Fladrafinil (CRL-40,941)

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Overview

“CRL-40,941 (also known as fladrafinil and fluorafinil) is a eugeroic closely related to adrafinil and modafinil. It is the bis(p-fluoro) ring-substituted derivative of adrafinil. CRL-40,941 was found to produce antiaggressive effects in animals, which adrafinil does not produce. It is purportedly 3 – 4 times stronger than adrafinil.”

CRL-40,941, Wikipedia

Fladrafinil, the new Adrafinil replacement, is now the go-to solution for times of low energy levels, lethargy, unproductiveness, or brain fog.

Fladrafinil boosts wakefulness and enhances brain function during working hours. Without causing any crashes after it wears off.

It makes you feel active and sharp in the workplace, even with little (or no) sleep.

Let’s dive into this Fladrafinil review.

What is Fladrafinil?

Fladrafinil (also known as CRL 40 941, Fluorafinil) is a eugeroic nootropic synthesized as the replacement of Adrafinil after it got banned from manufacturing.

According to scientific research, its chemical structure includes a ‘bis (p-fluoro) ring’ – a substituted derivative of Adrafinil, a compound first discovered in the 1970s and patented in France.

Due to its potency, it’s seen wide use by students and individuals looking to improve brain function, memory, energy, and focus.

It’s important to keep in mind that, although it shares the effects of Modafinil and Adrafinil, it still has a few differences.

Studies tell us Fladrafinil increases motivation and have an anti-aggressiveness effect. A quality not many other eugeroics have.

With a much lower dose of the compound, 2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl) methyl sulfinyl]-N-hydroxyacetamide, you may experience a prolonged state of wakefulness and focus, with a rare likelihood of experiencing crashes or other side effects.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Fladrafinil Work?

Fladrafinil effectively mimics the effects of Adrafinil and Modafinil.

It is often used to treat narcolepsy, which Wikipedia defines as “a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep.”

Further to that it adds “people with narcolepsy often find it difficult to stay awake for long periods of time, regardless of the circumstances condition.”

Once ingested, Fladrafinil is metabolized into modafinil and similarly affects the central nervous system.

Benefits and Effects

Fladrafinil (aka Fluorafinil, or CRL-40-941) produces the same cognitive effects, benefits, and experiences as Adrafinil and other stimulating nootropics.

Anecdotal reports emphasize increased attention, focus, and concentration.

Benefits of Fladrafinil (CRL-40,941)

  1. Wakefulness
  2. Alertness
  3. Concentration
  4. Focus
  5. Memory formation and recall
  6. Cognition
  7. Lower aggression
  8. Calmative properties

Although the nootropic has similar effects as several other nootropics, it is advised to be used by people who have little experience with stimulating nootropics. 

Dosage

How to Take Fladrafinil?

Fladrafinil is significantly more potent than Adrafinil.

Therefore, the recommendation is to lower the dose compared to Adrafinil’s.

If it’s your first time, you should limit your dosage to 30 to 80 mg. 

Based on your reaction, you can decide if the dosage is effective for you or a higher dosage may be more beneficial. 

However, do not exceed 200 mg within a single day. 

And be advised that Fladrafinil might have side effects if taken together with other medications or if you have certain medical conditions.

You must do your research before relying on any one source.

Side Effects

As of now, there have been no reported serious medical issues related to taking Fladrafinil.

It is said that Fladrafinil may be an excellent use to counter anxiety, stress, and pain at the recommended dosage and frequency.

The Fladrafinil product has not undergone extensive laboratory research since it is a reasonably new compound.

If you are in doubt, it is best to consult your doctor or medical experts before taking Fladrafinil or any other compound for that matter.

*to be updated

Published

Magnesium Glycinate

Magnesium is a vital mineral used in many biological processes. It is an essential for neuroplasticity and ATP generation, both crucial for learning, memory, and cognitive function.

Magnesium deficiency affects many people in our modern world today.

It is found in green leafy vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains, poultry, steak, and salmon, among other meals. It may be one of the most significant components of any nootropic stack.

Magnesium has an essential role in brain plasticity. Memories fade when these signaling pathways are disrupted. And you begin to forget basic information such as people’s names and phone numbers. Learning and memory are produced by your brain’s ability to build new connections between neurons.

This is how new ideas and memories are produced and how memory and learning are formed. New ideas come effortlessly to a young individual with an active, agile brain. And thinks faster than someone whose brain has lost fluidity and whose patterns have become more set. Ion channels, or electrical switches in the brain, are controlled by magnesium ions.

The stronger the connections between neurons, the more signals these ion channels transmit.

Your brain can not make ATP without magnesium, and all brain function suffers as a result.

Magnesium supplementation can aid with age-related cognitive decline and anyone looking to improve their cognition, learning, recall, and memory. ù “Return to The Daily Debate” On various levels, magnesium is involved in memory, learning, and cognition. Treatment with magnesium-L-threonate reduces beta-amyloid deposits in the brain, according to research. And it can help restore memory by rebuilding signaling pathways in neurons.

DMAE L-Bitartrate

What Is DMAE?

Dimethylaminoethanol or Deanol is a pre-cursor to Acetylc has been found to play a critical role in the formation, as a neurotransmitter, in retaining memory.

Some sources of DMAE include anchovies, as well as naturally present in the brain, as well as sardines and other seafood; the most commonly found dietary sources are fish such as salmon and sardines. The researchers believe that it is not possible to obtain much DMAE by diet, but there is little available through the digestive tract; in that case a person’s diet does not include DMAE, supplementation is recommended. Furthermore, many people are eager to seek out DMAE’s cognitive benefits arez effectiveness, which means more are looking for ways to use DMAE.

DMAE is a compound believed to affect mood, enhance memory, and improve brain function.

It’s also thought to have benefits for aging skin. You may have heard it referred to as Deanol and many other names.

In addition, DMAE is believed to benefit several conditions including:

  • Attention defecit hyperactivit disorder (ADHD
  • Depresion
  • Dementia

DMAE is produced in the body and works by increasing the production of acetylcholine (Ach), a neurotransmitter that’s crucial for helping nerve cells send signals.

Ach helps regulate many functions controlled by the brain, including REM sleep, muscle contractions, and pain responses.

DMAE may also help prevent the buildup of a substance called beta-amyloid in the brain. Too much beta-amyloid has been linked to age-related decline and memory loss.

DMAE’s impact on Ach production and beta-amyloid buildup may benefit brain health, especially as we age.

Benefits

What Are DMAE’s Benefits?

Supports Mood and Wellbeing

Anecdotal evidence indicates that DMAE may reduce memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

Enhances Athletic Performance and Boosts Energy

Anecdotal evidence claims DMAE may help improve athletic ability when coupled with other vitamins and supplements.

Supports Mood and Overall Wellbeing

It is believed that DMAE may help enhance mood and improve depression. 

A study in 1977 on people who had aging-related cognitive decline found that DMAE reduced depression, anxiety, and irritability. It also found that DMAE helped increase motivation and initiative.

Reduces Hyperactivity

Studies on children done during the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s found evidence that DMAE helped reduce hyperactivity, calmed children, and helped them focus in school.

Promotes longevity, skin health, and prevents wrinkles

A randomized clinical study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology found that a facial gel containing 3 percent DMAE was beneficial for reducing fine lines around the eyes and on the forehead when used for 16 weeks. The study also found it improved lip shape and fullness and the appearance of aging skin. A small study done on humans and mice suggested DMAE may hydrate skin and improve skin appearance.

Side Effects

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), when taken in high doses, inhaled, or used, DMAE has been associated with several potential risks, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These include:

  • skin irritation, such as redness and swelling
  • muscle twitching
  • insomnia
  • sneezing, coughing, and wheezing
  • severe eye irritation
  • convulsion (but this is a slight risk for people susceptible to it)

People taking certain medications shouldn’t take DMAE.

Conclusion

DMAE may have some benefits for skin, hyperactivity, mood, thinking ability, and memory.

Before taking DMAE, talk to your doctor about other medications you use.

Don’t take DMAE if you’re pregnant or might become pregnant.

Published

Lemon Balm

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Lemon balm, balm, common balm, or balm mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, and Central Asia, but now naturalized in the Americas and elsewhere. It grows to a maximum height of 70–150 cm.

 Wikipedia

Overview

What is Lemon Balm?

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a lemon-scented herb of the same family as mint.

The herb is native to Europe, North Africa, and West Asia but has spread worldwide.

Lemon balm improves mood and cognitive function and helps to relieve stress.

It soothes the symptoms of stress, helps you relax, and promotes healthier, happier moods.

A 2004 study found that taking lemon balm relieves the adverse mood effects of psychological stress — participants who took lemon balm reported an increased sense of calmness and a decreased sense of alertness.

What is Lemon Balm Extract?

Lemon balm extract is a concentrated form of the plant melissa officinalis. It is found all around the world and offers a lot of potential benefits.

Lemon balm was first used as a tonic in Greece. Later, during the middle ages, it was used in Europe as a medicine to help heal flesh wounds and treat headaches and fevers.

A more traditional use of lemon balm is to make a tea that has a calming effect.

The benefits of lemon balm come from its interactions with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that helps to control excited neurons in the nervous system, and it also help reducing stress.

