recall speed.

Supports Concentration, Focus, and Mental Stamina

By stimulating better blood flow and circulation in the brain, picamilon has critical beneficial impacts on a broad range of cognitive functions, including improving the capacity to concentrate on thinking and improving general mental energy or endurance.

Mood Stabilization

It has been shown that Picamilon has substantial anti-anxiety impacts, significantly decreasing stress effect. It can also assist relieve depression.

Relaxes Without Causing Drowsiness

Users report that taking picamilon outcomes in a pleasant sensation of relaxation without mental fog or grogginess that is usually associated with sedatives or tranquilizers. Most individuals say it provides them a feeling of “calm energy.”

Reduces Blood Pressure

While not positive in all instances, the capacity of picamilon to decrease blood pressure can be a significant advantage to those with hypertension that is enhanced by stress and anxiety.

Improves Sleep Quality

While a single supplement seems contradictory to increase energy and create rest better, many picamilon consumers claim it does just that. Since it is not a tranquilizer, sedative, or muscle relaxer, this impact could be due to the stress reduction and anti-anxiety characteristics of picamilon insignificant portion.

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Mechanisms of Action

Picamilon is a mixture of niacin and GABA or gamma-aminobutyric acid, two prevalent but essential nutrients. Separately each plays a critical role in brain health but linked to produce unique advantages in a compound that they respond synergistically.

Picamilon’s real strength is the capacity of the niacin element to cross the blood-brain barrier, a semi-permeable capillary filter intended to safeguard the brain and to bring with it the connected GABA element. As a result, GABA, a powerful neurotransmitter that can not cross the blood-brain barrier alone, is transferred into the central nervous system for use across the brain and body.

The real mechanism of action picamilon operates through is both fast and direct. It is a water-soluble compound that is easily absorbed and within an hour of ingestion reaches peak bioavailability.

Picamilon is hydrolyzed or chemically divided back into distinct parts of niacin or nicotinic acid and GABA after crossing the blood-brain barrier. The role of niacin acts as a vasodilator, increasing blood flow in the brain and enhancing oxygen and other nutrients absorption. At the same moment, this vital inhibitory neurotransmitter, which operates by decreasing neuronal excitability, raises the brain concentrations of the GABA element.

The cognitive enhancement impacts of Picamilon can be primarily ascribed to the enhanced effectiveness created by the improved circulation of the brain blood and oxygen absorption. The enhanced blood flow in the brain also enhances the delivery and uptake of glucose and other nutrients, which can boost alertness, concentrate, motivation, and brain energy as a whole. It is also thought to have an essential antioxidant impact that helps break down and remove toxins in the brain.

Picamilon's relaxing and calming impacts are produced by the enhanced concentrations of GABA, a powerful neurotransmitter that operates by inhibiting neuronal firing, decreasing stress and anxiety emotions by generating a slightly sedative impact.

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How To Take Picamilon?

Although picamilon is usually deemed well tolerated and has no severe side effects, it is a potent complement and should be used responsibly. It is wise, as with all supplements, to begin with, the smallest effective dosage possible and gradually boost as required.

Recommendations for daily dosage differ significantly, depending on the special effects you hope to experience in no small measure. Typical is a cumulative dosage of 50 to 400 mg per day, with most customers finding efficacy between 100 and 200 mg divided over two to three doses. However, it may be best for those mainly interested in cognitive enhancements of picamilon and lower dosages of overall mood stabilization, while those looking for significant rises in energy levels may want to create up to higher dosages.

Picamilon operates comparatively fast and is relatively durable. Users say that impacts are usually visible within one hour of intake and last for 4 to 6 hours. It is water-soluble and can be taken on an empty stomach in either capsule or powder form.

While some users prefer cycling picamilon with other nootropics with an anti-anxiety element, there is no negative impact of proof taking it daily.

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Picamilon can be taken alone daily, cycled with other supplements or combined with other nootropics in many ways.

The behavioral improvement characteristics of picamilon will be potentiated in a pile with racetam-class nootropics such as piracetam or pramiracetam. However, depending on which racetam supplement you are combining with picamilon, you may also experience, or both, increased energy or relaxation effects.

Combined with ampakine racetam supplements like aniracetam and oxiracetam, both of which have stimulant characteristics, the energy-boosting and mood-modulating impacts of picamilon will be increased.

Some users claim that combining picamilon with other supplements such as kava can boost their energy-producing characteristics while using it in conjunction with relaxing supplements such as valerian will strengthen their calming aspects.

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Side Effects

Picamilon is usually regarded as safe and well tolerated, but there have been reports of some side effects. The most severe prospective side effect is low blood pressure, so if you understand that you are susceptible to hypotension or have reason to worry about low blood pressure, you should consult a medical practitioner before taking picamilon.  

Allergies and rashes of the skin have been recorded as side effects, but are not prevalent. Such side effects typically include headaches, lightheadedness or dizziness, and nausea. Red skin flushing is also sometimes revealed as a standard and harmless side effect of niacin.

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Picamilon is a natural nootropic, and with excellent reason: it can both energize and relax, it is secure and well-tolerated, it has very few reported side effects, it combines well with other supplements, and it is inexpensive and easily accessible. Picamilon provides advantages that are difficult to beat for anyone who wishes or needs to handle their moods and retain ideal cognitive function under pressure.

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Further and Related Readings

Picamilon in Dietary Supplements (FDA Post on Picamilon):

Picamilon is a substance that does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) defines a dietary ingredient as a vitamin; mineral; herb or other botanical; amino acid; dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of the preceding substances. In contrast, picamilon is a unique chemical entity synthesized from the dietary ingredients niacin and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Picamilon is absorbed into the body, crosses the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in the brain as a separate chemical entity. Because picamilon does not fit any of the categories of dietary ingredients under the Act, any products marketed as dietary supplements that declare picamilon as a dietary ingredient are misbranded.

The FDA has provided expert testimony to the Oregon Attorney General’s office stating that picamilon is not a dietary ingredient.

Picamilon is used as a prescription drug in Russia for a variety of neurological conditions. It is not approved as a drug in the U.S.

Picamilon is also known as:

  • pikatropin
  • pikamilon
  • nicotinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid
  • nicotinyl-GAB
  • Recent FDA Action on Dietary Supplements Labeled as Containing Picamilon
  • December 2015

On November 30, 2015, the FDA issued warning letters to five companies whose products marketed as dietary supplements claim to contain picamilon. These products are misbranded because picamilon does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.

Under existing law, including the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act passed by Congress in 1994, the FDA can take action to remove products from the market, but the agency must first establish that such products are adulterated (e.g., that the product is unsafe) or misbranded (e.g., that the labeling is false or misleading).

The companies have 15 business days from the date of receipt of the letter to communicate to the agency the specific steps they will take to bring their products into compliance with the law.

The agency will continue to update this page in the event additional actions are taken related to picamilon.

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Summary: Centrophenoxine is an effective nootropic that boosts memory. It can reverse age-related cognitive degeneration amd improve mood and brain function.


What is Centrophenoxine?

Centrophenoxine is one of the oldest nootropics studied, also known as Lucidril and Meclofenoxate.

This drug was initially created in 1959 and was commonly used to treat age-related brain disorders such as Alzheimer's and dementia. Healthy people also use it to improve memory and cognitive function and improve general brain health.

Centrophenoxine is a mixture of two chemicals: dimethyl-aminoethanol (DMAE), a natural substance found in certain foods (fish, seafood) and the brain in tiny quantities. It is a source of choline and has impacts that stimulate the brain.

Parachlorphenoxyacetic acid (pCPA), a synthetic version of plant growth hormones called auxins, is the primary active ingredient of this drug. DMAE is not well crossing the blood-brain barrier. It can, however, pass through the blood-brain barrier within Centrophenoxine and enter the brain efficiently once placed in the body, a part of Centrophenoxine breaks down into DMAE and PCPA in the liver.

DMAE is then transformed to choline, and the remaining Centrophenoxine circulates throughout the body

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Benefits and Effects

What are the Benefits of Centrophenoxine?

  1. Neuroprotective
  2. Learning and Memory
  3. Mood
  4. Stress
  5. Reverses Brain-Deficits causes by Aging
  6. Enhance Cancer Treatment


Centrophenoxine protects nerve cells from oxidative harm caused by exposure to toxins or strokes. This drug decreased the damage induced by free radicals in rats with different kinds of brain injury and enhanced the resulting memory, cognitive function, and motion deficits.

This drug increases the activity of critical antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain, which can account for its positive consequences.

In 50 elderly patients with dementia (DB-RCT), it also enhanced memory.

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Learning and Memory

Centrophenoxine also enhanced ancient mice's learning and memory.

Mood and Stress

Centrophenoxine in rats subjected to stress considerably decreased anxiety. It also enhance humans ‘ mood.

In a research of 80 healthy topics, three months of taking a drug containing DMAE, increased energy, and improved well-being. Therefore, the active DMAE element of Centrophenoxine can enhance mood.

Reverses Brain-Deficits causes by Aging

It also reverses the brain aging impacts by decreasing free radicals and buildup of lipofuscin in the rat brain (hippocampus), both of which are associated with neurodegenerative disease.

Enhance Cancer Treatment

This medication enhances the action of particular cancer drugs that cause cancer cell DNA damage.

Centrophenoxine is a mixture of PCPA (para-chlorphenoxyacetic) and DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol) synthesized version that has been altered to improve absorption and enhance its capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier. It is a compound that is metabolized in the liver and fat-soluble.

