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Summary: Coenzyme Q10 (often called CoQ10) is a vitamin-like substance used in the treatment of a variety of disorders primarily related to cellular energy production, metabolism, and oxidative injury. Research shows coenzyme Q10 to be most promising for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and certain encephalomyopathies for which coenzyme Q10 has gained a high popularity.


What is CoEnzyme Q10?

Coenzyme Q10 (2,3 dimethoxy-5 methyl-6-decaprenyl benzoquinone) is a fat-soluble, vitamin-like quinone commonly known as ubiquinone, CoQ, and vitamin Q10. It is available in more than 100 single-ingredient and combination-ingredient products, and in 2002 it accounted for more than $200 million in sales in the United States. [R]

Coenzyme Q10 was first isolated in 1957 in beef mitochondria, and is found in highest concentrations in tissues with high energy turnover such as the heart, brain, liver, and kidney.

CoQ10 is a ubiquitous compound vital to a number of activities related to energy metabolism.

Because dysfunctional energy metabolism has been cited as a contributing factor for a number of conditions, coenzyme Q10 has been indicated in the treatment of cardiac, neurologic, oncologic, and immunologic disorders.

Although the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 does not allow claims for treatment of specific diseases in the United States, coenzyme Q10 has been cleared for treatment indications in other countries, such as for congestive heart failure (CHF) in Japan since 1974.

“Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10) is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). It is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail.

This fat-soluble substance, which resembles a vitamin, is present in all respiring eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, which generates energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body’s energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements, such as the heart, liver, and kidney, have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.

There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol). The capacity of this molecule to act as a two-electron carrier (moving between the quinone and quinol form) and a one-electron carrier (moving between the semiquinone and one of these other forms) is central to its role in the electron transport chain due to the iron–sulfur clusters that can only accept one electron at a time, and as a free-radical–scavenging antioxidant.” – Wikipedia

From Nootropics Depot:

Coenzyme Q10 (also known as CoQ10) is, as the name suggests, a coenzyme. CoQ10, via its action as a coenzyme, can drive many cellular processes throughout our bodies. Although not classified as a vitamin, CoQ10 closely resembles the structure of vitamin K and it appears that CoQ10 benefits resemble vitamin-like effects. This also hints at an important aspect of CoQ10: it is essential for overall human health. Without CoQ10, many bodily functions would may not work properly. Luckily our bodies are fairly good at preserving CoQ10, and CoQ10 deficiencies are rare. That said, taking a CoQ10 supplement still may have some remarkable effects on overall health.

Supplementing with extra Coenzyme Q10, alongside a healthy diet, may produce the following CoQ10 benefits:

  1. Coenzyme Q10 can support our cardiovascular health
  2. Coenzyme Q10 can support our metabolic function
  3. Coenzyme Q10 can promote our cognitive function
  4. Coenzyme Q10 can support brain health via its neuroprotective effects

A large majority of these CoQ10 benefits are attributed to how CoQ10 helps the body produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a very important molecule which drives most biological processes in the body. CoQ10 is also known as a redox molecule, which allows it to transfer between fully oxidized and fully reduced states. Through its redox actions, CoQ10 can help power our cells while also helping protect them from oxidative stress. This all sounds great on paper, right? However, CoQ10 in its crystalline form is faced with some major issues and may not be able to produce all of the CoQ10 benefits mentioned above.

Benefits & Effects

What Are The CoQ10 Benefits?

  1. Enhances and Sharpens Mental Capabilities
  2. Boosts Energy and Reduces Fatigue
  3. Boosts Mitochondrial Health & Function
  4. Reduces Stress and Free Radicals Damage
  5. Supports Fertility
  6. Combats Statin Drug Side Effects
  7. Cancer Prevention Potential
  8. Powerful Antioxidant & Neuroprotectant
  9. Protects Blood Vessels and Enhances Blood Flow

Supporting research:

Enhances and Sharpens Mental Capabilities

Coenzyme Q10 may also present significant benefits to your cognition. Studies found that individuals with higher levels of CoQ10 showed greater mental sharpness, increased mental energy, and greater performance on a variety of mental tests. In contrast, those with lower levels of Coenzyme Q10 had greater difficulty concentrating, experienced brain fog, were slower in their mental processing, and showed general cognitive decline. Some researchers suggest that taking Coenzyme Q10 early enough may decrease your chances of suffering memory loss as a result of aging.