GABA allows for easy communication between the nerves and brain in mentally or physically stressful conditions.

Lemon Balm Extract helps to regulate a compound that blocks GABA known as GABA transaminase.

Lemon Balm Extract has other uses in addition to reducing stress.

Research shows that it also promotes nerve and muscle relaxation.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Lemon Balm Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress Levels
  2. Boost Cognitive Function
  3. Supports Healthy Sleep and Sleep Quality
  4. Promotes Mood, Wellbeing, and Relaxation
  5. Supports Healthy Skin Regeneration

Reduces Anxiety and Stress Levels

Lemon balm is also used to help reduce signs of anxiety, such as nervousness and excitability.

Research published in 2014 looked at the mood and cognitive effects of lemon balm foods. The supplement was mixed with natural or artificial sweeteners into a beverage and yogurt. Participants in both groups reported positive effects on various mood aspects, including reduced levels of anxiety.

The supplement was mixed with natural or artificial sweeteners into a beverage and yogurt. Participants in both groups reported positive effects on various mood aspects, including reduced levels of anxiety. Although this is promising, more research is needed to truly determine its effectiveness.

Promotes Mood, Wellbeing, and Relaxation

Lemon balm is thought to help with different issues because of the way it interacts with a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. This neurotransmitter helps to calm down excited neurons in the nervous system, which can be helpful when you’re feeling stressed out.

GABA helps communication between the nerves and the brain when someone is feeling stressed. Lemon balm extract helps to regulate a compound that blocks GABA known as GABA transaminase.

There are more uses for lemon balm extract than just stress relief. Research has found that lemon balm extract may help promote relaxation of nerves and muscles.

Eugenol is a compound found in lemon balm. This compound has been shown to help relax muscle tissue. This may be why drinking lemon balm tea after a workout helps promote muscle relaxation.

Boost Cognitive Function

People have used lemon balm for sleep historically. However, there is not a lot of evidence to support that lemon balm actually helps with sleep. Some research has shown that organic compounds in lemon balm called terpenes can help promote the feeling of calmness.

The terpenes mixed with GABA’s ability to relax the brain are believed to be the keys to how lemon balm affects relaxation and sleep promotion.

Studies suggest that lemon balm extract can help improve concentration and focus, as well as overall cognition. Some studies show that this is because of the way lemon balm interacts with acetylcholine receptors.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that helps the brain to do things like reasoning, forming memories, and concentrating.

Dosage

How To Take Lemon Balm Extract?

As a dietary supplement, take one 500mg Lemon Balm Extract capsule 1 or 2 times per day as necessary.

Where to Buy Lemon Balm Extract?

Nootropix Shop offers 30ct, 60c, and 90ct. bottles of Lemon Balm Extract capsules. The capsules have been lab-tested and verified for product purity and identity.

See Also

Magnesium Glycinate

DMAE L-Bitartrate

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR)

Phenylethylamine

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Phenylethylamine is a nootropic stimulant that improves your memory recall, executive function, creative flow states, reduces stress and anxiety, lifts mood, and helps ADHD symptoms. It works by increasing the effects of neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and acetylcholine. This makes you feel energetic, focused, and motivated.

Overview

What is Phenylethylamine?

Phenethylamine is found in the nervous system, where it plays a role in brain circuits that release “feel good” hormones. It improves motivation, problem-solving, and task completion by increasing the effects of other neurotransmitters and chemicals in the brain, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine. Researchers believe that PEA can be a safe alternative to drugs such as amphetamine or methylphenidate when it comes to improving mental health.

It’s potent. Therefore, it’s essential to be mindful of and start with a low dosage – slowly increase if necessary to the ideal dosage that works best for you individually.

Based on recent research, it seems to defend against depression, poor attention span and even weight gain, especially when coupled with other lifestyle changes and treatments.

Benefits and Effects

Phenylethylamine Benefits

  1. Enhances Focus and Attention
  2. Improves Moods and Reduces Anxiety and Depression
  3. Supports Athletic Performance / Workouts

Mechanisms of Action

How Does Phenylethylamine Work?

Stimulates dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine levels

  • Modulates receptor sensitivity and reuptake processes
  • Synthesized in the body from the amino acid phenylalanine
  • The psychoactive ingredient in chocolate and blue, green algae
  • Synergistic with MAO-B inhibitors like Hordenine
  • Phenylethylamines are a category of empathogens and entheogens derived from PEA and that act mainly on its receptor sites

Thanks to Neurohacker Collective for posting this.

Published

Best 9 Nootropics (Smart Drugs) To Unlock Your Full Potential

Nootropics; sometimes referred to as smart drugs – are compounds that enhance brain function. They’re becoming a common way to give an extra boost to your mind. According to one Telegraph survey, up to 25 percent of students at leading UK universities have taken the prescription smart drug modafinil [1], and California tech start-up workers are trying everything from Adderall to LSD to drive their brains to a higher gear[2].

I have been actively benefiting from nootropics since 1997 when I was struggling with cognitive performance and ordered nearly $1000 worth of smart drugs from Europe (the only place where you could get them at that time). I remember opening the unmarked brown package and wondering if the pharmaceuticals and natural substances would really make my brain better.

They did, and I’ve been a big fan of some cognitive enhancers ever since.

But I’m suspicious of the others. The trouble with using a general term like “nootropics” is that you lump all kinds of substances together. Technically, you could argue that both caffeine and cocaine are nootropics, but they’re hardly the same. With so many ways to enhance your brain function, many of which have significant risks, it is most important to look at nootropics on a case-by-case basis. Here’s a list of 9 nootropics, along with my thoughts on each of them.

1) Modafinil (Provigil), Armodafinil (Nuvigil), and Adrafinil

Focus, motivation, clarity, and memory.

I started taking modafinil while I was receiving my MBA at Wharton. At the same time, I was also working at a start-up that was later sold for $600 million in cash, so you can imagine how busy I was. I was looking for a way to keep my brain running.

When I started taking modafinil for the first time, I felt more like myself than I had in years. I took it at different doses every day for 8 years (with a doctor’s prescription). It gave me energy, and it changed my life. I wouldn’t be a biohacker without modafinil today.

When I was working on the Bulletproof Diet book, I wanted to check that the results I was getting from Bulletproof Coffee didn’t come from modafinil, so I quit using it and tested my cognitive performance when I was out of it. What I noticed was that my emotional performance on Bulletproof Coffee and Bulletproof Diet was almost the same as my performance on modafinil. I’m still traveling with modafinil, and I’m going to take it occasionally, but I rarely feel the need while living a Bulletproof lifestyle.

There is a slight risk (about 5 in a million people) of having a life-threatening immune response to modafinil. It’s the same reaction that occurs with ibuprofen and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), so if you know that you don’t respond well to NSAIDs, talk to your doctor before taking modafinil.

One reason I like modafinil is that it stimulates the release of dopamine, but it binds to your dopamine receptors differently than addictive substances like cocaine and amphetamines do, which may be part of the reason that modafinil provides many of the advantages of other stimulants but does not trigger addiction or withdrawal symptoms. [3][4] It does increase concentration, problem-solving, and alertness, but it is not in the same class of drugs as Adderall, and it is not a traditional stimulant. Modafinil is patent-free, so you can get it generically, or order it from India. It’s a prescription drug, so you need to talk to a doctor about it.

You can also seek armodafinil, a more refined form of modafinil, with only biologically similar molecules in it. It has almost the same and sometimes stronger effects. Without insurance, it’s very expensive.

If you don’t want to get a prescription, there’s adrafinil, which has similarities, but I wouldn’t recommend taking it regularly, because it’s a lot of stress on your liver.

Normally prescribed modafinil dose: 50-200 mg, taken in the morning (unless you want to be awake all night) Normally prescribed armodafinil dose: 100-200 mg, taken in the morning Adrafinil dose: 300 mg, taken in the morning.

2) Nicotine

Focus, mood, motivation

Nicotine is a smart drug: picture of sunrise tobacco plants Nicotine can be a potent nootropic if you take it carefully and sp. Here is a complete guide to the use of nicotine as a nootropic, complete with pros and cons, risks, dose recommendations, and advice on what kind of nicotine to use.

I don’t recommend smoking cigarettes or using tobacco to get nicotine. I’m thinking about very small doses that are much smaller than you would get from smoking. Nicotine has a direct effect on your mitochondrial energy, and just about anything that increases mitochondrial function will make your brain work better.

3) Amphetamine (Adderall)

Focus… but with high risk and several drawbacks

Big Pharma has been recommending amphetamine (Adderall) for ADHD sufferers for years to come. It’s also popular at college campuses around the time of the exam. Too bad, because there are a lot of better choices.

Amphetamine is at considerable risk. In healthy adults, it improves attention, focus, motivation to work, and short-term memory, all by increasing the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in your prefrontal cortex. [5][6] Amphetamine also reduces fatigue, but it makes you jittery and can increase anxiety.

What concerns me about amphetamine is its addictive potential and the fact that it can cause stress and anxiety. Research says that it is only slightly likely to cause addiction in people with ADHD [7], but we don’t know much about its addictive potential in healthy adults. We all know about the addictive potential of methamphetamine, and amphetamine is closely related enough to make me nervous about so many people giving it to their children. Amphetamines induce withdrawal symptoms, so there is a risk for addiction.