Although Centrophenoxine has been the topic of centuries of studies, it is still not fully grasped its exact mechanisms of action.

Once Centrophenoxine crosses the blood-brain barrier, it eventually raises the quantity of acetylcholine in the synaptic vesicles, either by transforming it into an intermediate phospholipid that is then used to create acetylcholine or by breaking it down into choline that is transformed into acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter most closely connected with memory and overall cognitive.

The capacity of Centrophenoxine to raise concentrations of acetylcholine is the primary means of acting as a nootropic substance.

Centrophenoxine, however, also enhances cognition in other ways, such as improving the accessibility of oxygen and glucose to the brain and reducing levels of cellular waste and cognition-affected toxins.

Centrophenoxine is both anti-aging and nootropic. It is a potent antioxidant capable of flushing cell toxins and helping to repair toxin-related damage.

It is known to decrease levels of lipid peroxidation waste products or oxidative degradation of fats in cell membranes.

Cellular damage caused by lipid peroxidation is connected with aging and is involved in many diseases and disorders, including infections and complications. Lipofuscin buildup is usually discovered in liver, kidney, heart, and retina cells as well as nerve and ganglion cells.

Due to the strong association between lipofuscin buildup and many age-related illnesses, the capacity of Centrophenoxine to decrease or eliminate this buildup makes it an invaluable anti-aging tool.

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How to Take Centrophenoxine?

Recommended dosages of centrophenoxine range from 250 to 3000 mg daily in two doses and are deemed safe and efficient for most healthy adults.

Although higher doses may be needed to maximize their anti-aging impacts, it is advisable to consult a medical professional before exceeding the suggested daily dosage.

It is best, to begin with, the smallest effective dose possible, as with all supplements, and gradually boost as required.

It is best taken with food due to being fat-soluble.

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Side Effects

What Are the Side Effects of Centrophenoxine?

At recommended dosage ranges, Centrophenoxine is secure and nontoxic and is very well tolerated.

However, some customers encountered mild and minor side effects, including nausea, headache, gastrointestinal problems, and sleeplessness.

In most instances, the side effects were correlated with high doses, and decreasing the daily cumulative dosage eliminated unwanted side effects.

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User experience


So, as far as I'm worried, I first attempted Centrophenoxine about two months ago. As I've written for other compounds, Centrophenoxine won't make you a genius or scientist at all. It will take you to a defined upper potential stage.

There are a lot of studies available on the Centrophenoxine web here and there. It should clear lipofuscin from your brain, but under these conditions, none of us will verify whether or not I do so. Centrophenoxine does work very well, anyway. You need to discover the correct dosage for yourself; I found it works fantastic when taken with racetams, particularly aniracetam just because it seems to potentiate each other's impact. Look together uniquely to increase the mood. I propose a 2:1 ratio of racetam-centro. Centrophenoxine is not a type of high-dose compound to be taken… I don't think it's more than 1000 mg a day.

Sometimes remember to create a stop. It's important because the brain gets used to the large number of neurotransmitters very rapidly.

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceFAQs

Summary: Fasoracetam is a newer addition to the racetam family. It's a nootropic that helps in relieving anxiety, enhancing memory, and improving overall cognition. It’s reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms.

Fasoracetam Video TTS

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What is Fasoracetam?

Fasoracetam is a promising and exciting addition to the racetam family. It's reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms. Even though Fasoracetam is a new name on the nootropic scene, it was developed by a Japanese pharmaceutical company more than 20 years ago as a potential treatment for vascular dementia. However, it was put on hiatus after a failed trial.  The clinical data were then bought by NeuroFix in 2013. Clinical trials began in 2016 with its focus on treating ADHD symptoms in children. The experiments have shown a great promise as a potential ADHD treatment.

In 2016, the FDA accepted the substance for evaluation.

Fasoracetam is a research chemical of the racetam family. It is a putative nootropic that failed to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials for vascular dementia. It is currently being studied for its potential use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory Cognition
  2. Relieves Anxiety and Depression
  3. Potential ADHD Treatment
  4. Increases Creativity and Motivation

Supporting Research:

Fasoracetam Improves Memory Cognition

Fasoracetam minimizes memory decline, forgetfulness, and amnesia. Individuals who use it report it positively impacts their memory. That is due to the chemical that it produces, which increases learning, memory and cognitive functions. (R)

Fasoracetam Relieves Anxiety and Depression

Fasoracetam relieves anxiety, improves mood, and eases depression by acting on glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). By up-regulating GABA and suppressing the excess production of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, Fasoracetam offers a non-jittery and smooth feeling of calmness, relaxation and improved mood. [R] [R]

Potential ADHD Treatment

A study on 30 individuals ranging between 12 to 17 years old test the impact of Fasoracetam on ADHD patients. The subjects were receiving fasoracetam for five weeks, after which improvements were observed relating to ADHD symptoms. [R]

Increases Creativity and Motivation

With more research done on Fasoracetam, the improvement in creativity and motivation progresses as well. Many users report that not only it makes them inspired by nature but keeps them motivated too. These self-reports are credible for boosting moods and ability to increase the release and production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is responsible for cognition and learning.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Fasoracetam Work?

There is no clear evidence to support how it works to improve cognition. The theories that exist that describe that it as an interaction with the receptors of glutamate and GABA and the cholinergic system.

nootropic fasoracetam
Fasoracetam Skeletal Structure

Fasoracetam works of a specific group of glutamate receptors known as metabotropic glutamate receptors, which play multiple roles in the brain and body mainly relating to memory, learning, and anxiety.

In increasing acetylcholine fasoracetam is a powerful cholinergic, significantly increasing the uptake of choline in the cortex and hippocampus.

The brain uses the additional choline to produce more acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter most strongly associated with learning, memory, and overall cognition.

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How to Take Fasoracetam?

A 20 mg dose is a good starting point.

Anecdotal reports suggest smaller doses of 15 to 30 mg per day, while dosages used in clinical trials for ADHD were 100, 200, and 400mg twice a day.

Personally I tried anywhere from 20 mg per dose to 60 mg per dose. The difference was barely notable to me.

Always pair it with Alpha GPC or any choline source to potentiate the effect and prevent a headache.

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Side Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Side Effects?

Fasoracetam is safe when taken responsibly. The most common side effect, similar to all racetams, including fatigue, headache, and digestive discomfort.

The is no scientific evidence available on the specific interactions between other drugs and fasoracetam.

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User Experience

Here is an ongoing discussion thread on Reddit's stack advice regarding Fasoracetam usage that is packed with both information on the nootropic, as well as different user experiences (myself included), suggestions, and thoughts on the nootropic:

Any positive feedback on fasoracetam for anxiety?

Some of the interesting & diverse comments from that thread:

Not from me, unfortunately. Made me feel worse. I've lost any faith in common nootropics because they do nothing for me. Oxetine

10-20mg gave me near instantaneous relief from anxiety—sublingual that is. tawatson2

While it seemed to help somewhat with anxiety (not a magic bullet) I also felt like some cognitive abilities were actually reduced by it. I had problems carrying out my work with usual performance and with internalizing new tasks. Sometimes you can't judge if a nootropic really helps much of anything at all but in case of fasoracetam the downsides seemed pronounced enough for me not to continue. sheldonopolis

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Fasoracetam (as well as Coluracetam) is a new nootropic but has had numerous experiments done on it. However, it has already developed a strong force in the nootropic community.

Many people find it an excellent choice to relieve anxiety and depression. Some people also say that it helps in cognition, clarity, and focus. It works well when used responsibly.

An excerpt from Wikipedia's page:

Fasoracetam is a research chemical of the racetam family. It is a putative nootropic that failed to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials for vascular dementia. It is currently being studied for its potential use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Fasoracetam appears to agonize all three groups of metabotropic glutamate receptors and has improved cognitive function in rodent studies. It is orally bioavailable and is excreted mostly unchanged via the urine.

Fasoracetam was discovered by scientists at the Japanese pharmaceutical company Nippon Shinyaku, which brought it through Phase 3 clinical trials for vascular dementia, and abandoned it due to lack of efficacy.

Scientists at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia led by Hakon Hakonarson have studied fasoracetam's potential use in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hakonarson started a company called neuroFix Therapeutics to try to bring the drug to market for this use; neuroFix acquired Nippon Shinyaku's clinical data as part of its efforts. neuroFix was acquired by Medgenics in 2015. Medgenics changed its name to Aevi Genomic Medicine in 2016. Clinical trials in adolescents with ADHD who also have mGluR mutations started in 2016.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What's the effect of Fasoracetam?

I have been dosing for 3 days now. I started noticing my legs were becoming relaxed as if I took a benzo combined with that sense of horniness phenibut gave me when I first began taking it. Typically after a few days of Phenibut use dopamine builds up which leads to euphoria combined with anxiolytic effects. Those effects have been long gone and I've basically just been taking about 1.6 grams to avoid withdrawals. I've gotten off it a few times only to go back on. Now i'm feeling the orginal effects coming back stronger after each dose of Fasoracetam. I can honestly say I don't feel many other effects aside from the Phenibut now. I'm dosing Phenibut low so its amazing that the effects are coming back with such low doses. I'm wondering if Fasoracetam will completely abolish all Phenibut Withdrawal. It almost seems like that may be the case since its Re-upregulating Gaba B. I wish I understand the Upregulation and Downregulation process on a deeper level.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Fasoracetam (with the addition of another compound, a new formula) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for ADHD
  2. Phenylpiracetam
  3. Nootropics FAQ

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Citicoline (CDP-choline) is a safe, potent, and extremely well-tolerated nootropic. It enhances memory and protects the brain serving as a neuroprotectant. In combination with other supplements, it works as a powerful potentiator, especially racetams.

citicoline cdp choline
Citicoline Skeletal Structure

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What is Citicoline?