Boosts Energy and Reduces Fatigue

Some studies also show that Coenzyme Q10 may help to reduce physical fatigue, increase energy, improve exercise capacity, and expedite recovery from exercise.

Boosts Mitochondrial Health & Function

In studies of eight to 44 patients, Coenzyme Q10 demonstrated positive trends in reducing symptoms associated with selected mitochondrial abnormalities including the mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, and the myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRhF) syndrome. [R]

Reduces Stress and Free Radicals Damage

Oxidative damage (or free radical damage) of cell structures plays an important role in the functional declines that accompany aging and cause disease. As both a water- and fat-soluble antioxidant, CoQ10 has been found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, which occurs when cell membranes and low-density lipoproteins are exposed to oxidizing conditions that enter from outside the body. [R]

Supports Fertility

The antioxidant properties of CoQ10 could help improve sperm quality and reduce the decline in the number and quality of eggs in women. Supplementing with CoQ10 seems to help and may even reverse this age-related decline in egg quality and quantity.

Female fertility decreases with age due to a decline in the number and quality of available eggs. CoQ10 is directly involved in this process. As you age, CoQ10 production slows, making the body less effective at protecting the eggs from oxidative damage. [R]

Combats Statin Drug Side Effects

Statins are drugs that help lower cholesterol but often come along with a host of side effects.

Patients suffering from statin-related muscle pain, muscle strength degradation, and decreased aerobic activity can increase performance through daily intake of CoQ10 without other symptoms.

“Statin drugs can induce rhabdomyolysis (muscle death) which release rhabdomyosarcoma cells into the bloodstream, degrading other tissues. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells treated with a CoQ10 supplement alongside simvastatin reversed muscle death and killed off remaining sarcoma cells.” [R]

Cancer Prevention Potential

Low levels of CoQ10 have been associated with up to a 53.3% higher risk of cancer and indicate a poor prognosis for various types of cancer [R]

CoQ10 plays a critical role in the protection of cell DNA and cell survival, both of which are strongly linked to cancer prevention and recurrence.

Powerful Antioxidant & Neuroprotectant

Antioxidants are necessary for neutralizing harmful compounds known as free radicals, which are created when cells undergo oxidation. Free radicals can promote cell death, mutate DNA, and damage cell membranes. CoQ10 may help to eliminate free radicals and prevent the damage they can cause. Some studies even suggest that CoQ10 may recharge other antioxidant compounds and nutrients.

Within mitochondria, coenzyme Q10 has been found to protect membrane proteins and DNA from the oxidative damage that accompanies lipid peroxidation and neutralize free radicals directly that contribute to nearly all age-related diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, neurological disease, etc.). [R]

Protects Blood Vessels and Enhances Blood Flow

According to Nootropics Depot, one of the most popular companies that manufactures nootropics, CoQ10 can protect your blood vessels and enhance your blood flow. This is partly caused by preservation of nitric oxide, a signaling molecule that relaxes the arteries. This may improve overall circulation and cardiovascular health.

COQ10 can reduce the damage oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) can do to blood vessels, as well as reduce plaque buildup in the arteries.

Mechanism of Action

How Does CoQ10 Work?

Coenzyme Q10 is vital for the proper transfer of electrons within the mitochondrial oxidative respiratory chain, whose main function is adenosine triphosphate production. Coenzyme Q10 also appears to increase adenosine triphosphate levels by preventing the loss of the adenine nucleotide pool from cardiac cells.4 Additionally, coenzyme Q10 has demonstrated activity in preventing lipid peroxidation as an antioxidant scavenger and an indirect stabilizer of calcium channels to decrease calcium overload.

Much of the basic research in support of coenzyme Q10 supplementation has focused on the CHF model. The myocardium of patients with CHF demonstrates increased oxidative stress as well as decreased concentrations of coenzyme Q10 as confirmed by tissue assays.8 These levels appear to correlate with CHF severity in the animal and human model, with coenzyme Q10 supplementation protecting against ischemia and reperfusion injury in animal studies.

Ubiquinol vs. Ubiquinone

Coenzyme Q10 can occur in multiple different forms in the body, and the two most abundant forms are oxidized CoQ10 (ubiquinone) and reduced CoQ10 (ubiquinol). Many people tend to prefer ubiquinol, due to its oxidation reducing effects in the body. However, due to this, the lesser desired ubiquinone often times gets overlooked. This is a shame because it actually has some very unique effects! Ubiquinone plays a major role in the electron transport chain, acting as a shuttle for cellular energy. Due to the fact that ubiquinone CoQ10 is hydrophobic and lipophilic, it can freely move between hydrophobic regions in the inner membranes of mitochondrion. It moves by way of passive diffusion, so no energy is needed to move CoQ10 around in the mitochondrion.