If you want to have a stimulant, drink some coffee.

4) Forskolin & artichoke extract

Memory, focus, learning

Because smart drugs like modafinil, nicotine, and Adderall come with drawbacks, I have developed my own line of nootropics, including Forbose and SmartMode, which is safe, widely available, and does not require a prescription.

Forskolin, found in Forbose, has been part of Indian Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. In addition to being fun to say, forskolin increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a molecule essential for learning and memory formation. [8] I have been using forskolin for more than a decade.

Forskolin is particularly effective if you combine it with an artichoke extract. Artichoke extract inhibits PDE4, an enzyme that breaks down the cAMP. PDE4 inhibitors make cAMP more available, and when you add cAMP-enhancing effects to your artichoke extract, you get a significant boost to learning, memory, and motivation.

Or you get a headache and an energy crash when you “come down.” That might be because cAMP upping uses more dopamine than your brain would normally do. It affects different people in a different way. All you know is if you try it.

As part of our Bulletproof Brain Mix, Smart Mode includes artichoke extract and other cognitive-enhancing ingredients. Taking Forbose to get your dose of forskolin. Forbose is a special product that helps the body create more energy to power through vigorous physical and mental exercise.

5) L-theanine

A calm alertness, reaction time, mental endurance

L-theanine is a major component of black and green tea. Theanine, on its own, promotes relaxation,[9] alertness and excitement.
[10]
Theanine also works with caffeine synergistically. Together, they increase response time, memory, and mental endurance. [11]

You can get your theanine from a capsule-like Zen Mode, or you can have a cup of green tea or two. If you decide to make green tea, look for tea that’s grown in the shade, because shade-grown green tea tends to have much higher levels of theanine.

A dose of L-theanine: 200 mg. Take 3 Zen Mode soft gels with your morning coffee or take it at night like me.

6) Bacopa Monnieri

Attention, mood, stress, memory

This is a small water plant native to India. Bacopa is an adaptive agent–it helps your body to adapt to stress. It also improves memory in healthy adults[12] and enhances attention and mood in people over 65 years of age. 13] Scientists still don’t fully understand how Bacopa works, but they do know it takes time to work; study participants didn’t feel its memory-enhancing effects until they had been supplementing it every day for 4 weeks, so if you try Bacopa, stick with it for a month before you give it up.

Bacopa suppresses sperm production in male mice, so if you’re trying to conceive, you might want to skip it. 14] However, it did not affect the testosterone or sex drive of the mice.

Many nootropic companies include Bacopa in their stacks, but they often do not use enough to give you real benefits. You want at least 750 mg a day. Take Bacopa with a fat source to increase absorption.

Bacopa monnieri dose: at least 750 mg daily, taken with a fat source

7) CoEnzyme Q10

Energy, clarity

Unfair Advantage supports your mitochondria, the power plants of your cells, with two different ingredients: CoQ10 enhances cellular energy production in your mitochondria, giving you both a mental and physical boost. 15] (The dose of CoQ10 is low, but it is in a colloidal form that enhances the delivery of PQQ) ActivePQQTM is a novel form of PQQ that is not inactivated by stomach acid. PQQ promotes the growth of new mitochondria and also helps your body clear up and replace old mitochondria. 16] You have the highest density of mitochondria in your brain’s prefrontal cortex, which helps explain why I first feel the Unfair Advantage in my head. You have the second-highest density in your heart, which is likely why I feel it next in the center of my chest. Mitochondrial energizers may have profound nootropic effects! At higher doses, mitochondrial energizers also make excellent pre-workout supplements.

Unfair Advantage Dose: 1-4 ampules, taken at any time

8) KetoPrime

energy, stress

KetoPrime is another powerful nootropic. It contains oxaloacetate, a compound that can protect your brain from environmental toxins.

Common environmental toxins–pesticides, for instance–cause your brain to release glutamate (a neurotransmitter). Your brain needs glutamate to function, but when you make too much of it, it becomes toxic and begins to kill neurons.

Oxaloacetate protects rodents from brain damage caused by glutamate.[17] Of course, more research is needed to determine whether or not oxaloacetate has the same effect on humans.

KetoPrime is a great way to give a little extra boost to your brain. In animal studies, the Krebs Cycle is also modified, shifting the ratio of NADH to NAD+, making mitochondrial energy production more efficient.

KetoPrime Dose: 1 lozenge, taken in the morning

9) NeuroMaster

Memory and Focus

NeuroMaster is a supplement that I helped to formulate when I learned about the power of coffee fruit extract. This significantly increases the level of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–even more than exercise. BDNF is a key neuroprotein that helps increase neuroplasticity and create new neurons, resulting in better memory and focus.

This is important for the short term and is essential for the long term because you naturally lose BDNF as you age. Lower BDNF levels are associated with age-related hippocampal shrinkage and memory decline.[18] In several studies, 100 mg of coffee fruit extract (red fruit surrounding coffee beans) increased BDNF by approximately 140 percent.[19][21] The boost lasted a few hours.

Dose NeuroMaster: 1 cap, taken in the morning with or without food. You should know about nootropics. When you start taking nootropics for the first time, sometimes you feel like nothing is going on. That’s exactly what I’ve experienced. Then, a week later, I stopped taking them and immediately noticed their absence. This is because when your brain works better, it feels so natural that it’s hard to see unless you have a high degree of self-awareness.

On the other hand, sometimes, you feel a significant cognitive boost as soon as you take a pill. It could be a good thing or a bad thing. For example, I find that modafinil makes you more of what you already are. That means, if you’re already kind of a dick and you’re taking modafinil, you might act like a big dick and regret it. It definitely happened to me! I like to think that I’ve done enough to hack my brain to get through that programming… and that when I use nootropics, they help me help people.

You can also get deeply depressed. One of the nootropics I haven’t written about here, Lucidril, has excellent anti-aging and cognitive benefits for some. Still, others get deeply sad after taking it. After three days on Lucidril, I felt hopeless about my life. Luckily, I did my research, and I stopped taking it right away.

There is an inherent risk of experimenting with pharmaceuticals or illegal drugs such as LSD. The risk is higher than that of most natural substances. You may have a psychotic experience if you take too much LSD; you are more likely to have a severe headache if you take too much of a choline-stimulating herbal substance.

It’s also worth checking the purity of your nootropics. I’ve seen some companies promoting pre-made nootropic stacks that contain ingredients such as blue agave (fructose!), food coloring–even metal pieces. Read the labels!

I have high hopes that the medicine will wake up to the fantastic benefits of nootropics and begin to be incorporated into society. Not only do many of them increase your quality of life, but they also make your brain more resilient to the environment around you. We could all use a little more of that.

Before you try nootropics, I suggest you start with the basics: get rid of things in your diet and life that first reduces cognitive performance. That’s the easiest. Then add energizers such as Brain Octane and clean up your diet. Then go to herbals and natural nootropics. Use drugs selectively only after you’ve figured out your basics.

The truth is, almost 20 years ago, when my brain failed, and I was fat and tired, I didn’t know how to follow this advice. I bought $1000 worth of smart drugs from Europe, took them all out of desperation at once, and had enough cognitive function to save my career and solve my metabolic problems.

You don’t need to do that with the information we have now. Please learn from my mistakes, please!

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR)

Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a popular multi-functional nutrient, amino acid type nootropic. It benefits the body and brain. A potent antioxidant and neuroprotectant, and a powerful energizing nootropic that promotes anti-aging and longevity.

Introduction

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, also known as ALCAR and ALC, is an amino acid naturally produced in your body to generate energy. It’s also found in animal proteins such as red meats. Many people supplement with acetyl-L-carnitine because of its potential benefits. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a more bioavailable form of amino acid l-carnitine, a derivative of amino acid lysine. The body continuously produces L-carnitine, and furthermore gets it from the foods you eat.

Although research shows actual carnitine insufficiency is uncommon in healthy people with no metabolic disorders, supplementation with addition of it is proven to be beneficial in many different ways. Ranging from improving heart health [1] to enhancing brain function. [2]

Acetyl-L-Carnitine is L-carnitine with the addition of an acetyl group, thereby making it the most bioavailable form of L-carnitine and it readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Its primary actions work towards brain functionality. Its nootropic properties seem to magnify when taken with other nootropics. The combination makes it a potentiating agent allowing nootropics to work more effectively.

Other forms of L-carnitine include L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) which is typically assessing physical performance, and Glycine Propionyl L-carnitine (GPLC), which relieves blood flow issues. The only L-carnitine form that possesses nootropic properties is Acetyl L-carnitine, and it furthermore provides both L-carnitine and acetyl groups (molecule) that act towards the development of the learning neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.

ALCAR vs L-Carnitine vs Carnitine

ALCAR: supplies acetyl group and carnitine, and crosses the blood brain barrier easier. The acetyl group detaches from the amino acid and helps to recycle acetylcholine.