CDP Choline (also known as Citicoline or Cytidine diphosphocholine) is a potent nootropic and a highly bioavailable choline source that is praised for its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier quickly, improving memory and protecting the brain against memory injury. Furthermore; it heightens focus, increases mental energy, and provides thought clarity. Recent studies suggest its usefulness in the treatment of many medical problems from head injuries to stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases to glaucoma, ADHD, and even cocaine dependency.

Citicoline, also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline or cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine is an intermediate in the generation of phosphatidylcholine from choline, a common biochemical process in cell membranes. Citicoline is naturally occurring in the cells of human and animal tissue, in particular the organs. – Wikipedia

For nootropists – (new term just coined here!), the most exciting part of supplementing with a choline source is its ability to amplify and enhance the effects of other nootropics. It works synergistically with racetams nootropics such as Aniracetam, Sunifiram, Fasoracetam, potentiating the effects of memory boosting such as piracetam and pramiracetam while preventing the minor headaches that often come along with frequent racetam use. CDP Choline, along with Alpha-GPC (and Centrophenoxine) are the most useful choline-source supplements available.

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Benefits & Effects

What Are Citicoline Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Increases Mental Stamina
  3. Neuroprotective
  4. Heightens Focus and Concentration
  5. Amplifies the effects of other nootropics, especially Racetams

Supporting Research:

Memory Improvement

CDP Choline is popular for its effect on improving memory and preventing memory loss. It associates with anti-aging and longevity, as well as having the possibility of being an add-on to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. [1]

Increases Mental Stamina and Neuroprotection

Clinical trials show CDP-Choline to affect mental energy positively, increasing frontal lobe bioenergetics and mitigating the cognitive declines associated with aging. Thereby becoming a neuroprotective agent. [2]

Focus and Concentration

CDP-choline increases the ability to concentrate for extended periods of time and minimizes distraction, which makes it essential for studying, learning new information, or completing enduring and mentally demanding tasks. This seems to be true even in severe cases of conditions like brain injuries and Alzheimer’s disease. [3]

To benefit from the focus, concentration, and enduring prologing tasks, you could pair it with an amino acid nootropic like N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine. The synergy of the two will improve the ability to concentrate to a new level.

This is especially true in subjects with ADHD (like myself). I've found including NALT and Citicoline together in my moring stack to be one of the most beneficial for pulling through in my corporate office job.

Potentiator of other Nootropics (especially racetams)

Many Nootropists consider CDP-choline a must-have in any stack. Especially those including racetams. It works particularly well with racetams, amplifying their effects and preventing the associating headache due to the utilization of acetylcholine within the brain. Furthermore, it seems to delay the onset of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease when used in combination with piracetam according to a study by the Biomedical Research Center in Spain. [4]

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Citicoline Work?

Citicoline is a “slightly” stimulating nootropic – depending on whom you ask. Many people myself included find it to be more than “slightly” stimulating. However, I take it along with a couple other supplements so my experience shouldn't be as credible. Citicoline restores and repairs neuronal damage, increases dopamine levels in the nervous system, and enhances the production of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is especially important for those using racetam nootropics.

Post consumption, CDP-choline breaks down into choline, and cytidine. After which it flows throughout the body and  easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. The cytidine then converts into uridine, a nucleotide base essential to neural membrane synthesis. The choline release is cholinergic, increasing levels of choline within the brain.

Choline is a precursor to acetylcholine,  vital to most cognitive functions — particularly those relating to memory and learning capacity. Racetams are acetylcholine agonists compounds that increase the production and release of acetylcholine. Sufficient choline availability creates notable cognitive improvements in memory, heighten focus, thought clarity, and recall speed. Additionally, it prevents racetam headaches.

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How To Take Citicoline?

How to take: the typical dose is usually ranging from 250mg being the lowest effective, to up to 1000 mg while keeping an  8 to 12-hour time intervals. I find 250mg effective enough to potentiate racetam effects. I've also taken 500mg at other times but that was in a preformulated nootropic, which is  MindLab Pro.

According to, the standard dosing of CDP-choline is to take 500-2,000 mg in two divided doses (of 250-1,000 mg) usually separated by 8-12 hours, although a single daily dose is also sometimes used. A single dose of 4,000 mg does not appear to affect the blood any differently than 2,000 mg, and so it is not necessary to take such a high dose.

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Side Effects

What Are Citicoline Side Effects?

Rare occurrences are:

  1. Indigestion
  2. Headache
  3. Insomnia – this is applicable if taken late in the evening
  4. Diarrhea

These are the reported possible (although rare) side effects. I have been using both Citicoline and Alpha-GPC for over a year or two now and never experienced any of those.

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User Experiences

This question was asked on Reddit's Nootropic geeks about users experiences on Citicoline, which had 19 answers. I will share a few from both positive and negative to not seem biased. The question asked was:

“Has anyone had a boost in long term memory using cdp choline?”

and 3 out of the 19 answers:

  1. I have but I take 1 gram daily. There's tons of studies on it and older adults on helping memory so it does work.
  2. I can’t say whether it was the choline or not since I use it with noopept but I will say both have helped with long term memory.
  3. The real answer is no, CDP Choline is not profound enough to warrant noticeable increases in memory. Slightly, perhaps. Significant? No chance.

Due to reddit's infamous answers end up leading to random off topic discussions, I had to add my answer as the 4th to have a total of 4 user experiences here.

Personal Experience

yes yes & a 100 yes. i've been using both alpha gpc and citicoline for about 2 years and seen tremendous positive impact both onset and long-term. So there you have it all. Now its on you to do the rest of the research, if necessary, and decide for yourself. Good luck and let me know how you respond to it! 

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CDP-choline is an excellent memory enhancing, focus amplifying nootropic that can (and should) be added to almost any stack.Using it on its own is effective enough for that mild stimulation and to fire your focus. Then pair it with a racetam, and the effects of both are amplified to an amazing extent.

Furthermore, it provides neuroprotection. That is something anyone living today can benefit from due to many reasons such as environmental changes and the accumulation of oxidative stress in today's world.It is very well tolerated and safe — there are no reports of serious adverse effects on CDP-choline, and enlighten me if I'm wrong.

Moreover, it is an approved medical treatment in Europe for a number of conditions such as cognitive impairment (R) as well as Ischemic Stroke (R), to mention a few.

It is affordable and easily accessible. You can get it for around $15 for a 60 capsules of 300mg, and that is the first result I looked at for the sake of elaborating. I tend to use Alpha-GPC more often which is slightly more expensive, but no more than $10 more than citicoline.It's worth buying for anyone looking after cognition boost and overall brain health. But especially worth it for those using multiple nootropics at a time, including racetams. I mean at this point, I would not even bother taking any racetam if I don't have a choline source to pair it with.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What Does Citicoline Do?

Citicoline is a “slightly” stimulating nootropic – depending on whom you ask. Many people myself included find it to be more than “slightly” stimulating. However, I take it along with a couple other supplements so my experience shouldn't be as credible. Citicoline restores and repairs neuronal damage, increases dopamine levels in the nervous system, and enhances the production of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is especially important for those using racetam nootropics.

What is Citicoline made from?

Citicoline is an intermediate in the generation of phosphatidylcholine from choline, a common biochemical process in cell membranes. Citicoline is naturally occurring in the cells of human and animal tissue, in particular the organs.

What are the effects of taking citicoline?

Citicoline Improves Memory, Increases Mental Stamina, is Neuroprotective, Heightens Focus and Concentration, as well as Amplifies the effects of other nootropics, especially Racetams

Is Citicoline same as Choline?

No. Citicoline is cholinergic (compounds that increase the levels of acetylcholine or choline in the brain). While Choline is actually a molecule mostly used for turning into acetylcholine, the learning neurotransmitter, as well as live health agent reducing fatty liver buildup.

How Much Alpha-GPC to Take with Piracetam?

Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Piracetam stack, the dose would be:

Piracetam: 1,600mg
Citicoline: 250mg

IS Citicoline Natural?

Yes, Citicoline is a natural compound.

Further Readings

  1. Choline: The Essential Vitamin Nutrient
  2. NAC, CoQ10, Agmatine Sulfate, Melatonin
  3. Nootropics Information Ultimate FAQ Page

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide Effects

Summary: Vinpocetine is a neuroprotective nootropic, an extraction from flower-plant vinca minor. It works as a cognitive enhancer, memory booster, while also uplifting mood and supporting overall well-being.

Vinpocetine benefits
Vinpocetine Skeletal Structure


What is Vinpocetine?