Ubiquinone stores energy temporarily, and is able to move it through the electron transport chain. It does this by attaching an electron to its benzoquinone head. It can accept electrons from various different systems, such as NADH-Q reductase. Ubiquinone transports these electrons from complex I and complex II of the electron transport chain, to complex III of the electron transport chain. While it does this, it also transports protons, which generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. As these protons flow back across the inner mitochondrial membrane, it directly helps form adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is in addition to ubiquinone already enhancing ATP synthesis by transporting electrons throughout the electron transport chain.

Nootropics Depot

What Does Ubiquinol Do?

As mentioned earlier, many people appear to prefer the fully reduced form of Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinol. Why is this the case? In the body, and especially in mitochondrion, ubiquinol benefits are focused on directly reducing oxidation. This is highly important in mitochondrion as their high activity results in large amounts of oxidative stress. By supplementing with ubiquinol CoQ10, it is possible to directly reduce oxidation in targeted areas such as the mitochondrion. These ubiquinol benefits make it highly attractive to consumers, and for good reason, as these oxidation reducing ubiquinol benefits are very desirable! That being said, you do not necessarily have to directly supplement with ubiquinol in order to utilize ubiquinol benefits. This is due to the fact that ubiquinone actually turns into ubiquinol as it travels through the electron transport chain. In the electron transport chain, CoQ10 exists in three forms: ubiquinone, semiquinone and ubiquinol. Ubiquinone is the fully oxidized form, and when it picks up a proton, it turns into the partially reduced form, semiquinone. Semiquinone is a highly unstable compound which is quickly further reduced to ubiquinol by picking up another proton. Ubiquinol may then act as an antioxidant in the mitochondria. However, when ubiquinol interacts with an oxidant, it becomes oxidized and loses a proton. This turns ubiquinol back into semiquinone. Semiquinone then also becomes oxidized and now we are back at the fully oxidized form of CoQ10: ubiquinone. This means that by either supplementing with ubiquinone or ubiquinol, you will reap similar benefits. That being said, supplementation of ubiquinone may act more rapidly to produce ATP whereas supplementation with ubiquinol may act more rapidly to control oxidative stress in the mitochondria. – ND


How To Take CoQ10?

The standard dose for CoQ10 is generally 90mg for a low dose and 200mg for the higher dose, taken once daily with a meal due to its reliance on food for absorption.

There generally isn’t too much of a therapeutic effect of CoQ10 supplementation (mostly taken with the ‘just in case’ mentality that pervades multivitamin supplementation), although for people who have previously experience a heart attack or damage to cardiac tissue as well as for people on statin therapy supplementation becomes much more important. CoQ10 supplements can be either the oxidized form (ubiquinone) or reduced form (ubiquinol) as both forms seem pretty equally potent in increasing circulating levels of total CoQ10 in the body. ‘Total CoQ10’ refers to the sum of both forms, since CoQ10 can readily swap between forms as it acts in the body. –

Frequently Asked Questions

What is CoQ10?

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural antioxidant synthesized by the body, found in many foods, and available as a supplement. It comes in two forms: ubiquinol, the active antioxidant form, and ubiquinone, the oxidized form, which the body partially converts to ubiquinol. Many multi-ingredient supplements contain both forms of CoQ10. In general, coenzymes support enzymes in their various biochemical functions. CoQ10 is a vital participant in the chain of metabolic chemical reactions that generate energy within cells. It is found in every cell of the body (the name ubiquinone stems from its ubiquity), but is present in higher concentrations in organs with higher energy requirements such as the kidneys, liver, and heart. Many medical studies demonstrate CoQ10 benefits when taken as a supplement, most of which stem from its vital role in oxygen utilization and energy production, particularly in heart muscle cells.

Why is CoQ10 necessary?

Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for heart health in many ways. It assists in maintaining the normal oxidative state of LDL cholesterol, helps assure circulatory health, and supports optimal functioning of the heart muscle. CoQ10 may also help support the health of vessel walls. In addition, Coenzyme Q10 may play a role in reducing the number and severity of migraine headaches, and improving sperm motility in men. Some research has indicated therapeutic value in high doses to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease, but a 2011 study by the National Institute for Neurological Disease and Stroke found no benefit in slowing symptoms or neural degeneration. A few small clinical trials have indicated CoQ10 supplementation may help prevent and treat inflamed gums, a condition known as gingivitis.