L-Carnitine: the same as carnitine. The ‘l-‘ prefix is just a part of the chemical notation and is often omitted because cells only make ‘l-‘ form (as only those forms are used in proteins) and it’s implied that it’s the ‘l-‘ form if it’s not specified (if you imagine a molecule as a 2D picture of structure, then ‘l’ and ‘d’ prefix specifies whether the molecule is flipped or not; flipped version can have totally different properties; the ‘l-‘ version of amino acids is the one you supplement and your cells use).

Carnitine: Reference the above. It is also involved in energy metabolism.

Taking Acetyl-L-Carnitine or ALCAR, therefore, supplements both and gets both the effects.

 

Benefits and Effects

What Are Acetyl-L-Carnitine Benefits?

  • Enhances Brain Function and Stamina
  • Provides Neuroprotection Against Brain Cell Death
  • Restores Cognitive Function and Repairs Impairment
  • Support Mitochondrial Function and Nervous System
  • Regulates Sexual Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction

Enhances Brain Function and Stamina

Research proves ALCAR beneficial to the brain and body in many ways. From enhancing cognitive abilities [3] to increasing energy [4], reducing pain, and even preventing damage from alcohol consumption. [5]

Studies show that it successfully lowers mental exhaustion and improves cognitive function as well as learning capability. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, 2-phase study, 66 participants with fatigue were given 2 g of L-carnitine once a day. By the end of the study, the group taking L-carnitine showed significant improvements in physical fatigue, mental fatigue, fatigue severity amongst other physical enhancements, as compared to those receiving a placebo.

Moreover, the study confirms that oral supplementation of L-carnitine reduces the total of fat mass, increases muscular mass, increases capacity for physical and cognitive activity, improves cognitive functions, all while reducing fatigue as well. [6]

Provides Neuroprotection Against Brain Cell Death

Due to its potent antioxidant attributes, ALCAR acts as a neuroprotectant, blocking and restoring damage from free radicals that injure brain cells. It also helps the brain clear itself of other toxins and decreases cell death due to excitotoxicity, a neurotic process that triggers by the over-activation of glutamate receptors. It enhances the neural network by stimulating nerves and signal receptors and additionally protects the brain against the damaging influences of drinking alcohol. [7]

Restores Cognitive Function and Repairs Impairment

One of Acetyl-L-Carnitine’ many exciting prospects is as a treatment for age-related neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. It has been confirmed to dramatically slow decline in Alzheimer’s patients and decreases age-related recall failure. Other studies showed that ALCAR supports repair ambulatory capability in the elderly and functions as a mood lifter as well as working as an anti-depressant in the elderly. [8]

Support Mitochondria and Nervous System

ALCAR promotes mitochondrial function and serves to support the nervous system overall performance. Especially in the case where an individual is subject to neurodegenerative disease. It can be of significant benefit to people with physical disorders typically correlated with aging, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. It has shown to be efficient in managing nerve pain, enhancing kidney function, and improving heart health. [9] [10]

Regulates Sexual Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction

ALCAR regulates men’s infertility and improves signs of andropause and erectile dysfunction. It is also in use to fight Peyronie’s disease, an inflammatory disease that affects the penis. [11] [12]

Additionally, it is under clinical trials as a possible treatment for chronic fatigue.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Acetyl-L-Carnitine Work?

ALCAR synthesizes primarily in the liver and kidneys, after which it travels to other tissues. ALCAR has excellent bioavailability. 

The gastrointestinal tract quickly digests it. Its actions differ considerably from other forms of L-carnitine, which don’t cross the blood-brain barrier. The acetyl groups that make ALCAR unique, enable it to cross the blood-brain barrier readily and rapidly. Its most effective role is within the cerebellum.

alcar benefits

Acetyl-l-carnitine skeletal structure

Another one of ALCAR’s nootropic benefits involves the acetyl groups, which produce the support for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Often referred to as “the learning neurotransmitter,” acetylcholine is accountable for learning, memory, and cognitive function. Increased levels of acetylcholine result in an improvement in cognitive function, and low levels of that essential neurotransmitter risks neurological complications similar to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

On Neurotransmitters

ALCAR resumes showing increasing levels of norepinephrine and serotonin. They are vital neurotransmitters that play an essential part in mood and brain function. The capacity to improve neurotransmitter production is one of the principal techniques that ALCAR complements nootropics attributes. Similar to those of the racetams, which enhance the action of neurotransmitter receptors in the cerebellum.

Moreover, ALCAR targets brain metabolism, promoting cellular energy and serving as a potent neuroprotectant. Its critical antioxidant qualities combat the impressions of cellular oxidation. It further decreases the number of damaged cells in an individual brain, thereby becoming a useful longevity tool.

Damaged fat cells identified as lipofuscin (age spots) also happen in the brain and are actively correlated amidst age-related neurological dysfunctions, lack of energy, and weak memory. By supporting the brain excrete those damaged cells. ALCAR increases brain function and significantly lessens the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. It has also been shown to limit brain deterioration during times of stress.

Dosage

How to Take Acetyl-L-Carnitine?

Typical Acetyl-L-Carnitine dosage is 500 mg per day once in the morning, and up to 1,500 mg split into three doses of 500 mg. From there, adjust dosage to your need without exceeding 1,500 mg. At least not during trial period. It is water-soluble, therefore it can be taken with or without food. However, taking ALCAR late in the evening can result in disruption of sleep.

“The standard dose for L-carnitine is between 500-2,000mg. There are various forms of carnitine supplementation available.Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) is used for cognitive enhancement. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate (LCLT) is typically used for physical performance and power output. Glycine Propionyl L-Carnitine (GPLC) is used to alleviate intermittent claudication and blood flow issues. L-carnitine is supplemented daily. The equivalent dosage range for other forms of L-carnitine are as follows: 630-2,500mg (ALCAR), 1,000-4,000mg (LCLT) and 1,000-4,000mg (GPLC).”

– Examine.com

Side Effects

What Are the Side Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine?

Headaches may occur in cases of consuming high doses before allowing the body to adapt to the additional amount of Acetyl-L-Carnitine that it is receiving.

Nausea is the most common side effect. It is easily preventable by taking ALCAR alongside food rather than on an empty stomach.

Headaches are the second most common side effect, which may imply an excessive amounts of choline.

Users report that headaches from ALCAR use decrease when they reduce the amount of choline in their stacks and diets.

Reviews

Reddit

As the title says, it’s been a game changer. Old stack was: Citicoline 300mg b.id with centrophenoxine 350mg one to two times daily. Switched Centro to ALCAR 500 one daily just to try and damn it’s been really good. Mornings are good, everything is really clear. Honestly this feels a lot like amphetamine. So much so that I cancelled my pdoc appt to get a refill. I was basically off the meds but wanted to have a few around but now I really don’t think I need them. Very glad people on here have posted about alcar before!

Reddit II

Funny enough I get a stronger response from ALCAR then I do racetams in regards to mental performance. It seems to make me really smart. Your mileage may vary though. To OP: I get results in a day. Be careful for not overdoing it. I’ve posted before that acetylcholine overload tends to make you depressed and function worse. 

– eastmangobo

Reddit III

“I have been taking Acetyl for about 17 years. For the last 2 yrs or so it has affected me less and less (no idea why) but before that, I noticed a MASSIVE positive boost from taking it. I experienced a huge uptick in word retrieval and overall brain function. used to always say that when I took Acetyl, it was like an electric switch was turned on, as that’s what it felt like … electric..I always bought it in bulk powder and almost always used 1 gram in my morning shake (180lb Male). DO NOT use it after noon …. you will NOT sleep !!!! You should notice a difference within 3-4 days. As I did mention, I am noticing now that I am affected by Acetyl less and less. If I miss a few days, I don’t really notice it like I did years ago and I don’t really get that electric charge feeling. I don’t know why this is, as I’ve purchased a few different brands.” 

– Gernan_Mafia

Tim Ferris

Measuring the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on various aspects of cognitive performance. Alas, after multiple consecutive nights of vivid nightmares (which I rarely have), I wondered if ALC might play a role. I only experienced this when taking ALC in the later afternoon or evening, and daily total consumption never exceeded 1,500mg. After finding a few reports like this, I decided to call it quits with my protocol. Thus far, I have found ALC to produce unpleasantly vivid dreams to a much greater extent than, say, galantamine or huperzine-A, which enhance vividness but don’t seem to create the same degree of negative tone. Of course, this is an N of 1 (single subject) amateur hour, but the contrast has been both remarkable and remarkably consistent. I’d be curious to hear if anyone else has experienced something similar. And be careful with those cholinergic neurons…

Conclusion

ALCAR is an outstanding amino acid nootropic. It offers many benefits to both the body and the brain. In addition to its potent  brain boosting effect, it is also a healthy nutrient. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is safe, affordable, very tolerable, and easily accessible in department and drug stores. It enhances cognitive function, supports ant-aging and longevity, which makes it a nootropic worth adding to any stack.

L-Carnitine L-Tartrate and L-Carnitine Tartrate are the same thing, they just truncate the L-Tartrate for brevity. This is the form of L-Carnitine that is in supplements that some studies have linked to possibly helping recover times from workouts (specifically it was shown that people taking L-carnitine had less damage to their leg muscles after a workout versus people that weren’t taking it), there weren’t any other observations of it’s added use outside of that. Acetylcarnitine is an alternative form of l-carnitine for supplementation that has been pushed because of it’s bioavailability. The downside is that it’s less concentrated in the bloodstream after digestion. It doesn’t appear that any studies have been performed linking acetylcarnitine to exercise performance, but it’s only proven use has been in increasing sperm mobility. A few proposals have set out to use it treat neurological conditions, but none have yet been proven.