Vinpocetine (aka Cavinton, Intelctol), is an extract from flowering plant vinca minor (or myrtle); a flower-family native to Portugal, France, and other parts of central and southern Europe. A 1975 discovery by Hungarian chemist named Csaba Szantay. Only three years after the invention, production of the extract in pill form started. Some of the primary uses of Vinpocetine as a nootropic are memory and cognition improvement, increasing learning capacity, and mood enhancement. Medical applications extend to the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, dementia, and strokes. It is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. Its excellent safety profile is inspiring more companies to study and research Vinpocetine to explore other possible therapeutic and nootropic benefits. Although less popular comparing to other nootropics, the research as well as the knowledge of it is rapidly growing

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Benefits & Effects

What Are Vinpocetine Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory and Cognition
  2. Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow
  3. Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention
  4. Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being
  5. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory

Supporting research:

Vinpocetine Improves Memory and Cognition

Vinpocetine is widely in use for memory improvement. In Eastern Europe, it is a medical prescription for treating memory-related problems and disorders. Clinical trials confirm its effect on improving memory formation, and individuals receiving Vinpocetine report it’s beneficial especially in remembering and recalling information. Other studies also confirm it as a memory enhancer that can be used by anyone looking to improve their memory. (R)

Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow

Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and supports better blood circulation without having adverse effects on blood pressure. The better blood flow and circulation leads to an increase in productivity within the brain. This productivity increases and allows for better focus and concentration, as well as allowing for longer and steady attention span. Take notes, fellow ADHD ADHE’s – (attention-deficit hyperactive extraordinary). (R) (R)

Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention

Vinpocetine improves the body’s ability of converting dietary glucose and fat to ATP, which is the coenzyme that transmits chemical energy for metabolism. Having more ATP ready for use in the brain leads to better intellectual capability, and thereby learning becomes more comfortable and faster. Moreover, the presence of sufficient ATP reduces feelings of mental exhaustion and “brain fog,” as well as supports feelings of mental clarity. (R)

Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being

An increase in overall well-being is a result of a reduction in the rate of cognitive decline. (R) (R)

Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory

Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Vinpocetine Work?

Early studies show that Vinpocetine benefits the brain in many ways, one of which is by improving blood flow, circulation, and utilization of oxygen. Unlike common stimulants, Vinpocetine increases blood flow in the brain without affecting the rest of the body. It targets impaired cells and areas of poor circulation within the brain. Enhancing blood flow, circulation, and oxygenation allows the brain to tolerate conditions of lack of sufficient oxygen (such as ischemia and hypoxia) better. Those conditions can relate to strokes and similar injuries. The elevation of blood flow and oxygenation result the nootropic effect.

Furthermore, improving circulation and oxygenation in the brain also enhances the overall brain function while increasing the production of ATP. All of which are vital for cerebral metabolism. By generating sufficient amounts of ATP, vinpocetine increases the use of glucose thereby improves mental clarity.

Vinpocetine interacts with sodium, calcium, and potassium ion channels within the brain, modulating the release of various neurotransmitters. That includes, but not limited to acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Increasing the availability of those neurotransmitters not only affects memory and overall cognition but may also improve mood by relieving feelings of anxiety and enhancing energy and well-being. Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.

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How To Take Vinpocetine?

For general health and prevention purposes, the low dose is 5mg 3x per day at meals and ranges up to 20 mg 3x per day. These doses are for neuroprotection, enhancing cerebral blood flow, and reducing the rate of cognitive decline.

For nootropic purposes, suggestion doses of 30 to 45 mg, 3 times a day, alongside food.

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Side Effects

What Are Vinpocetine Side Effects?

Vinpocetine is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. It is also very well tolerated and has no reported adverse effects. New users rarely experience a soft version of caffeine “buzz” that fades away as tolerance to vinpocetine is increased. Keep in mind that increasing the daily dosage to over 40 mg could decrease benefits.

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Vinpocetine’s unique mechanisms of action, great cognitive enhancement abilities, and insurance of neuroprotection are leading to increasing attention within the nootropic community. It’s a safe brain-booster that works well with other nootropics, thereby becoming an attractive addition to nootropic stacks. It’s affordable and easily accessible.

If you are interested in further optimizing your brain, enhancing its blood circulation, as well as allowing it to function at maximum productivity; vinpocetine is a nootropic worthy of your consideration.

IntroductionBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageStackSide EffectsUser Experience

Summary: Sulbutiamine is a nootropic that boosts energy levels and reduces fatigue. It's an ideal choice on days when you're feeling tired, slow, or hungover. Furthermore, Sulbutiamine elevates mood and has a substantial impact on memory.

Sulbutiamine Video TTS

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What is Sulbutiamine?

Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion) is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). In France, it is used to treat symptoms of weakness or fatigue. It also sells as a dietary supplement.

Sulbutiamine dose
Sulbutiamine Structure

Sulbutiamine is a discovery from Japan as part of an effort to develop useful thiamine derivatives. [R]

It is an upgraded version of vitamin B1. Japanese researchers developed it in the 1960s while trying to address a growing vitamin B1 deficiency in the Japanese population. [R]

Sulbutiamine supplement is unusually bioavailable — in other words, you absorb it very well, and unlike standard vitamin B1, sulbutiamine passes through your blood-brain barrier, supplying your brain with the precious B vitamin.[R]

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Benefits & Effects

What Are Sulbutiamine Benefits?

  1. Decreases Fatigue and Improves Mood
  2. Relieves Anxiety, Depression
  3. Boosts Motivation
  4. Enhances Memory
  5. Improves Sexual Health & Performance

Supporting research:

Sulbutiamine Decreases Fatigue, Improves Mood

Several extensive studies have found that sulbutiamine significantly increases energy in people who are feeling fatigued. Sulbutiamine benefits Increase energy & stamina.

Enerion was used in the treatment of 40 patients with psychovegetative syndrome and asthenia. Before treatment, the patients have pronounced asthenia appearances, anxiety disorders, relevant autonomic disorders, mild depression and decrease of working capacity, attention concentration and memory. The treatment conducted as monotherapy during 28 days with enerion dosage 400 mg/day. After treatment, expression of autonomic and asthenic disorders was reduced significantly, along with improvement of psychometric and neurophysiological indices. High efficacy of the medication was in 75% of the patients and moderate one–in 25%.

PMID: 14628585

Sulbutiamine Relieves Anxiety, Depression, and Social Avoidance

Sulbutiamine has no antidepressive effect but it can hasten the resorption of psycho-behavioural inhibition occurring during major depressive disorder and thereby facilitate the rehabilitation of patients in their social, professional and family life functioning. [R]

Sulbutiamine Boosts Motivation

There is also some evidence that sulbutiamine increases dopamine and glutamate in your prefrontal cortex, which links to increased motivation and good mood. [R]

It has a growing number of fans in the nootropic community, many of whom report improved mood and heightened mental endurance.

Sulbutiamine for Memory

Sulbutiamine is made up of two vitamin B1 molecules attached together, which could explain its effect on memory. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in acetylcholine synthesis in your brain. In fact, it’s the only vitamin that regulates acetylcholine levels, keeping them from getting too low or too high. [R]

What is acetylcholine?

It’s a substance found throughout your nervous system, that acts as a neurotransmitter. Your brain uses most of its acetylcholine to control your muscles, which could explain why taking sulbutiamine helps so much with fatigue. But acetylcholine also plays a key part in memory; it helps you consolidate new memories and remember old ones.” [R]

Improves Sexual Performance

Sulbutiamine treatment for 30 days restored sexual performance in 16 patients out of 20 (open-label) with erectile dysfunction (caused by psychological issues) [R]

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Sulbutiamine Work?

Sulbutiamine is a molecule which is two Thiamine (B1) molecules linking together, similar to how Pyritinol is two Pyridoxine (B6) molecules link together.

Sulbutiamine is a isobutyryl thiamine disulfide and sometimes goes by its brand names of Ereon or Arcalion. It is most commonly in use for Asthenia, or weakness (part neurological and part myopathic) as well as treatment of somatic and psychic inhibition. It doesn't possess psychostimulant properties, although it is designed to act centrally (in the brain). [1]

Sulbutiamine synthesizes from Thiamine, where after the opening of the thiazole ring of Thiamine and dimerization to a disulfide compound it is then esterified. [2]

Sulbutiamine is a fat-soluble molecule that crosses the blood-brain barrier more readily than thiamine. Once in your brain, it increases levels of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is directly involving in the citric acid cycle in the brain.

This cycle breaks fatty acids, amino acids, and monosaccharides into smaller molecules that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. And provide the building blocks of the electrons needed to generate brain cells. [Examine]

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How To Take Sulbutiamine?

How to take: Sulbutiamine supplement recommendation dose is 400mg. However, caution is necessary in regards to cycling sulbutiamine and not supplementing on daily basis.

Sulbutiamine dosage: 200-600 mg/day, taken in the morning. Sulbutiamine is fat-soluble (in fact, that’s the reason it can pass the blood-brain barrier and have all these nootropic properties), so be sure you take it with a fat source; otherwise, you won’t absorb it. [R]


Sulbutiamine Stack

It’s quite rare to find recommendations of stacking sulbutiamine and out of all that I have come across, I think the best stack, or at least one that I would personally consider, is sulbutiamine, aniracetam, and choline stack. For example:

Sulbutiamine 200mg
Aniracetam 750mg
Alpha-GPC 300mg

Aniracetam & choline stack has been one of the most effective I have ever tried. Sulbutiamine supposedly stacks well with racetams and is a common choice due to similarities of effects on cognitive function. [R]

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Side Effects

How To Take Sulbutiamine?

At standard doses (200-1000 mg), side effects could include a headache, nausea, and trouble sleeping.