What are the signs of a Coenzyme Q10 deficiency?

Studies in both animals and humans have associated significantly decreased levels of CoQ10 with a wide variety of diseases. Since this enzyme is found in high concentration in heart muscle cells, deficiency has been associated with cardiovascular problems including angina, arrhythmia, heart failure and high blood pressure. Problems with blood sugar regulation, gingival (gum) health, and stomach ulcers have also been associated with CoQ10 deficiency. Those who are taking statins to lower cholesterol are at particular risk for deficiency, because not only do statins reduce cholesterol levels, but they also block CoQ10 synthesis in the body. Low CoQ10 levels in patients on statins can contribute to the common side effects of statin therapy such as fatigue and aching joints and muscles.

How much, and what kind of Coenzyme Q10, does an adult need?

There is no official Daily Value recommendation, but its suggested at least 90 to 120 mg of supplemental CoQ10 for any adult taking statin medications and for those with a family history of heart problems, or who is at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This dosage is also appropriate for otherwise healthy men and women as a preventive measure and to help maintain a healthy cardiovascular system. CoQ10 is fat-soluble, so take the supplement with a meal containing fat. Seek out the soft-gel ubiquinol form when taking CoQ10 as a standalone supplement, as this has greater antioxidant efficiency than the ubiquinone form.

Is COQ10 harmful?

Of course not! The coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is vital for human metabolism, and is best known for its roles in glucose and fatty acid conversion to ATP, the form of energy used to power most body functions and as a powerful antioxidant in cells, inhibiting lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, DNA and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Studies show that when taken daily, CoQ10 supplements are capable of significantly reducing oxidative damage. Also note that CoQ10’s levels in skin decline with age, which may also make your skin more susceptible to oxidative damage. The key thing that impacts the effectiveness of CoQ10 supplements is that many of them have relatively poor bioavailability due to limited solubility. Thus, it is helpful to go for solubilized forms of CoQ10 which allow for 90-100 percent of dissolution, and which have been improved absorption.

What is Choline?Best Choline SourcesFoods High in Choline

Summary: Choline is an essential nutrient, and the precursor for neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine interacts directly with many functions such as the liver, brain, and nerve functions. It further extends to muscle control, energy level, as well as the metabolic process.


What is Choline?

Choline is an essential nutrient crucial for liver, brain, and nerve functions. It is also important for muscle motion and energy levels, as well as the metabolic process. It exists as phosphatidylcholine, a substance that comprises the structural part of the fat, hence discoverable in many types of foods. Naturally consisting of particular fats.

Choline – (also known as choline bitartrate, and trimethylethanolamine) is an essential nutrient. It is crucial for liver, brain, and nerve function. As well as muscle motion, energy levels and the metabolic process. It exists as phosphatidylcholine, a substance that comprises the structural part of the fat, hence discoverable in many types of foods. Naturally consisting of particular fats. 

Choline plays a major role in crucial procedures within the body. Mots of which perform multiple times a day. It is a water-soluble nutrient that belongs to other vitamins, such as folate and those in the B vitamin complex household. Much like B vitamins, choline plays a comparable function in regards to supporting energy and brain function, along with keeping the metabolic process active.When Does Supplementing with Choline Becomes Necessary?

Choline assists in the procedure of methylation, which is utilized to produce DNA, for nerve signaling, and detoxing. It’s also essential for performance of a critical neurotransmitter: acetylcholine.
Acetylcholine also assists nerves in interaction as well as functioning as an anti-aging neurotransmitter. It carries out other fundamental functions. Neither a mineral nor a vitamin, Choline is rather an ‘essential nutrient’, required for many of the body’s functions. And particularly for brain function.
While at this time there isn’t a Recommended Daily Intake for Choline developed by the USDA, it’s crucial to prevent a choline-deficiency. Lack of which is explained further on in the article.

What is the Recommended Daily Intake of Choline?

The Recommended Daily Intake ranges between 280 to 550 mg depending on a number of factors as shown in the table below

Infants (under 1): 125 – 150 mg
Children (1-8): 150 – 250 mg
Kids (8-13): 250 – 375 mg
Girls (14 & over): 425–550 mg
Guys (14 & over): 500 – 550 mg
Pregnant: 450 – 550 mg
Breastfeeding: 500 – 550 mg

What Are The Best Sources of Choline?