Yes. ALCAR has nootropic and neuroprotective benefits. This compound works great alone if you want a substance to help protect your brain from oxidative stress. Better cognitive results often happen when ALCAR is stacked with other nootropics. The main nootropic benefits of ALCAR will be consistent with higher acetylcholine levels. Low acetylcholine is linked to cognitive deficient and low energy levels. Although ALCAR helps in the production of Acetylcholine, nootropic benefits may not be apparent when taken alone. For this reason, ALCAR is highly recommended to stack with other nootropics. Below is a list of typical benefits seen in an ALCAR + racetam/ampakine combination.

ALCAR is often stacked with a cheap choline salt like choline bitartrate or citrate because it acts synergistically to produce Acetylcholine. Some people will use this stack as a cheaper alternative to more expensive acetylcholine intermediates such as alpha GPC or citicoline.

ALCAR by itself or in a choline stack will also work great with the racetams and ampakines. Boosting the level of Acetylcholine will allow for a synergistic combination with racetams which act as Acetylcholine receptor agonists. ALCAR is suggested to help protect from excitotoxic situations resulting from excess glutamate that may be a result of taking certain ampakines. For this reason, ALCAR may be beneficial when stacked with certain glutamate agonists like sunifiram and unifram.

They don’t interact, in fact, Acetyl-L-Carnitine is used as “complementary” therapy along with Psych Meds. Taurine is as well. Taurine is also VERY much so present in Energy Drinks like Red Bull & Monster. It is responsible for much of the “kick” and focus Energy Drinks give us.

To date there has been no evidence that either counteract the other or have negative effects. Both substances are great for many aspects of brain health. You can be pretty safe in the assumption that it’s worth testing out for yourself to see how you react to this combination.

Adrafinil

Overview

What is Adrafinil?

Adrafinil is a synthetic nootropic supplement that acts as a central nervous system stimulant. Previously known as Olmifon, and often mistaken with Modafinil, it is a stimulant that does not produce amphetamine-like effects.

It is a precursor to Modafinil. That means it leads to increased concentrations of modafinil in the body.  Adrafinil combats fatigue, boosts energy, improves attention, concentration and focus. It’s also known to enhance mood, motivation, and reaction time. Its potential cognitive benefits extends further to improving memory and increasing the brain’s capacity of learning, digesting, and processing information.

A 1970’s invention by French pharmaceutical company Lafon Laboratories, which manufactured, branded and marketed the invention in Europe under the name Olmifon. It spread throughout Europe and became widely prescribed by practitioners for narcolepsy and related sleep disorders that has symptoms of heavy and excessive daytime drowsiness. As well as widely used off-label for its nootropic and stimulating effects.

In 2011, production of Olmifon ended when the french regulating authorities reversed its legality.

Its unregulated in the US, Canada, and most other countries around the world. It’s found in drugstores and online on many vendors and is widely used for combating fatigue, enhancing energy, and boosting overall cognitive function

Adrafinil is a eugeroic that was formerly used in France to promote alertness, attention, wakefulness, mood, and other parameters, particularly in the elderly. – Wikipedia

Adrafinil vs Modafinil

Adrafinil Skeletal Structure vs modafinil
Adrafinil Skeletal Structure
modafinil skeletal structure adrafinil vs modafinil
Modafinil Skeletal Structure

Many people often compare adrafinil vs modafinil upon hearing of it. Usually because they try to get modafinil and find out its prescription medication, so they go for the non-prescription, online-available alternative.

What popularizes it the most as a nootropic is the fact that its the closest legal, prescription-free to the “limitless” modafinil. But for those who knew and were familiar with it before this movie association know its profound effect and can differentiate between it and that of modafinil. In fact, many users actually report preferring adrafinil vs modafinil for certain, slightly different nootropic effects that each produces.

Although Adrafinil metabolizes into Modafinil after ingestion, it still requires a higher dosage to reach the level of effectiveness that one would feel from modafinil. For example, modafinil is mostly prescribed in dosages of 100 to 200 mg. Adrafinil often sells in the lowest dosage being 300mg. So in order to achieve the same concentration level of modafinil using adrafinil, one would have to be aware of this and measure the dosage following that pattern, as required.

Modafinil is often prescribed therapeutically in doses of 50mg being the lowest effective. For comparison, taking 300mg Adrafinil, which is the smallest manufacturing dose, would actually be more effective than the lowest effective dose of modafinil.

Although it cannot be an exact figure due to the fact that breakdown and metabolizing varies from each individual to another, a general and easy way of understanding and remembering the math of adrafinil vs modafinil in terms of dosages, or at least how I personally measure it when taking either one, is that that 100mg of Modafinil is more or less equals to 300mg Adrafinil.

Personal Thought

From my personal, own experience: the effect of Adrafinil 300mg  is much more felt in comparison to Modafinil 100mg. During the period I was prescribed Modafinil, I would have to take 200mg in order to achieve what I would achieve from 300mg of Adrafinil.

Benefits and Effects

Adrafinil Uses and Benefits

  1. Increases Mental Clarity
  2. Heightens Focus
  3. Promotes Wakefulness
  4. Boosts Energy
  5. Improves Learning Capacity
  6. Improves Memory Formation
 

Supporting research:

Increases Mental Clarity & Heightens Focus

Although it is initially developed for its wakefulness-promoting qualities, Adrafinil continues showing significant cognitive benefits as well. For individuals suffering daytime exhaustion due to night work or sleep difficulties, adrafinil increases the physical and mental energy required for an active life. It also improves mental clarity and heightens focus.

Promotes Wakefulness & Boosts Energy

Adrafinil is an overall beneficial stimulant, preventing daytime drowsiness and dramatically increasing energy and attentiveness without the hyperactivity and jitteriness associated with stimulants. Users report a profound sense of well-being, stress reduction, and overall enrichment experiences. Those outcomes are primarily due to Adrafinil’s impact on dopamine.

Improves Learning Capacity & Memory Formation

In addition to promoting wakefulness and increasing energy, adrafinil holds many nootropic benefits such as improved learning capacity, better memory creation, as well as recollection. Reports indicate that it sharpens focus and increases the ability to maintain it, along with providing mental clarity, and easing mentally demanding work, especially that which extends over a prolonged period.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Adrafinil Work?

Adrafinil acts on the adrenergic system, the part of the nervous system that releases adrenaline. Typically considered in charge of the “fight or flight” response, a rapid release of adrenaline boosts energy and increases alertness. While not all of adrafinil’s actions are entirely understood, it is assumed to replicate the positive effect of adrenaline release by supporting adrenergic neurotransmitters.

Adrafinil
Adrafinil Structure

The Breakdown

Adrafinil is a synthetic prodrug, which means that its an inactive compound that metabolizes into an active form inside the body. The process of metabolizing it produces the drug, modafinil, which is an FDA-approved treatment for necropsy and similar sleep disorders. The pharmacological effects of adrafinil are practically identical to those of Modafinil.

Though the exact chemical mechanisms of it are unclear, researchers hypothesize that in its metabolized form it functions as an adrenergic receptor agonist. One of its first actions is the enhanced production and release of the neurotransmitter hypocretin, which in turn triggers the increased production of dopamine, histamine, and norepinephrine; all of which are directly related to alertness and energy, which considerably explains adrafinil’s stimulant qualities.

The remarkable mood and cognitive effects it produces result from different actions, such as the positive modulation of glutamate receptors, and inhibiting the breakdown of glutamate. Those actions lead to better neuronal communication, which improves memory and focus and creates better cognitive functions.

Serotonin Neurotransmitter

It also stimulates the release of serotonin, which enhances mood by reducing anxiety levels. It also inhibits the breakdown of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is mainly responsible when it comes to the brain’s pleasure and reward responses.

Dosage

How To Take Adrafinil?

Typically, Adrafinil is manufactured and produced at the dosage of 300 mg. However, most nootropist would say, and prefer, a dose of 600mg taken once in the morning. While the highest, yet credible, dosage is 1,200 mg per day, taken as two doses. A morning dose of 600 mg and an afternoon “boost” of another 600mg.

At 300 to 600 mg, it is a safe and very effective, mildly stimulating nootropic.

Its potent, therefore it’s advised to start with lower end and allow your body the time to adapt to it. Once you familiarize yourself with it, you can then gradually increase as you desire while keeping in mind not to go over the daily recommendation of 1,200 mg.

I’ve taken Adrafinil frequently over the past year or two, but never more than 600 mg per day. And even the times I took 600 mg were so few, I’m almost sure it was less than 4 times in total.

Due to its potency and wakefulness-promoting properties, it is advisable to take it in the morning or early afternoon only to avoid interfering with the sleep cycle, otherwise you wouldn’t be able to fall asleep easily at night. It is also advisable to take it on an empty stomach to allow for optimal absorption.

It kicks in around 45 minutes to an hour after ingestion.

For continuous and prolonged use, it is very advisable to use on a sequence (or cycle) of two weeks on, and one week off to detox and maintain tolerance as well as prevent potential dependency for certain people.