People doing self-experiments with sulbutiamine, though, occasionally report anxiety and negative thoughts from taking higher doses (most of these side effects showed up around 1000-2000 mg). Others say they feel anxiety from taking sulbutiamine for too long without a break. [R]

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If you decide to use sulbutiamine, be sure to cycle it. When you don’t take the occasional day off from sulbutiamine, it’s likely you’ll build a tolerance to its effects, and the sulbutiamine will stop working unless you increase the dose. [R]

Experiment is key to finding the dosage and cycle that's just right for you and your body composition.

Its a great choice to consider on days where you need extra mental functionality.

Sulbutiamine is becoming more and more popular in the biohacking community. If you’re curious, give it a try and see how you feel.

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User Experience

Here is a sulbutiamine Reddit user experience from someone who's ADD (high five!) and prescribed Adderall:

…I only heard about nootropics for the first time around 9 months ago. Used to take Adderall for many years, but quit over 5 years ago because it was causing daily headaches and I suspected it was causing my chronic insomnia.

I have legit ADD, as well as what I would call brain fog, low level depression, lack of motivation. I've taken sulbutiamine a few times, and I have really good results with it. I only take it occasionally, when I have a big project I need to get done (because I don't want it to stop working, like I've read that it will if you take it often). I took it today because I had a lot of organization tasks I needed to do, and since I hate these kinds of tasks, I often lack motivation to start or complete them.

When I take my capsule, I can actually feel it start to kick in around 20-30 minutes after taking it. It reminds me a lot of how Adderall worked/felt but without that unexplainable “buzzy” feeling. I felt motivated and energized, and really got into my work. Just thought I'd share for any other noobs out there who haven't tried it yet.

Related Nootropics

  1. Agmatine Sulfate
  2. Bacopa Monnieri
  3. Melatonin

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What is Pramiracetam?Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsFAQs

Summary: after a study showing an outstanding success rate of 96% in reversing amnesia, surpassing the original and most popular racetam (Piracetam) – Pramiracetam started drawing more and more attention until eventually getting to stand out amongst racetams the way it does today. Additionally, it boosts cognition and improves memory, increases concentration, learning capacity, and supports engaging in, and maintaining prolonged focus sessions.

Pramiracetam Video TTS

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What is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is one of the best-selling nootropics today due to being the highest in potency out of all racetam nootropics.

It has a distinctive mechanism of action that allows for efficient utilization of brain capabilities, thereby improving memory recall, learning capacity, concentration, and focus. Serves as an excellent supplement on its own and furthermore, a powerful potentiator to other nootropics, intensifying as well as prolonging effects. It is quickly rising towards a well-deserving reputation for its profound effects.

A synthetic derivative of piracetam, Pramiracetam is an invention of Parke-Davis from the 1970s. It is a highly effective nootropic, up to 30 times more potent than piracetam. It is marketed in Europe under brand names Neupramir, Pramistar, and Remen; often as a prescription for individuals with dyslexia, ADHD, dementia, and memory impairment due to neurodegenerative conditions. It was a patent in the US in 1979 but without the support nor the approval of the US FDA.

Regardless, it is popularly used off-label as a different approach to cognitive challenges and memory impairments. Its also undergoing further trials as a potential treatment for a variety of nervous system disorders.

Pramiracetam is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. It is marketed by Menarini under the brand name Pramistar as a treatment for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative and vascular dementias in Italy and some Eastern European countries.


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Benefits?

  1. Enhances Overall Cognitive Function
  2. Enhances Memory Formation
  3. Reduces Symptoms of Depression & Relieves Anxiety
  4. Increases Learning Capacity
  5. Promotes Thought & Sense of Clarity
  6. Increases Social Fluency & Sociability
  7. Enhances Sensory Perception
  8. Helps in Memory Restoration and Recall

Supporting research:

Enhances Overall Cognitive Function

Pramiracetam optimizes brain performance and produces noticeable cognitive enhancement, especially regarding memory, in both formation of as well as consolidation. Due to the euphoric-like focus, it induces along with a sense of “emotional blunting,” users report the feel of it being comparable to Ritalin.

Pramiracetam Enhances Memory

Due to stimulating the hippocampus, the section of the cerebellum that's accountable toward the formation of new memories, pramiracetam is raising in acknowledgment as a sharp memory enhancer. Users report significant improvement in memory formation and speed of recall; a claim confirmed by animal studies. (R)

Additionally, extensive studies find that it significantly improves long-term memory, and able to reverse amnesia to surprising levels. The findings of that study led to the synthesizing and production the drug.  (R) (R)

Pramiracetam Reduces Depression and Anxiety

Pramiracetam reports show it improves cognitive deficits associating with traumatic brain injuries. Studies demonstrate and confirm its neuroprotective effects. Studies show that its overall impact on lowering symptoms of depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. Nevertheless, it was beneficial for both. (R)

Increases Learning Capacity

Users allegedly report pramiracetam makes learning faster, more efficient, as well as more pleasant. Such finding can be explained, at least in part, by pramiracetam facilitation of higher neuroplasticity and support of long-term memory. The latter seems to be more accurate as per the following study: (R)

Pramiracetam Increases Sense of Clarity

Anecdotal reports from the nootropic community tell that pramiracetam provides them with a strong sense of mental awareness, clarity, with a deeper understanding of life; similar to many of those reporting the same effects from piracetam.

Pramiracetam Promotes Social Fluency

Furthermore, a lot of people taking pramiracetam report enjoying socializing whereas before, they avoided social settings for lack of interest. This could be due to the cognitive boost or the emotional blunting effect, which is likely to reduce social anxieties (R).

Enhances Sensory Perception

Another report backed by a clinical study shows that pramiracetam indeed enhances sensory perception and heightens observation. That is including amplified and more vibrant sound and more precise, richer visual perception with distinct color contrast. (R)

Pramiracetam Aids Memory Restoration

In clinical experiments, pramiracetam has been noted to be an efficient remedy approach for memory impairment and other cognitive difficulties caused by brain injuries(R). It is also one of the various nootropics that are carried out to examine in the US as a potential treatment for memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease amongst other neurological disorders. There is a study that shows it to be capable of reversing chemically produced amnesia in healthy volunteers of 18-65 years of age(R).


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Pramiracetam Work?

Similar to several nootropics, pramiracetam affects the release of neurotransmitters, brain chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. Though pramiracetam performs it indirectly, in different fashion than that of other racetams, and it excites the brain in different methods as well. Pramiracetam is fat-soluble which means the bloodstream absorbs it via fatty acids. It reaches peak concentrations and highest bioavailability, usually within 30 minutes, and has a somewhat long half-life of 4 to 6 hours.

Racetams work by directly stimulating neurotransmitter receptor sites, thus increasing production and release of specific neurotransmitters. However;  pramiracetam doesn't directly produce alterations in neurochemical levels, neither does it seem to possess an affinity for any vital neurotransmitter.

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter thoroughly engaging in cognitive processes including learning pace, thought recall, and attention. By inciting choline uptake, it indirectly modulates the release of acetylcholine and triggers increased activity within the hippocampus. Due to this part of the brain being crucial to revival function, the generalized stimulation that pramiracetam formulates can enhance both the creation of new memories and the retention of reference or long-term memories.

Cerebral Blood Flow

The improving action in the hippocampus also improves cerebral blood flow, which enhances attentiveness and boosts cognitive capabilities. Besides, Pramiracetam has additional mechanisms of action. Neuroscientists hypothesize that in addition to influencing the brain, pramiracetam serves outer sections that rely upon the adrenal glands. (R)

Concerning Membrane Fluidity

Animal studies imply that pramiracetam may additionally improve or repair brain membrane fluidity, which promotes cell signaling (R). Pramiracetam does not seem to alter either alertness or emotional states actively. This advantage is understandable by pramiracetam low impact on the generation and release neurotransmitters that possess the most notable results on tranquility, stress, and anxiety levels such as serotonin, GABA, and dopamine.

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How to Take Pramiracetam?

Recommended Pramiracetam dosage is 1200 mg per day, split into two 600 mg or three 400 mg doses throughout the day.

This is the lowest effective dose. On an individual level, it should be adjusted as required to accomplishing the desired effect.

Currently, the evidence using pramiracetam in humans uses either 400mg thrice daily or 600mg twice daily; both of these dosing regimens totals 1,200mg of pramiracetam daily.

It is unsure if pramiracetam should be taken with meals, and it is not clear if 1,200mg is the optimal dosage or not. This does, however, does appear effective.


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Side Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Side Effects?

Studies testing Pramiracetam doses found it to be safe and not causing any side effects at doses of 400 mg and up to 1,600 mg (R).

Furthermore, a study concerning Alzheimer's disease shows it's safe even at doses as high as 4,000 mg. (R)

Headache may occur due to low acetylcholine levels in the brain. Therefore, it is wise to pair racetams drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha GPC). Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, they will furthermore work synergistically together firing cognitive function. (R)

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Pramiracetam is a powerful nootropic that is relatively new to many of the nootropics community. Yet is rapidly attaining a well-deserved recognition. Due to having more complications in synthesizing, it costs more than most other racetams. Users often complain about that, however, the distinct potency proposes that lower doses are required to achieve the results. Users also have mixed reactions to the Ritalin-like emotional blunting outcome of the supplement. For some, it creates refreshing objectivity and easing of social anxiety, while others find it makes them feel somewhat disengaged. Pramiracetam is generally unique nootropic, notably enhancing memory creation and recollection, learning pace, and overall mental clarity. Its usually a worthy addition to nootropic stacks. Often existing there as an agent for prolonging their effects. Pramiracetam is safe, effective, fast-acting, and reasonably long-lasting.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Where to buy Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is available on many vendors if you simply do a quick Google search. If I had to pick one of the many choices, I would recommend Nootropics Depot because I have personally used almost every racetam they offer, and I trust their product quality.