Choline is naturally found in foods such as eggs, liver, beef, salmon, cauliflower, Brussel sprouts, and breast milk. Eggs are in some cases called “brain food” because they are known for providing high quantities of choline. The following is some of the foods high in choline, providing high levels of choline naturally, in addition to lots of other nutrients. All portions listed are based upon the advised quantity of 550 mg daily. Choline foods list below

What foods are high in Choline?

Beef Liver: 3 ounces: 283 mg (51% DV)
Salmon: 1 filet: 242 mg (44% DV)
Chickpeas: 1 cup raw: 198 mg (36% DV)
Split Peas: 1 cup raw: 188 mg (34% DV)
Navy Beans: 1 cup raw: 181 mg (32% DV)
Eggs: 1 big egg: 147 mg (27% DV)
Grass-Fed Beef: 3 ounces: 78 mg (14% DV)
Turkey: 3 ounces: 57 mg (10% DV)
Chicken Breast: 3 ounces: 50 mg (9% DV)
Cauliflower: 1 cup raw: 47 mg (8% DV)
Goat Milk: 1 cup: 39 mg (7% DV)
Brussel Sprouts: 1 cup raw: 17 mg (3% DV)

Benefits & Effects

What Are Choline Benefits?

  1. Central Nervous System Support
  2. Neuroprotective Against Cognitive Degeneration
  3. Improves Cognitive Function, Attention and Mood
  4. Improves Memory
  5. Helps Schizophrenia, Bipolar, and Autism
  6. Increases Energy, Athletic Performance and Power Output, and Speeds up Recovery

Supporting research:

Central Nervous System Support

Choline helps form tissue within the nervous system that plays a part in brain development and growth. It can improve signaling capacity of nerves, support structural integrity, and protect vital neuronal membranes. [R]

Neuroprotective Against Cognitive Degeneration

Another advantage of choline is its capability to keep your mind mentally sharp as you age.

Since it belongs to cell membranes and neurotransmitters that utilizes nerve signaling, choline also contributes to memory perseverance and preventing dementia, amnesia and other cognitive degeneration conditions.

As we age, our brain become less flexible. Choline does a crucial task here. It preserves brain flexibility by working to maintain levels of acetylcholine, which naturally decrease in the process of aging. Some studies suggest low levels of acetylcholine might cause a cognitive decline, that being inclusive of Alzheimer’s and dementia. [R]

Clients who develop Alzheimer’s often show a deficiency in acetylcholine levels. Some medications prescribed to manage Alzheimer’s do so by simulate choline’s impact of increasing this neurotransmitter’s levels. [R]

Choline Improves Cognitive Function, Attention and Mood

Acetylcholine is vital for brain function. Cognitive decline is often due to lack of sufficient acetylcholine levels within the brain. [R]

In 1391 individuals, greater choline consumption associated with better cognitive efficiency in spoken as well as visual memory. [R]

One research study reveals that subjects taking CDP-choline + caffeine drinks had measurable enhancement in cognitive capabilities [R]

Sixty healthy adult females aged 40– 60 who took CDP-choline for 28 days notice improving attention [R]

This elevating effect is explainable by the additional choline present, which increases attentiveness and promotes clarity. It’s also a link to its production of human growth hormone, which provides energizing, longevity effects. [R] In combination with other nootropics, it offers adequate choline to achieve optimal cognitive enhancement effects, and it prevents the minor headaches often associates use of Piracetam and pretty much all its derivatives.

Choline Improves Memory

The best recognition of it goes to its capacity in improving memory. This effect is mainly due to the increase of choline it makes available for conversion to acetylcholine, which is profoundly correlating with cognitive functions and the ability to create and revive memories. Studies confirm its efficacy as treatment for memory impairment due to aging; including Alzheimer’s and dementia.