TL;DR

  • Adrafinil dosage recommendations vary greatly among different users.
  • For beginners, start with 300 mg per day and see how your body reacts to it
  • For a stronger dose, you may take 600 mg
  • Maximum allowance per day is 1,200 mg taken in two doses of 600 mg
 

The daily dosage that is recommended is between 150 mg to 300 mg. It is a strong Nootropic, and people are usually advised to start off with a small dose and allow the body to adjust before working upwards.  It is not advisable to take this drug for long-term use. But then you should take it in cycles. For example, one week on, two weeks off and so on. This helps to prolong its effects without the bodybuilding too much of tolerance level. It is also very important to consult the doctor or qualified healthcare provider if planning to use it for an extended period of time. Without doing this, it may be disastrous for the liver as the supplement is known to elevate particular enzymes within the liver. – Nootropics City

Side Effects

What Are Adrafinil Side Effects?

The most typical side effects of adrafinil are headaches, dizziness, nausea, and stomach discomfort. The most severe relates to liver function. Additionally, there is potential for increased risk of high blood pressure and heart problems when taking high doses.

Should you experience any side effects, stop using and seek professional medical advice.

User Experience

Reddit

I love adrafinil for a once-every-couple-of-weeks ‘I need to work 11 hours today’ usage. I can take 300mg at 6:30 or 7 in the morning, and still be alert and clear headed at the office when 7 or 8pm rolls by. But I try not to use it any more than once a week, because of the possible liver implications.

–  u/WhatAboutLightly

Reddit II

Adrafinil is very strange for me. I noticed somewhat sporadic efficacy. Additionally, for me, I was getting bad headaches. I called them “core headaches” as they seemed to originate from the very “core” of my brain. and not in the front like other areas. now I am still uncertain if this was because of adrafinil or phenylpiracetam. but once I started experiencing core headaches frequently even without taking any nootropic whatsoever, I quit adrafinil. It did go away after a while, but again I am not sure if this was just a rebalance or due to…other things I have been up to. Good write up though. I am not certain I can answer any of the questions since I haven’t gone back to adrafinil yet…thinking of trying modafinil if I can manage to procure it, and see if that has a cleaner, more mildly-stimulating/focusing effect like I was looking for.

My simple protocol for Adrafinil is to only take it if I sleep poorly. and know that I still need to perform the next day. For me that means that I take it infrequently, but it’s a lifesaver every time.

Conclusion

Adrafinil’s mixture of mental and physical benefits make it valuable for individuals looking for more energy, stamina, and psychological acuity. Its a powerful nootropic with potent stimulant qualities. Used responsibly, it offers a unique and profound nootropic boost that one grows to appreciate.

Adrafinil (INN; brand name Olmifon) is a eugeroic that was formerly used in France to promote alertness, attention, wakefulness, mood, and other parameters, particularly in the elderly. It was also used off-label by individuals who wished to avoid fatigue, such as night workers or others who needed to stay awake and alert for long periods of time. Additionally, “adrafinil is known to a larger non scientific audience, where it is considered to be a nootropic agent.”

Adrafinil is a prodrug; it is primarily metabolized in vivo to modafinil, resulting in very similar pharmacological effects. Unlike modafinil, however, it takes time for the metabolite to accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream. Effects usually are apparent within 45–60 minutes when taken orally on an empty stomach.

Speaking from experience, J. Robert says: I had been taking a moderate level dose of adderall and experiencing the typical side effects associated with it. I researched Modafinil and took trail doses after discussing with my psych. I have since lessened my dose of adderall to a minimum 15 mg prn and am primarily on Armodafinil(the adrafinil/modafinil successor) now hoping to remove the adderall component in the near future. My experience has been overall positive. I am more focused cognitively without the overall body stimulant side effects I was getting from the adda. The one negative for me is sleep difficulty if the dose is taken later than upon getting up in the AM. Trying a test dose while decreasing or eliminating the adderall might provide a better result for you cognitively. make sure you discuss with your psych

Adrafanil is a “prodrug” – in other words, it must be metabolized in the liver to its active form, which is modafanil (the same drug that people can take directly by prescription). Unfortunately, this causes some problems. For one, it takes longer to start acting, given it is dependent on this transformation, and it may stay in the system longer, as well – may keep you awake. Two, there are frequent reports of liver enzyme elevation with this form of the drug (not seen with modafanil). Probably best not to use the adrafanil, and stick with the criminally expensive prescription form.

No! Aside from the fact that they are both pretty potent stimulants, Adrafinil impacts the liver and is not for daily use. I am ADHD myself and I take Ritalin XR, and often I would take Adrafinil 300mg as well because I appreciate the effect and boost it gives me – but I would never take it on daily basis. You can use it on and off, play around with the dosage and timing, but not on daily basis especially when already on other stims. For continuous and prolonged use, it is very advisable to use on a sequence (or cycle) of two weeks on, and one week off to detox and maintain tolerance as well as prevent potential dependency for certain people. “The daily dosage that is recommended is between 150 mg to 300 mg. It is a strong Nootropic, and people are usually advised to start off with a small dose and allow the body to adjust before working upwards. It is not advisable to take this drug for long-term use. But then you should take it in cycles. For example, one week on, two weeks off and so on. This helps to prolong its effects without the bodybuilding too much of tolerance level. It is also very important to consult the doctor or qualified healthcare provider if planning to use it for an extended period of time. Without doing this, it may be disastrous for the liver as the supplement is known to elevate particular enzymes within the liver.”

I can only recommend products I personally tried, and in the case of Adrafinil, I only bought and tried Nootropic Depot’s 300 mg Adrafinil capsules. Although I’ve seen it available in a few different websites, there was always something sketchy about the website, or negative reviews about the vendors adding some unknown fillers to the products.

And surprisingly, I actually found that I prefer Adrafinil over Modafinil greatly, even though I’ve always (on the occasions that I took it) maintained a dose of 300mg once per day only.

If you decide to purchase from another vendor, make sure you research, find out more information about them from Reddit’s nootropics forum, find reviews on google and whatnot, before making a transaction.

If you are in Dubai, you can buy Adrafinil as well as many other nootropics from the shop page.

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Agmatine Sulfate

Agmatine is an amino acid that offers cognitive boosting benefits. It has excellent effects on reducing neuropathic pain, and drug addiction (repetitive) habits. Its neuroprotectant and can reduce tolerance to medications like benzodiazepines, morphine, and painkillers. Furthermore it synergizes with SSRI’s & cannabis.

Overview

What is Agmatine Sulfate?

Agmatine is a form of amino acid that derives from L-Arginine. It has been shown to inhibit receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays a major role in memory and reasoning.

Agmatine supplement also regulates levels of Nitric Oxide by the affecting nitric oxide synthase enzyme. It controls cellular energy levels by influencing polyamine metabolism and function.

In some studies, it has been shown to enhance the effects of both morphine and fentanyl to increase pain killing, reduce tolerance, and lower addiction, as well as working synergistically with marijuana.

It is also found naturally in every day foods, including beer, wine, coffee, and other fermented foods.

Because it is capable of targeting multiple receptors, agmatine may benefit a spectrum of complex diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, opioid addiction, mood disorders, and even cancer. Furthermore, agmatine may enhance cognitive function, stress resiliency, mood, and athletic performance. The highest levels of agmatine are found in the gut, where it is produced by the microbes living there. It is also found in dietary form, mainly in fermented foods, and in supplemental form like agmatine sulfate. Agmatine is also produced in small amounts within the body by the mitochondria in the liver.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Agmatine Sulfate Benefits?

  • Reduces Pain Sensitivity
  • Reduces Symptoms of Anxiety & Depression
  • Neuroprotection & Longevity
  • Improves Weight Loss & Prevents Weight Gain
  • Supports Muscle Growth
  • Helps Erectile Dysfunction & Infertility
  • Help with Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Helps Alcohol & Morphine Withdrawal
  •  

Supporting research:

Reduces Pain Sensitivity

In research studies, Agmatine shows to be an effective way for pain relief. Especially in the case of thermal hyperalgesia, a condition where the body is sensitive to changes in temperatures. The body becomes hypersensitive to heat or cold.Agmatine improves those pain sensations, which is a result of its pro-circulations effect.In studies looking at pain reduction in neuropathic conditions or inflammatory pain, agmatine was not found to produce a statistically significant effect. However, anecdotal, first-hand reports show that it actually did work for neuropathic conditions. So in this specific situation, it seems to be subjective to each individual.