Can you snort Pramiracetam?

Although it is reportedly possible, it's not recommended due to the large powder amount required as well as the associated pain. Unlike certain substances that yield results with small amount, snorting Pramiracetam wouldn't be worth the effort.

How long does Pramiracetam last?

Pramiracetam reaches its peak concentration in about 30 minutes after ingestion and has an average half-life of 5 hours.

What does Pramiracetam do?

Pramiracetam enhances memory formation and memory recall, increases learning ability, reduces social anxiety, and could potentially treat amnesia as well as prevent neurodegeneration.

When to take Pramiracetam?

Ideally, the best timing to take Pramiracetam would be once after breakfast, and another dose after lunch, keeping a 5-hour time interval between the two dosages.

How to take Pramiracetam?

Although it is recommended to take Pramiracetam after food for optimal absorption, it can still be taken without food. So if absorption is your concern, it does not matter much. It depends on your personal preference.

How long does Pramiracetam last?

On average, Pramiracetam effect lasts somewhere between 4 to 6 hours.

Why is Pramiracetam so expensive?

Regardless of all the forum talks of Pramiracetam being so expensive, and whether this used to be true in the past or not; the actual price of Pramiracetam powder from Nootropics Depot is $9.99 for 5g, and $26.99 for 15g.

How much choline to take with Pramiracetam?

Personally, I would take and recommend 300 mg of Alpha-GPC with each Pramiracetam dose. If you prefer Citicoline instead (as the choline source) then the recommended dosage would be 250 mg

For more Frequently Asked Questions, check out the following pages:

  1. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ List
  2. Racetams 101: Guide & FAQs

Further and Related Readings

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Sunifiram
  3. Oxiracetam
  4. Fasoracetam
  5. Coluracetam
  6. Citicoline (CDP-choline)
  7. Noopept

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What is Oxiracetam?Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide Effects

Summary: Effective, efficient and recommended, Oxiracetam is one of the most valuable racetam class nootropics. Its ability to boost productivity and problem-solving has made it a favorite – and a best seller.

Oxiracetam review
Oxiracetam Skeletal Structure
Oxiracetam Video TTS

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What is Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is a cognitive function booster that has many different benefits and uses. It heightens focus and concentration as well as enhancing memory and learning. It furthermore intensifies sensual, observational, and logical thinking. Oxiracetam stimulate the brain, thereby producing mental stamina and boosting energy. It allows for achieving better skill-use which make it a useful nootropic at any point in life.

Oxiracetam is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam, a discovery from the 1970's. Research suggests that it is five times as effective as its racetam relatives. With properties like those of Phenylpiracetam, it has proven its effectiveness. Additionally, it doesn't bring the adverse effects that usually come with stimulants.

It benefits memory, attention and learning. Furthermore, it is a potential treatment for amnesia. Research show that it has potential to treat dementia as well, but the FDA has yet to approve it (surprise surprise!). So it's not in the big-pharma market. Its not regulated by the Canadian, Australian, or UK authorities. It is safe and effective, and its use for neurodegeneration is growing bigger with time. It is safe, potent and useful for many medical conditions, beside its nootropic effect.

Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug of the racetam family and very mild stimulant. Several studies suggest that the substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time. However, the mechanism of action of the racetam drug family is still a matter of research. – Wikipedia

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Benefits & Effects

What Are Oxiracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Improves Logical Thinking
  3. Improves Focus and Learning
  4. Enhances Prolonged Concentration
  5. Boosts Physical and Mental Energy

Supporting Research:

Oxiracetam Improves Memory

Oxiracetam is effective on memory and and is in use by students looking for a memory boost. Users report positive experiences about its effectiveness in that regard (R).

Improves Logical Thinking

Many anecdotal reports state that it increases and improves logical thought. Some also say that Oxiracetam improves their analytical and reasoning skills.

Improves Focus and Learning

All racetams are effective in increasing focus and learning abilities. Trails on humans and animals both show that Oxiracetam enhances focus and learning. (R)

Enhances Prolonged Concentration

Oxiracetam has a positive effect on concentration allowing a person to stick to a subject without distraction. So it is a smart option during finals – where self-discipline is very important (R).

Boosts Physical and Mental Energy

Oxiracetam is a mild stimulant that increases both physical and mental activity. But it is unique in that it doesn't bring amphetamine-like side effects.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Oxiracetam Work?

Precise mechanism of actions are unclear, but its related to neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Which is crucial in many neurological disorders and diseases.

It alters the release of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and glutamate from these receptors. These chemicals impact memory, learning, logical and cognitive functions. Although all racetams show similar effects, Oxi can last longer than the rest.

By increasing the neuronal linking in the hippocampus, the drug has impacts on the lipid metabolism. It leads to the production of D-Aspartic acid which is crucial for neural signaling. Oxiracetam has mild central nervous system stimulant effects as it is an ampakine act at the glutamatergic AMPA receptors. However, it has no severe side effects like insomnia, weight loss, gain or any other that is often associating anxiolytics and antidepressants.

As far as chemistry is concerned, Oxiracetam is a water-soluble compound. Its absorption occurs mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that it reaches the maximum levels within 1-3 hours of intake. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and has long half-life of 8-10 hours, therefore is stable.

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How To Take Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam average dose is 1,200-2,400mg taken in 2 or 3 even doses throughout the day.

An example would be:

  • 2x 800mg per day or
  • 3x 400mg per day

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Side Effects

What Are Oxiracetam Side Effects?

At a 1,600mg dose per day, it does not have any significant side-effects when compared to placebo. As with all racetams, headache is a possibility. It is preventable by adding a choline source such as Alpha GPC.

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Oxiracetam passes all the obstacles that come in the way of a drug to be in the market for the public. It is safe and has no adverse effect reported. Furthermore, its a potential treatment for neurological disorders. It has been a useful (and life-saving) nootropic for people suffering mental illness. Although still pending FDA approval, it confirmed its effectiveness in many studies and clinical trials.

Due to increasing focus and concentration, Oxiracetam became a popular choice for students. And one that is often recommended by those using it.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How long does one need to take oxiracetam to start feeling effects?

Personally, I’d feel it right on the time I take it. I mean after a while of course, but effects are notaiceable about 45 mins later. Nothing like “2 weeks until effects start taking actions” whatsoever.

As far as chemistry is concerned, Oxiracetam is a water-soluble compound. Its absorption occurs mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that it reaches the maximum levels within 1-3 hours of intake. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and has long half-life of 8-10 hours, therefore is stable.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Sunifiram, Fasoracetam, Coluracetam
  2. Choline, Alpha-GPC, CDP-choline
  3. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanisms of ActionDosageUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine, often abbreviated to NALT, is a more bioavailable form of L-Tyrosine, an amino acid that also has nootropic benefits. It improves mood, memory, and enhances cognitive abilities in many ways. It has great effects of reducing stress and maintaining mental performance during sleep deprivation.

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine Skeletal Structure
NALT Youtube Video

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What is N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine? (NALT)

Tyrosine is an amino acid the body produces from various dietary sources. Some of its primary functions are maintaining brain chemistry. A result of providing the necessities for the formation of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine; which are vital neurotransmitters that profoundly affect energy levels, moods motivation, and brain function. It works as the buffer delivering the necessary materials for the brain to produces them. Particularly under conditions where stress has depleted them. Another feature is its protein synthesis and the regulation of hormones required in the creation of melanin; supporting skin, hair, and eyes.
Moreover, Tyrosine is related to the thyroid hormones.

It also supports weight maintenance and loss by suppressing appetite and helping the body's ability to burn fats. Although the body produces sufficient amounts of L-Tyrosine on its own, studies suggest that additional supplementation provide physical and mental benefits especially under the circumstances of environmental stress.

L-Tyrosine and Depression

L-tyrosine is a precursor to L-dopa, which is a precursor to dopamine. L-dopa competes with 5-HTP at AAAD enzyme (Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) to be converted to dopamine. You can view that enzyme as a dumb robot that simply converts whatever it sees to a neurotransmitter. If you have more 5-HTP then you will make more serotonin, if you have more L-dopa, then you make more dopamine. You can imagine the process as trying to let an infinite crowd of people through a small door. If the crowd has an equal distribution of red hats and half blue hats, then the room inside will have an equal proportion of both colors. If you increase people wearing red hats, then less people with blue hats will squeeze in.

If you were to supplement L-dopa directly, then there would be no doubt that you could be decreasing your serotonin and causing your symptoms (increased energy from increased dopamine, feeling depressed from decreased serotonin). But supplementing l-tyrosine is not guaranteed to increase l-dopa. The rate limiting step is converting l-tyrosine to L-dopa. In other words, that's the point in the reaction where the brain decides whether it wants more dopamine / norepinephrine. If it wants more dopamine, then it increases activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is the enzyme that converts l-tyrosine to l-dopa, and then l-dopa will be converted by AAAD to dopamine possibly at the expense of serotonin because less 5-HTP will be catalyzed.

