Agmatine

Agmatine Sulfate


Summary: Agmatine is an amino acid that offers a wide of cognitive boosting benefits. It also has excellent effects on reducing neuropathic pain, as well as drug addiction habits. It is neuroprotectant and can reduce tolerance built to many medications like benzodiazepines, morphine, and other painkillers. It also synergizes with SSRI’s & cannabis.




Introduction


What is Agmatine?

Agmatine is a form of amino acid that derives from L-Arginine. It has been shown to inhibit receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays a major role in memory and reasoning.

Agmatine supplement also regulates levels of Nitric Oxide by the affecting nitric oxide synthase enzyme. It controls cellular energy levels by influencing polyamine metabolism and function.

In some studies, it has been shown to enhance the effects of both morphine and fentanyl to increase pain killing, reduce tolerance, and lower addiction, as well as working synergistically with marijuana.

It is also found naturally in every day foods, including beer, wine, coffee, and other fermented foods.

Because it is capable of targeting multiple receptors, agmatine may benefit a spectrum of complex diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, opioid addiction, mood disorders, and even cancer. Furthermore, agmatine may enhance cognitive function, stress resiliency, mood, and athletic performance [R] [R].

The highest levels of agmatine are found in the gut, where it is produced by the microbes living there.

It is also found in dietary form, mainly in fermented foods, and in supplemental form like agmatine sulfate.

Agmatine is also produced in small amounts within the body by the mitochondria in the liver. [R]Self Hacked


Benefits & Effects


Agmatine benefits the body and mind in many different ways and depending on the method it is taken. Some of the most notable agmatine benefits are:

Reduces Pain Sensitivity

In research studies, Agmatine shows to be an effective way for pain relief. Especially in the case of thermal hyperalgesia, a condition where the body is sensitive to changes in temperatures. The body becomes hypersensitive to heat or cold.

Agmatine improves those pain sensations, which is a result of its pro-circulations effect.

In studies looking at pain reduction in neuropathic conditions or inflammatory pain, agmatine was not found to produce a statistically significant effect. However, anecdotal, first-hand reports show that it actually did work for neuropathic conditions. So in this specific situation, it seems to be subjective to each individual.

Reduces Symptoms of Anxiety & Depression

Agmatine exhibits antidepressant effects and promotes mood improvement as well as anxiety reduction and relief. It helps the brain and body manage and overcome stress by reducing anxiety and promoting a sense of well-being.

By increasing NRF2, agmatine prevents depressive behavior by protecting brain cells from high levels of stress hormone cortisol. [R]

Agmatine increases adenylate cyclase in the prefrontal cortex, and decreases levels of adenylate cyclase which associate with depression. [R, R].

Furthermore, it blocks the NMDA receptor, prevents calcium overloading, as well as reverses the decrease of monoamines such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Depression often associates with a reduction of monoamines in the brain [R, R]

Studies & Research

A small pilot study on three patients suffering depression, Agmatine supplement caused a complete disappearance of depression symptoms in all patients. It most likely did so through NMDA receptor-blocking and not through serotonin pathways. [R]

Agmatine also reduced anxiety in rats when they were put in swimming and maze navigation tests. [R]

Neuroprotection & Longevity

Agmatine acts as an anti-oxidant and is continuously under more research for its anti-aging and longevity potential.

It has been found to exhibit neuroprotective effects against oxidative damage and injuries to the Central Nervous System (CNS).

It is also believed to limit the activity of glutamate receptors and thus, the over-excitation of neurons within the brain.

Additionally, by inhibiting iNOS and nNOS and increasing eNOS, Agmatine protects against brain damage from stroke.

Increasing eNOS protects the brain by dilating the blood vessels to increase blood flow. This prevents damage during times of lack of oxygen from reduced blood flow to the brain (also known as ischemic stroke).

Agmatine decreases iNOS and nNOS, two enzymes that contribute to brain damage from stroke. [R]

A Study on Effects of Agmatine Sulfate on Nerve Injury:

OBJECTIVE:
Evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy.


METHODS:
The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination.


RESULTS:
Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004).


CONCLUSION:
Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration.

PMID: 28122652

Improves Weight Loss & Prevents Weight Gain

Individuals who struggle to gain weight can benefit from Agmatine supplements. In some studies, subjects increased food consumption rates by 44% to 54% in 24 hours.