Reduces Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

Agmatine exhibits antidepressant effects and promotes mood improvement as well as anxiety reduction and relief. It helps the brain and body manage and overcome stress by reducing anxiety and promoting a sense of well-being.By increasing NRF2, agmatine prevents depressive behavior by protecting brain cells from high levels of stress hormone cortisol. [R]Agmatine increases adenylate cyclase in the prefrontal cortex, and decreases levels of adenylate cyclase which associate with depression. [RR].Furthermore, it blocks the NMDA receptor, prevents calcium overloading, as well as reverses the decrease of monoamines such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Depression often associates with a reduction of monoamines in the brain [RR]
Studies and Research
A small pilot study on three patients suffering depression, Agmatine supplement caused a complete disappearance of depression symptoms in all patients. It most likely did so through NMDA receptor-blocking and not through serotonin pathways. [R]Agmatine also reduced anxiety in rats when they were put in swimming and maze navigation tests. [R]

Neuroprotection and Longevity

Agmatine acts as an anti-oxidant and is continuously under more research for its anti-aging and longevity potential. It has been found to exhibit neuroprotective effects against oxidative damage and injuries to the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is also believed to limit the activity of glutamate receptors and thus, the over-excitation of neurons within the brain.Additionally, by inhibiting iNOS and nNOS and increasing eNOS, Agmatine protects against brain damage from stroke. Increasing eNOS protects the brain by dilating the blood vessels to increase blood flow. This prevents damage during times of lack of oxygen from reduced blood flow to the brain (also known as ischemic stroke).Agmatine decreases iNOS and nNOS, two enzymes that contribute to brain damage from stroke. [R]
Study on Effects of Agmatine Sulfate on Nerve Injury

 

  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy.

 

  • METHODS: The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination.

 

  • RESULTS: Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004).

 

  • CONCLUSION: Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration.
 

 PMID: 28122652

Improves Weight Loss and Prevents Weight Gain

Individuals who struggle to gain weight can benefit from Agmatine supplements. In some studies, subjects increased food consumption rates by 44% to 54% in 24 hours.Moreover, in the following studies, Agmatine shows an increase in fat burning, a decrease in fat composition, and an increase in muscle mass [R], which also contributes to the next benefit of Agmatine:

Supports Muscle Growth

Agmatine stimulates the production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Increasing these hormone levels lead to an increase in testosterone levels.By increasing testosterone levels, Agmatine contributes to an optimal hormonal environment for muscle growth, enhances athletic performance, and fastens recovery. [R]Agmatine also increases insulin sensitivity and the uptake of glucose into the muscle. Increasing insulin sensitivity results in more effective shuttling of amino acids as well as glucose into the tissues for growth and repair. [R] [R]

Helps Erectile Dysfunction (ED) and Infertility

Studies show that L-arginine is involved in the process of cell replication, in addition to enhancing blood circulation, so it can help improve both sperm production and motility.Men dealing with cardiovascular issues due to low levels of NO in the blood are more prone to experience erectile dysfunction and fertility problems because an erection requires a relaxation of smooth muscles, which Nitric Oxide triggers.Although it doesn’t apply to every person, a significant rate of male infertility cases (92%) is treatable with L-arginine supplements in combination with dilators, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatories. [R]Research suggests that high-stress levels lower L-arginine levels in the sperm production pathway. Therefore, men with chronic stress specifically can benefit from Agmatine supplement.According to Dr. Axe, a combination of L-arginine, L-glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride is a common way of treating erectile dysfunction. And it works better than L-arginine alone. [R]“In fact,” he says, “many of the most frequently prescribed medications for ED work similarly to L-arginine: by increasing nitric oxide production.”Furthermore, there’s research suggesting treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and L-arginine together can help balance hormones naturally and restore normal sexual function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and estrogen imbalances.Other studies suggest that L-arginine with herbs such as chasteberry, green tea extract, and antioxidant supplements improve pregnancy rates in women struggling to conceive. [R]

Help with Alzheimer's Disease

Insulin resistance could cause an increase of plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Agmatine prevents cognitive decline by rescuing insulin signaling and avoiding potential accumulation of those tangles. [R]

Helps Alcohol & Morphine Withdrawal

Agmatine reduces and to an extent, prevents, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as “wet dog shakes,” anxiety, flashes, and shakings. [R] [R]

Mechanisms of Action

How Does Agmatine Sulfate Work?

Agmatine has several mechanisms. It can inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as activate imidazoline receptors. Agmatine can also inhibit nitric oxide synthase enzymes, which allows it to regulate elevated levels of nitric oxide. Agmatine can inhibit calcium channels and specific serotonin receptors as well. Further research is needed to determine the full extent of agmatine mechanisms. [R]Agmatine was found to exert modulatory actions directly and indirectly at multiple key molecular targets underlying cellular control mechanisms of cardinal importance in health and disease. It is considered capable of exerting its modulatory actions simultaneously at multiple targets. The following outline indicates the categories of control mechanisms and identifies their molecular targets:
Agmatine sulfate
Agmatine Sulfate Skeletal Structure
Neurotransmitter receptors and receptor ionophores. Nicotinic, imidazoline I1 and I2, α2-adrenergic, glutamate NMDAr, and serotonin 5-HT2A and 5HT-3 receptors. Ion channels. Including: ATP-sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs).Membrane transporters. Agmatine specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine transporters (ENT), polyamine transporters, and mitochondrial agmatine specific-selective transport system. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis modulation. Both differential inhibition and activation of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms is reported.Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT), and inducer of antizyme. Protein ADP-ribosylation. Inhibition of protein arginine ADP-ribosylation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Indirect down-regulation of the enzymes MMP 2 and 9. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Direct blockade of AGEs formation. NADPH oxidase. Activation of the enzyme leading to H2O2 production. – Wikipedia

Dosage

How to Take Agmatine Sulfate?

There is currently no standard dosage for agmatine sulfate because there haven’t been enough human studies for determination. These numbers are rough estimates to give an idea of typical, experimental dosing:

For treatment of neuropathic pain: 1,000 to 2,500 mg of agmatine (daily)

For improving cognitive function: 200 to 500 mg of agmatine (daily)

For vasodilation and enhanced recovery: 500 to 1000 mg of agmatine (30 minutes pre-workout)

Note: Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine

Quoting Examine;

“There are no standard dosages for agmatine because of the lack of human evidence for its effects. However, a single human study used 1,300-2,670mg of agmatine, daily for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The estimated human dose for improving cognition is 1.6-6.4mg/kg of agmatine, taken orally.

This is based off of the 10-40mg/kg dosage range for rats, and is equivalent to 217-435 mg for a 150lb person. Supplementation should not exceed 6.4mg/kg of bodyweight. Studies on agmatine use a daily dosing protocol.

Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine. Further research is needed to determine if oral agmatine supplementation provides the same benefits as were observed in animal studies.”

“The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.”

Side Effects

What Are Agmatine Sulfate Side Effects?

According to studies conducted so far, it appears that Agmatine Sulfate is safe even in relatively high doses. While there have been few studies conducted thus far, they have not shown any side effects to be associated with this supplement.If you follow the recommended Agmatine sulfate dosage protocol and do not have any pre-existing contraindications for use, the risk of serious adverse effects is very low. Minor side effects included nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting in a small percentage of participants, which cleared up after a few days of discontinuing use. [R]

Reviews

Reddit

“Not only does it have varied anti-addiction properties to Opioids, amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine & alcohol, but it also seems to make other drugs, and medicines more potent in their effects. It also shares the properties of Ketamine’s antidepressant effects, via the mTOR AMPA pathway. A small study found a robust antidepressant effect; all patients reported remission of depression. Considering that, shutting down Serotonin production via parachlorophenylalanine, did not reverse the antidepressant effects, shows how punchy this substance is. It’s also a painkiller. I’d recommend this be added to everyone’s stack, provided they aren’t too fond of Alcohol, as I noticed it definitely seems to blunt the good feelings of certain drugs.” [Ref]

FAQs

Agmatine Sulfate is a biogenic amine that is derived from the amino acid L-Arginine. This happens by a process called decarboxylation, which is better known as the removal of carboxylic acid group from the amino acid. 

Yes. And here is a 5 year-long, daily high dosage of Agmatine in order to measure and proof its safety: Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years.

Agmatine starts working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption. Users can expect to experience an increase in muscle pumps, vascularity and muscular endurance within this timeframe. 

The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.

This is the reason creatine and protein work so well together, in a nutshell. Bodybuilders can cut out the creatine middle man by supplementing with agmatine sulfate directly. … You take creatine to improve the protein effects. You take nitric oxide to improve the creatine effects.

You can buy Agmatine Sulfate 250mg Capsules as well as many other nootropics in Dubai and the UAE from Nootropix.

Alpha-GPC

Alpha-GPC is a natural choline compound. It works on its own as a powerful memory booster. In combination with other nootropics, it works as a potentiator boosting cognitive capabilities. It’s also used as a mild stimulant to boost energy and power output when exercising. Furthermore, it promotes cell regeneration and acts as a neuroprotective agent, against cognitive decline.

Overview

What is Alpha-GPC?

Alpha-GPC is a cholinergic compound naturally present in the body in small amounts and commercially manufactured as an extract of purified soy lecithin. [1]

Although there are dietary resources of Alpha-GPC such as dairy products, organ meats, and wheat germ, concentrations achieved by dietary intake are lower than those obtainable by a supplement. It works rapidly and reliably by delivering necessary choline to the brain. [2]

It provides valuable nootropic qualities, including memory enhancement and protection against brain aging, attributing to longevity. Clinical trials covering thousands of participants confirm Alpha-GPC is a remarkable remedy for memory loss that accompanies Alzheimer’s disease [3], vascular dementia [4], and stroke. [5]

Moreover, it provides neuroprotective, anti-aging benefits. Studies further suggest it is useful in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. [6] [7]

Another benefit is its ability to enhance cells membrane health and promote rapid recovery following physical activity. Studies indicate that it also acts as a dopaminergic, encouraging the release of dopamine, meaning it works as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, in addition to being an overall mood enhancer. [8] [9]

Potent Potentiator

Many consider the real strengths of Alpha-GPC is the potentiating feature when in combination with other nootropics. The choline that it provides the brain with significantly magnify the cognitive enhancing effects of other nootropics, especially the racetams.