So you have to think whether you're doing something to your brain that also that increases dopamine, and if so then you could be throwing gasoline into the fire with tyrosine supplementation and depleting serotonin.

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Benefits & Effects

What Are the N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT) Benefits?

  1. Enhances Cognition Under Stress
  2. Improves Memory Under Pressure and Challenges
  3. Increases Dopamine in the Brain and Boosts Cognitive Flexibility
  4. Increases Focus and Supports ADHD Treatment

Supporting Research:

N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine Enhances Cognition Under Stress

A recent study found that Tyrosine effectively impacts memory and information processing decline under stressors such as extreme weather or extreme cognitive demand. The study hypothesizes that this effect is because tyrosine grants substance from which the brain can produce neurotransmitters. Thereby neutralizing the depletes caused by stress. The report concludes that individuals are facing demanding requirements, whether mountain climbing or meeting job deadline, can benefit from L-Tyrosine. (R), (R)

Improves Memory Under Pressure and Challenges

A study investigating L-Tyrosine's impact on individuals doing challenging mental tasks shows that those receiving L-Tyrosine perform better at the more difficult levels of the job. The study confirms L-Tyrosine to provide most benefits at higher levels of demand. (R)

Additionally, NALT is able to attenuate a decrease in memory formation associated with acute stressors

Increases Dopamine in the Brain and Boosts Cognitive Flexibility

A study of 22 individuals shows L-Tyrosine supplementation enhances cognitive flexibility as well as the ability to switch between tasks and thoughts. This result is attributed to L-Tyrosine's capability to increase dopamine in the brain, which further enhances mental versatility.

Increases Focus and Supports ADHD Treatment

A study on ADHD patients shows 77% of participants receiving L-Tyrosine alone showed significant improvement over a period of 10 weeks. Further studies indicate that the simultaneous use of L-Tyrosine especially boosted the effect of ADHD medication such as Ritalin and Adderall. Non-ADHD nootropic users report that tyrosine improves focus. Therefore it is commonly added in nootropic stacks for that purpose. (R)

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Mechanism of Action

How Does N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine Work?

L-Tyrosine forms in the body from a range of high dietary sources such as meats, fish, seeds, milk, yogurt, and cheese. It develops as a result of the precursor aminoalkanoic acid, known as essential amino acid, metabolizing within the liver. After metabolizing into L-Tyrosine, it further metabolizes by an associate protein known as hydroxylase, which prepares L-Tyrosine to be in use for the creation of different neurotransmitters. Once the protein hydrolyzes it, L-Tyrosine is carried in plasma and may metabolize into catecholamines in various membranes.

The discharge is activated by stimulation of adrenergic neurons within the brain, creating a restrictive interior system that maintains adequate internal secretion levels when the body is experiencing stress. Once there's a high demand on the body’s stores of the vasoconstrictor, the brain responds with the release of adrenergic transmitters. The release, therefore, increases the quantity of the modifying protein discharged. A lot of L-Tyrosine transforms into catecholamines, thereby preventing deficits. This process is associating evidence in favor of L-Tyrosine supplement.

Once the discharge multiplies over a sustained amount, internal secretion synthesis is assumed to be addicted to concentrations of amino acid. Moreover, supplementation could increase internal secretion synthesis and unleash by making a certain sufficiency of amino acid throughout prolonged periods of stimulation.

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How To Take N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT)?

The NALT dosage, however, is lower due to its higher bioavailability. With NALT, the typical daily dosage is 300 mg.

How To Take L-Tyrosine?

The standard L-Tyrosine dosage is 500-1000 mg daily, divided into 2 to 3 doses, half-hour before meals.

“Studies in humans showing most anti-stress promise for acute supplemental L-Tyrosine use a dosage range of 100-150mg/kg bodyweight which can be taken 60 minutes before exercise; this is a dosage range of 9-13.5g for a 200lb person and 7-10g for a 150lb person.

If using higher doses and finding digestive issues, this may be split into two doses separated by half an hour (30 and 60 minutes prior to acute stress).” as mentioned on

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L-Tyrosine is highly effective at improving cognition in situations involving intense stress. A robust body of research indicates that L-Tyrosine prevents cognitive decline in these situations. Furthermore, studies show that it enhances memory, increases cognitive flexibility, and improves mental performance under stress and cognitive demand.

The clinical studies, as well as anecdotal data from the nootropic community, indicate that L-Tyrosine is useful to everyone; not necessarily limited to those experiencing military-grade stress.

Working or studying long hours, struggling with anxiety, and even intense exercise are all stressors that impact cognition. Because L-Tyrosine is available through familiar dietary sources, supplementation is a choice rather than a health necessity. In situations that involve acute environmental stressors, it is a wise choice that will boost cognition. Therefore, tyrosine is worthy of consideration as a day to day supplement.

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User Experiences

From Reddit user experience:

I have been taking l-tyrosine with some other amino acids and supplements every day 3 times a day for a while now. I take it bc I am on Adderall and Wellbutrin, so I like to give support to those systems they affect. I've had no side effects. I think they are doing great for my mood, but that could be the dl-phenylalanine, too.

Another Reddit user, taking L-Tyrosine for ADHD:

I have been taking L-Tyrosine for 15 years or so as part of my ADHD stack. I do 500mg once a day 3-5 days a week. It can elevate anxiety levels and I find it seems to elevate norepinephrine more than dopamine based on my experience with other nootropics and meds. I notice if I go more than three or four days without it I start to feel foggy and don’t have the same level of mental clarity. But I take it with Taurine to take the edge off. If I take it for a couple of days without Taurine I also notice that it makes me a little edgy. It’s definitely a balance with this one.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How does L Tyrosine help with fatigue?

The amino acid tyrosine (500 – 1000 mg each morning) is the raw material your body uses to make the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. These both stimulate energy. There can be some immediate boost, but it takes six weeks to see the full steady-state effect

Does taking L-tyrosine supplements actually increase dopamine production in the brain?

A study of 22 individuals shows L-Tyrosine supplementation enhances cognitive flexibility as well as the ability to switch between tasks and thoughts. This result is attributed to L-Tyrosine's capability to increase dopamine in the brain, which further enhances mental versatility.

Can L-Tyrosine ease depressive symptoms in a patient being treated for ADHD with stimulant medication?

Yes, it is helpful in relieving stress, building adrenaline stores, improving mood and in improving mental acuity. … Some studies show that children suffering from ADHD usually have low levels of Tyrosine. Both my sons take L-Tyrosine with their Adderall and Concerta respectively. I tried a lot of things before I finally let them try medication. Bingo! That was the magic bullet for them.

Further and Related Readings

Tyrosine – Wikipedia

L-Theanine – Nootropics Information

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) – Nootropics Information

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What is Lion’s Mane Mushroom?Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionUser ExperiencesFAQs

SummaryLion’s Mane Mushroom has become one of nature's most potent nootropic supplement for the brain. There is evidence that is can permanently enhance brain function as well as protect the brain and promote NGF and neurogenesis.

Lion's Mane Video TTS

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What is Lion's Mane Mushroom?

Lion’s Mane Mushroom (also known as Hericium erinaceus), or rarely “monkey head mushroom,” is a traditional medicine that’s developing a strong fan base around the world. It has been voted as one of the top 10 natural nootropics of 2018 in terms of best selling, according to Nootropics Depot, as well as most beneficial. The list also included L-Theanine, Citicoline, as well as L-Theanine & Caffeine synergistic combo.

The profound effects it has on cognitive function while being neuroprotectant, as well as supporting NGF production, make it an appealing nootropic. The nerve growth factor is a discovery from 1986 that led Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini to win a Nobel Prize. NGF is one of the primary building blocks of neuroplasticity.

Furthermore, it is part of a group of molecules responsible for neurodevelopment. A go-to tonic for years, Lion’s Mane (Hericium Erinaceus) is native to Japan, China, Europe, and North America. It offers many benefits to the brain. It's in use as an alternative medicine to treat neurodegenerative disorders.

It is becoming more popular after the discovery of connections to promoting neurodevelopment. It raises the quantity of NGF in the brain, which improves cognition by decreasing inflammation, promoting neural growth, and enhancing brain health. Furthermore, studies verify that Lion’s Mane is a powerful neuroprotectant that can be valuable in the treatment of a variety of conditions ranging from cardiovascular health to obesity and even to certain types of cancer. Thus, Lion's Mane has become a novel nootropic.

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Benefits & Effects

What Are Lion's Mane Mushroom Benefits?

  1. Enhances Memory and Brain Function
  2. Promotes Nerve Growth Factor and Neuroprotection
  3. Lion Mane Reduces Anxiety and Symptoms of Depression
  4. Reduces Inflammation, Boosts Immunity, and Helps Digestion
  5. Supports Heart and Circulatory System, and Prevents Strokes
  6. Improves Mental Health and Overall Well-Being

Supporting research:

Enhances Memory and Brain Function

Lion’s Mane Mushroom benefits are diverse. One of which is that it boosts cognition, especially in memory and recall speed. Additionally, it helps in maintaining concentration, increasing mental stamina, and heightening focus. It is one of the most praised nootropics due to being organic and natural. Furthermore, it provides a variety of benefits, often surpassing pharmaceutical products. 