It has further proven to be capable of recovering memory in volunteers following brief chemically-induced amnesia. [R1, R2, R3]

Choline May Help Schizophrenia, Bipolar, and Autism

Schizophrenia and autism developed due to genetic predispositions may also be avoided by prenatal choline supplements [R]

In rats, it was found that prenatal choline supplements can help reduce the likelihood of at-risk subjects developing these disorders later on in life [R]

In a study performed on subjects with Schizophrenia, subjects taking CDP-choline showed improved cognition and working memory after treatment [R]

A few studies have shown that choline could help treat bipolar disorder and may be a useful complement to pharmaceutical interventions [R]

Increases Energy, Athletic Performance and Power Output, and Speeds up Recovery

Because it stimulates the production of human growth hormone (HGH), Alpha-GPC is valuable for individuals looking to perform better, increase lean muscle mass, feel peak energy during workouts and recover quickly afterward. A pilot study shows that 600 mg of Alpha-GPC taken 90 minutes before bench pressing increases power output by 14%. [R1, 2, 3]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Choline Work?

Choline structure

Citicoline restores and repairs neuronal damage, increases dopamine levels in the central nervous system, as well as enhances production of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is especially important for those using racetams.

After ingestion, it breaks down into choline, and cytidine. After which it flows throughout the body and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. The cytidine then converts into uridine; a nucleotide base essential to neural membrane synthesis. The choline release is cholinergic, increasing levels of choline within the brain.

Choline is a precursor to acetylcholine and vital to most cognitive functions. In particular to the ones relating to memory and learning.

Racetams are acetylcholine agonists compounds . They increase production and release of acetylcholine. When sufficient choline is available, it creates notable cognitive improvements such as memory improvement and heighten focus. Additionally, it prevents racetam headaches.

On Acetylcholine

It is a fundamental associate of many cognitive functions including memory formation, learning capacity, and attention. By stimulating the production of acetylcholine, it acts as a neuroprotectant; maintaining neuronal health and preventing potential damage. [R] [R]

On Dopamine

Oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can also be dopaminergic, by increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors. It also has involvement in increasing brain serotonin concentrations following oral administration. [R]


How To Take Choline?

Alpha-GPC digests and absorbs smoothly and is gentle on the stomach taken at the typical dose of 300mg. Although many nootropists tend to prefer a dose of 600mg, with a total daily intake ranging from 300 to 1200 mg, either at once or split into two doses.

Personally I find 300mg is effective enough especially because I almost always take it as part of a stack. Frequently with Aniracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Coluracetam, or Noopept. On the few occasions where I took it on its own, I still felt very at ease and eager to produce, learn, move.

As with any other nootropic, start with the lowest effective dose and build up gradually as desired.

Side Effects

What Are The Side Effects of Choline?

Some side effects rarely occur, such as headaches, fatigue, nervousness, nausea, diarrhea and gastrointestinal distress. It may rarely induce dizziness and low blood pressure in some individuals.

Personally never experienced any side effects from its use. But I’ve never taken more than 300mg in one dose (Alpha-GPC) and never more than 600mg in a 24-hours frame.


Choline is an excellent memory enhancing and focus amplifying nootropic that can be (and should be) added to almost any stack. Using it on its own is effective enough for that mild stimulation and to fire your focus. Then pair it with a racetam, and the effects of both are amplified to an amazing extent.

Furthermore, it provides neuroprotection. That is something anyone can benefit from due to many reasons. Such as environmental changes and the accumulation of oxidative stress in today’s world. It is very well tolerated and safe — there are no reports of serious adverse effects (on CDP-choline), and enlighten me if I’m wrong.

Moreover, its an approved medical treatment in Europe for a number of conditions relating to cognitive impairment, Ischemic Stroke, to mention a few.

Choline nootropics are affordable and easily accessible. Alpha-GPC is supposedly the most expensive out of the choline supplements. I’ve used both that and CDP-choline, both of which had identical effects. As a matter of fact, only now I started realizing that I might have been feeling citicoline more profoundly than I tend to feel Alpha-GPC. (I prefer it generally because it adds so much convenience to my life, when getting it along with a bunch of preformulated good mix in MindLab Pro.

It is worth buying for anyone looking after cognition boost and overall brain health. But especially worth it for those using multiple nootropics at a time, including racetams. Personally, at this point, I would not even bother taking a racetam if I don’t have a choline source to pair it with.

Further and Related Readings

Alpha-GPC, Citicoline (CDP-choline)

Aniracetam, Piracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Oxiracetam, Fasoracetam, Coluracetam, Sunifiram, Noopept.

The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide Effects

Summary: Vinpocetine is a neuroprotective nootropic, an extraction from flower-plant vinca minor. It works as a cognitive enhancer, memory booster, while also uplifting mood and supporting overall well-being.