I’ve always liked both Alpha-GPC and Citicoline and appreciated their profound effect, until one day I added Aniracetam 750mg and it was as if I had just took a racetam for the first time. The effects of both nootropics synergize together so well, a year later both of them are on the front line among my nootropic stack.

Alpha-GPC vs Other Choline Sources

According to examine and based on a handful of different studies, Alpha-GPC appears to be the best currently known cholinergic in increasing plasma and brain choline levels, as it has better transportation into the brain than does choline (somewhat similar to CDP-choline) but since it is a greater percentage choline by weight (relative to CDP-choline) taking X dose of either drug gives more choline when using Alpha-GPC.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Alpha-GPC Benefits?

  • Improves Memory Formation and Recall
  • Neuroprotection and Development of New Brain Cells
  • Increases Energy and Speeds up Recovery
  • Increases Attention and Enhances Mood
 

Supporting research:

Improves Memory Formation and Recall

This effect is mainly due to the increase of choline it makes available for conversion to acetylcholine, which is profoundly correlating with cognitive functions and the ability to create and revive memories. Studies confirm it an effective treatment for memory impairment caused by age-related diseases, including Alzheimer’s and several forms of dementia. It has further proven to be capable of recovering memory in volunteers following brief chemically-induced amnesia. [101112]

Neuroprotection and Development of New Brain Cells

It protects and maintains overall brain health by promoting the development of new brain cells and enhancing the body’s capability to repair damaged cell membranes. This attribute is a significant longevity advantage. [13]

Increases Energy and Speeds Up Recovery

Because it stimulates the production of human growth hormone (HGH), Alpha-GPC is valuable for individuals looking to perform better, increase lean muscle mass, feel peak energy during workouts and recover quickly afterward. A pilot study shows that 600 mg of Alpha-GPC taken 90 minutes before bench pressing increases power output by 14%. [141516]

Increases Attention and Enhances Mood

Users report that using Alpha-GPC provides distinguished mental clarity while improving mood. This elevating effect is explained partially by the additional choline it presents, which increases attentiveness and promotes effortless clear-thinking. It’s also a link to its production of human growth hormone, which provides energizing, longevity effects. [17]

In combination with other nootropics, it offers adequate choline to achieve optimal cognitive enhancement effects, and it prevents the minor headaches often associating with racetams.

How It Works

How Does Alpha-GPC Work?

Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear.

A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.

Alpha-GPC

On Acetylcholine

It is a fundamental associate of many cognitive functions including memory formation, learning capacity, and attention. By stimulating the production of acetylcholine, it acts as a neuroprotectant; maintaining neuronal health and preventing potential damage. [Ref 1234]

On Dopamine

Oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can also be dopaminergic, by increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors. It also has involvement in increasing brain serotonin concentrations following oral administration. [222324]

Dosage

How to Take Alpha-GPC?

Alpha-GPC digests and absorbs smoothly and is gentle on the stomach taken at the typical dose of 300mg. Although many nootropists tend to prefer a dose of 600mg, with a total daily intake ranging from 300 to 1200 mg, either at once or split into two doses. [25]

Personally I find 300mg is effective enough especially because I almost always take it as part of a stack. If not Aniracetam then its PiracetamPhenylpiracetam or Noopept.

On the few occasions where I took it on its own, I still felt very at ease and eager to produce, learn, move.

As with any other nootropic, start with the lowest effective dose and build up gradually as desired.

Storage

“Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. 

This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. Alpha-GPC with >99% purity will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. 

This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. 

For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month’s supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. 

It is important to note that hygroscopy is not degradation and leaves the substance still usable; however, the ability to accurately weigh a dose is no longer possible as the substance being weighed will be a mixture of powder and water. 

Liquefied or gelled alpha-GPC may also be indicative of poor storage and thus have an increased likelihood of actual degradation.” 

– Wikipedia

Side Effects

What Are Alpha-GPC Side Effects?

Some side effects rarely occur, such as headaches, fatigue, nervousness, nausea, diarrhea and gastrointestinal distress. It may rarely induce dizziness and low blood pressure in some individuals.

Personally never experienced any side effects from its use. But I’ve never taken more than 300mg in one dose, and never more than 600mg in a 24-hours frame.

Note: Alpha-GPC interacts adversely with scopolamine. Those using scopolamine are advised to avoid it.

User Experience

Reddit

This might be considered a bit on the excessive side, but I’ve been taking 300mg of GPC daily for ~2.5 years. I’ve found it to be one of the most effective ways to treat the severe anxiety that I’ve suffered throughout most of my life. 

Initially, I periodically experienced the insomnia you mentioned, but that passed within a month or so. 

Every once in a while, I’ll go several days without taking the stuff. During those short, sporadic periods of “cycling off”, I’ve noticed that I feel significantly more “dull” and lethargic than I otherwise do, but that might just be placebo in action. 

I understand that such a lengthy use of an under-researched substance might be a bit careless. 

I suppose the greatest concern would likely be down regulation of choline receptors and reduced choline production, but I doubt that any studies of the effects of long-term heavy choline supplementation currently exist to prove that one way or another.

[find thread here]

Reddit II

As the title says, Alpha GPC has next to eradicated my social anxiety. It’s incredible. 

Only downside is I’m having a hard time sleeping at night. Guess my question is, how long can I cycle this stuff safely.

[find thread here]

Reddit III

So I used to take Alpha GPC, as well as a ton of other nootropics for a few months but recently took a couple months off. 

Anyway, I’ve been trying to get back into them so I took only Alpha GPC this morning. 

I already feel more at ease with everything. I don’t have much depression but its crazy how great I feel already. 

I happened to just see this and put it all together.

[find thread here]

Final Thought

Alpha-GPC is a compound with decades of research, and its worldwide appreciation comes from the effects of memory enhancement. 

In addition to the dominant nootropic qualities, it’s also an excellent companion to racetams

Moreover, it stimulates the production of human growth hormone. This hormone production improves strength, reduces recovery time, and support the development of lean muscle mass. 

Therefore; it is an excellent nootropic for individuals who enjoy leading an active lifestyle.

Frequently Asked Questions

Personally never experienced any side effects from its use. But I’ve never taken more than 300mg in one dose, and never more than 600mg in a 24-hours frame. Additionally, according to a study by Food Chem Toxicol in 2011 said Alpha-GPC does not appear to possess mutagenic activity, as well that No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for humans was at least 150 mg/kg over 26 weeks based on extrapolation from dogs.

Alpha-GPC is cholinergic (compounds that increase the levels of acetylcholine or choline in the brain). While Choline is actually a molecule mostly used for turning into acetylcholine, the learning neurotransmitter, as well as live health agent reducing fatty liver buildup.

Alpha-GPC is very water-soluble. It’s much more likely to be soluble in water than non-polar solvents such as fat. The reasons why I would say that are as follows: the molecule itself has two ionic sites, ionic organic compounds generally have at least some solubility in water. Two ionic sites significantly increases the likelihood of it being soluble in water. Furthermore, the molecule has many OH a Oxygen moieties. Molecules with a lot of oxygen containing moieties are also likely to be water soluble, due to the hydrogen bonding of water. A good example of this are monosaccharides, they are not ionic, yet dissolve readily in water because of the numerous oxygen containing functional groups on the molecule. Decent answer from a chemist reddit user: everyone_wins

Yes. Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.

Although traditionally known as being non-stimulating, some persons do report cognitive stimulation with supplemental alpha-GPC.

Yes, some research studies suggests that oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can be dopaminergic, by both increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors

A standard dosage of alpha-GPC is 300-600 mg, according to the most common label doses. 300mg for general use, and 600 mg for increasing power output. This dose is in accordance with the study using alpha-GPC to enhance power output (600 mg) and the two studies noting an increase in growth hormone secretion, and is likely a good dose to take for athletes.

Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.

Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Piracetam stack, the dose would be:

Piracetam: 1,600 mg and Alpha-GPC: 300 mg.

Same as with Piracetam, when taking an Aniracetam and Alpha-GPC stack, the ideal dosage would be: 750 mg of Aniracetam and 300 mg of Alpha-GPC.

Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Noopept stack, the dosage would be 30mg of Noopept (or 15mg if you prefer 2 doses per day instead than one), and 300mg of Alpha-GPC.

Alpha-GPC can be taken any time, although preferably not late in the evening due to some reports that it stimulates some people. Other than that, you can take it any time with or without food because its water-soluble.

Yes, Alpha-GPC increases growth hormone, but due to a rapid normalization of growth hormone concentrations within 2 hours it may not lead to practical benefits.

Yes, Alpha-GPC is a natural compound.

You can buy Alpha-GPC 150mg Capsules as well as many other nootropics in Dubai online with express delivery and cash on delivery by visiting the store page.