A study in Japan on subjects diagnosed with a mild cognitive decline receiving Lion’s Mane mushroom extract at a daily dose of 3 g for 16 weeks found a measurable increase in scores on the cognitive function scale. And amazingly, without adverse effects. [R], [R]

Promotes Nerve Growth Factor and Neuroprotection

Lion's Mane Mushroom extract has an impressive ability preventing and healing damaged nerves. Studies support the claim of Lion’s Mane promotion of neurogenesis. The promotion of neurogenesis is also called neurodevelopment or generation. Neurogenesis results in long-lasting and continuous improvements in brain health (R) (R). In a study by Tohoku University on Lion's Mane and nerve growth states Lion’s Mane has most profound impact on nerve regeneration.

Post digestion, Lion’s Mane distributes through the body – crossing the blood-brain barrier. Then becomes capable of stimulating the generation of enzymes that release the Nerve Growth Factor, and additionally repairing nerve myelin. Those capabilities turn out useful in the cases of Alzheimer’s, dementia, neurodegeneration, muscular weakness, Parkinson’s Disease, and other neurological disorders. (R) (R)

Lion Mane Reduces Anxiety and Symptoms of Depression

Studies show that Lion’s Mane Mushroom benefits depression as well as anxiety symptoms after several weeks of supplementation. In a clinical trial where thirty women have been receiving Lion's Mane for four weeks versus women receiving placebo, it concluded that lion's mane intake indeed reduces depression and anxiety. (R), (R)

Reduces Inflammation, Boosts Immune System, Supports Healthy Digestion

Due to its potent anti-inflammatory properties, lion’s mane mushroom might improve the function of your stomach and digestive system. In many studies, lion’s mane mushroom has been shown to protect from or shrink gastric ulcers. Moreover, according to a survey by the Mushroom Research Centre at the University of Malaya, experts from the field concluded that the bioactive compounds in lion’s mane extract are responsible for the gastroprotective action. (R)

Another research from China published in the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms verifies that “results indicate that polysaccharide fraction is the active component of the H. erinaceus mycelium culture, which protects against gastric ulcers.”

Lion’s mane also significantly improve symptoms of two major inflammatory disorders of the digestive system; inflammatory bowel disease, and gastritis. Another study in Japan found that lion’s mane was able to reduce inflammation in fatty tissue, the factor in the formation of metabolic syndrome, a group of conditions that increase the risk of heart diseases, strokes, and diabetes. (R)

Lion’s mane can improve immune system function like the polysaccharide content in the fungus according to mice studies. [R]

Lion’s mane additional benefits is its antibacterial effects against what is now known to be “the world's most successful virus in human history.” (R, R)

Supports Heart and Circulatory System Health and Prevents Strokes

Experiments observed that extracts of lion’s mane block the spread of LDL cholesterol, sometimes referred to as the “bad” cholesterol, while simultaneously raising HDL, the good cholesterol. (R, R)

A stroke, which happens as a result of lack of sufficient blood supply to the brain, is often caused by blood clots. An extract of lion’s mane mushroom may be useful in the prevention of blood clots accumulate. Thereby helping decrease the risk of stroke, according to a study by the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Japan. (R)

Improves Mental Health and Overall Well-Being

Lion’s mane helps feeling better by improving sleep rhythm and reducing the effects of mental health issues. The powerful extracts from the mushroom have been shown to combat fatigue (R).  They also possess the ability to regulate the body's circadian rhythms, which is especially important for people at risk of developing dementia. (R)

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Lion's Mane Mushroom Work?

Lion’s Mane mechanism of action is completely different from other nootropics. Lion’s Mane enhances cognition by increasing the amount of nerve growth factor in the brain (NGF). Nerve growth factor is one of a group of molecules named neurotrophins that are essential for the growth, development, maintenance, and survival of neurons.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)

A discovery in the 1980s that led Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini to win a Nobel Prize – NGF is confirmed to be one of the primary building blocks of neuroplasticity. The presence of sufficient NGF improves cognition by stimulating growth as well as axons branching. Inadequate NGF, on the other hand, decreases brain functionality by leading to neuronal degeneration and eventually, the death of nerve cells. The more axons existing, and the better health they possess, the more efficiently impulses are transmitting. The more efficiently impulses are transmitting; the better cognition and overall brain function are.


Another way in which NGF enhances cognition is by promoting myelination. Myelin works much like an electrical insulator, raising the speed which impulses progress onward the axons by increasing the electrical resistance of neural cell walls. Furthermore it inhibits the pulse from dissipating the axon. Myelination lays the groundwork for the restoration and regrowth of damaged axons, providing a track along which regrowth occurs. This activity is a crucial process in preserving the brain from the ravages of aging and is useful in the treatment of neurological complications. Some of which are multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders including depression, schizophrenia, dementia, as well as autism and Alzheimer’s disease.

Ongoing research hint that NGF production stimulated by Lion’s Mane may have anti-anxiety and mood enhancing effects. Furthermore, it could also facilitate weight-loss by improving metabolism.

[Related: Paul Stamet’s Niacin & Lion’s Mane Nootropic Stack Improved My Cognition & Jiu Jitsu Performance]

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How To Take Lion Mane Mushroom?

The lowest effective dosage is 500 mg and the limit per day is 3000 mg. However, higher doses don't necessarily result in more benefits. A 1000 mg dosage once or twice a day is what I find the most beneficial for my needs.

I remember coming across posts on Reddit r/Nootropics where people were going really, really next level megadosing this. None of which reported anything more than a “slight” psychostimulant effect though – I am going to try to find that thread.

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Side Effects

What Are Lion's Mane Mushroom Side Effects?

There are barely any side effects that arise from taking Lion’s Mane. The most common side effect is an itchy skin which is likely due to the increase in Nerve Growth Factor. It most likely is the cause and could be a good sign that NGF levels are increasing.

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Lion's Mane is an exceptional, one of a kind,  organic nootropic that has many health benefits; additional to its nootropic ones. Research and clinical trials support its wide variety of perks. It's a nootropic to consider if you are looking for profound benefits to memory, cognition, detoxification, physical, and brain function. It is one of the few nootropics I have been continuously refilling from the very first use.

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User Experience

An on-going Lion's Mane Mushroom experience thread by Reddit users:

After reading about its memory and nervous system injury healing properties, I figured I'd give it a try. I simply purchased a bottle and take two after putting food in my stomach. Previously I had spent a year on adderall and endured more physical anxiety than I should have had to. I do feel more…evened out, if that makes sense. Less on edge and less anxious than I'd ordinarily be. Still on the lookout for other effects, and still willing to accept it could all be a placebo, but I'm remaining curious.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How do we get the benefits of dried Lion's Mane Mushroom without tasting the bitter water?

In most cultures other than the US, bitter is an acceptable flavor, and nutritionally acceptable. You can explore other cuisines where the line between medicine and food are more blurred. TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) frequently uses bitter herbs/mushrooms/etc in a soup, with other ingredients to balance the flavors. In Asian medicine, mushrooms are consumed as food, and as teas, as well as extracts. You could use the mushrooms in a soup where the broth contains the water used for rehydration, you can boil the mushrooms to make a tea or extract and add flavourings to those.

Is Lion's Mane Mushroom sattvic?

Satvik is a living term. This changes according to the situations and purposes. Satvik is something that is pure in purpose. All mushrooms grow in a decaying substrate. They grow in places devoid of sunlight. They are scavenger in nature and feed off the dead substrate. They are normally heavy to digest, cold in nature and increase Kapha according to Charak Samhita. I personally believe that mushroom is not exactly satvik in nature as they grow in a decaying medium. However, as said before, satvik is a contextual term. Satva guna is a state of mind. Basically, food that is earned through pure and righteous means, in a non-violent way, the food that does not cause distress or disgust to anyone and endows not only health but bliss to the soul, mind, and body, is called satvik.

It is important to sustain human life at any cost because human life is the only entrance to the state of salvation. Therefore, any food that helps to sustain life for the evolution of the soul is considered satvik. For example, if there is nothing else to eat, in an area with a sparse availability of vegetables, fruits, and grains, in that case even non-vegetarian food(considered rajasic) can be consumed and will not affect the satvik state of mind. But even vegetarian food that is foul smelling, stale, cooked or earned with an unhappy mind, and unappealing to the tongue is not satvik. Mushroom has a natural tendency to trigger susceptibility towards rhinitis and cause other Kapha related problems. Anything that has a natural tendency to cause harm is not considered satvik. For this reason, also, I think that they should be consumed only when other vegetables are not available or affordable; or consumed once in a while. Otherwise, it is not satvik.

Does eating Lions Mane Mushrooms reverse Alzheimer's?

Lion's Mane promotes NGF which has in test tube experiment generated 60% neurite outgrowth. It human experiments it has notably diminished mild cognitive impairment, the precursor of Alzheimer's dementia. It reduces amyloid-beta production, which form plaques toxic to healthy neurons, due to its anti-inflammatory properties. So far, there are no cures for Alzheimer's disease. Prevention is multifold: a life-style of regular adequate sleep (brain repair time includes clearing debris), both aerobic and weight-bearing exercise (promotes mitochondria synthesis and efficiency), and ideally intermittent fasting (promotes autophagy – the process where cells of the body are forced to use cellular scraps for synthesis of what is needed). Autophagy strategy is extremely effective for long-lived health. As an aside, B12 deficiency can cause dementia as well and can compound vulnerability to Alzheimer's.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Bacopa Monnieri, Melatonin, Ashwagandha
  2. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ
  3. 6 Best Natural Nootropics

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