Vinpocetine benefits
Vinpocetine Skeletal Structure


What is Vinpocetine?

Vinpocetine (aka Cavinton, Intelctol), is an extract from flowering plant vinca minor (or myrtle); a flower-family native to Portugal, France, and other parts of central and southern Europe. A 1975 discovery by Hungarian chemist named Csaba Szantay. Only three years after the invention, production of the extract in pill form started. Some of the primary uses of Vinpocetine as a nootropic are memory and cognition improvement, increasing learning capacity, and mood enhancement. Medical applications extend to the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, dementia, and strokes. It is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. Its excellent safety profile is inspiring more companies to study and research Vinpocetine to explore other possible therapeutic and nootropic benefits. Although less popular comparing to other nootropics, the research as well as the knowledge of it is rapidly growing

Benefits & Effects

What Are Vinpocetine Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory and Cognition
  2. Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow
  3. Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention
  4. Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being
  5. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory

Supporting research:

Vinpocetine Improves Memory and Cognition

Vinpocetine is widely in use for memory improvement. In Eastern Europe, it is a medical prescription for treating memory-related problems and disorders. Clinical trials confirm its effect on improving memory formation, and individuals receiving Vinpocetine report it’s beneficial especially in remembering and recalling information. Other studies also confirm it as a memory enhancer that can be used by anyone looking to improve their memory. (R)

Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow

Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and supports better blood circulation without having adverse effects on blood pressure. The better blood flow and circulation leads to an increase in productivity within the brain. This productivity increases and allows for better focus and concentration, as well as allowing for longer and steady attention span. Take notes, fellow ADHD ADHE’s – (attention-deficit hyperactive extraordinary). (R) (R)

Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention

Vinpocetine improves the body’s ability of converting dietary glucose and fat to ATP, which is the coenzyme that transmits chemical energy for metabolism. Having more ATP ready for use in the brain leads to better intellectual capability, and thereby learning becomes more comfortable and faster. Moreover, the presence of sufficient ATP reduces feelings of mental exhaustion and “brain fog,” as well as supports feelings of mental clarity. (R)

Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being

An increase in overall well-being is a result of a reduction in the rate of cognitive decline. (R) (R)

Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory

Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Vinpocetine Work?

Early studies show that Vinpocetine benefits the brain in many ways, one of which is by improving blood flow, circulation, and utilization of oxygen. Unlike common stimulants, Vinpocetine increases blood flow in the brain without affecting the rest of the body. It targets impaired cells and areas of poor circulation within the brain. Enhancing blood flow, circulation, and oxygenation allows the brain to tolerate conditions of lack of sufficient oxygen (such as ischemia and hypoxia) better. Those conditions can relate to strokes and similar injuries. The elevation of blood flow and oxygenation result the nootropic effect.

Furthermore, improving circulation and oxygenation in the brain also enhances the overall brain function while increasing the production of ATP. All of which are vital for cerebral metabolism. By generating sufficient amounts of ATP, vinpocetine increases the use of glucose thereby improves mental clarity.

Vinpocetine interacts with sodium, calcium, and potassium ion channels within the brain, modulating the release of various neurotransmitters. That includes, but not limited to acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Increasing the availability of those neurotransmitters not only affects memory and overall cognition but may also improve mood by relieving feelings of anxiety and enhancing energy and well-being. Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.


How To Take Vinpocetine?

For general health and prevention purposes, the low dose is 5mg 3x per day at meals and ranges up to 20 mg 3x per day. These doses are for neuroprotection, enhancing cerebral blood flow, and reducing the rate of cognitive decline.

For nootropic purposes, suggestion doses of 30 to 45 mg, 3 times a day, alongside food.

Side Effects

What Are Vinpocetine Side Effects?

Vinpocetine is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. It is also very well tolerated and has no reported adverse effects. New users rarely experience a soft version of caffeine “buzz” that fades away as tolerance to vinpocetine is increased. Keep in mind that increasing the daily dosage to over 40 mg could decrease benefits.


Vinpocetine’s unique mechanisms of action, great cognitive enhancement abilities, and insurance of neuroprotection are leading to increasing attention within the nootropic community. It’s a safe brain-booster that works well with other nootropics, thereby becoming an attractive addition to nootropic stacks. It’s affordable and easily accessible.

If you are interested in further optimizing your brain, enhancing its blood circulation, as well as allowing it to function at maximum productivity; vinpocetine is a nootropic worthy of your consideration.