Moreover, in the following studies, Agmatine shows an increase in fat burning, a decrease in fat composition, and an increase in muscle mass [R], which also contributes to the next benefit of Agmatine:

Supports Muscle Growth

Agmatine stimulates the production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Increasing these hormone levels lead to an increase in testosterone levels.

By increasing testosterone levels, Agmatine contributes to an optimal hormonal environment for muscle growth, enhances athletic performance, and fastens recovery. [R]

Agmatine also increases insulin sensitivity and the uptake of glucose into the muscle. Increasing insulin sensitivity results in more effective shuttling of amino acids as well as glucose into the tissues for growth and repair. [R] [R]

Helps Erectile Dysfunction & Infertility

Studies show that L-arginine is involved in the process of cell replication, in addition to enhancing blood circulation, so it can help improve both sperm production and motility.

Men dealing with cardiovascular issues due to low levels of NO in the blood are more prone to experience erectile dysfunction and fertility problems because an erection requires a relaxation of smooth muscles, which Nitric Oxide triggers.

Although it doesn’t apply to every person, a significant rate of male infertility cases (92%) is treatable with L-arginine supplements in combination with dilators, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatories. [R]

Research suggests that high-stress levels lower L-arginine levels in the sperm production pathway. Therefore, men with chronic stress specifically can benefit from Agmatine supplement.

According to Dr. Axe, a combination of L-arginine, L-glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride is a common way of treating erectile dysfunction. And it works better than L-arginine alone. [R]

“In fact,” he says, “many of the most frequently prescribed medications for ED work similarly to L-arginine: by increasing nitric oxide production.”

Furthermore, there’s research suggesting treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and L-arginine together can help balance hormones naturally and restore normal sexual function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and estrogen imbalances.

Other studies suggest that L-arginine with herbs such as chasteberry, green tea extract, and antioxidant supplements improve pregnancy rates in women struggling to conceive. [R]

Help’s with Alzheimer’s Disease

Insulin resistance could cause an increase of plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Agmatine prevents cognitive decline by rescuing insulin signaling and avoiding potential accumulation of those tangles. [R]

Helps Alcohol & Morphine Withdrawal

Agmatine reduces and to an extent, prevents, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as “wet dog shakes,” anxiety, flashes, and shakings. [R] [R]

Mechanism of Action


Agmatine has several mechanisms. It can inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as activate imidazoline receptors. Agmatine can also inhibit nitric oxide synthase enzymes, which allows it to regulate elevated levels of nitric oxide. Agmatine can inhibit calcium channels and specific serotonin receptors as well. Further research is needed to determine the full extent of agmatine mechanisms. [R]

Agmatine was found to exert modulatory actions directly and indirectly at multiple key molecular targets underlying cellular control mechanisms of cardinal importance in health and disease. It is considered capable of exerting its modulatory actions simultaneously at multiple targets. The following outline indicates the categories of control mechanisms and identifies their molecular targets:

Neurotransmitter receptors and receptor ionophores. Nicotinic, imidazoline I1 and I2, α2-adrenergic, glutamate NMDAr, and serotonin 5-HT2A and 5HT-3 receptors.

Ion channels. Including: ATP-sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs).

Membrane transporters. Agmatine specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine transporters (ENT), polyamine transporters, and mitochondrial agmatine specific-selective transport system.

Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis modulation. Both differential inhibition and activation of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms is reported.

Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT), and inducer of antizyme.

Protein ADP-ribosylation. Inhibition of protein arginine ADP-ribosylation.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Indirect down-regulation of the enzymes MMP 2 and 9.

Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Direct blockade of AGEs formation.

NADPH oxidase. Activation of the enzyme leading to H2O2 production.

Wikipedia

Dosage


How To Take Agmatine?

There is currently no standard dosage for agmatine sulfate because there haven’t been enough human studies for determination. These numbers are rough estimates to give an idea of typical, experimental dosing:

• For treatment of neuropathic pain: 1,000 to 2,500 mg of agmatine (daily)

• For improving cognitive function: 200 to 500 mg of agmatine (daily)

For vasodilation and enhanced recovery: 500 to 1000 mg of agmatine (30 minutes pre-workout)

Note: Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine

The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.

Side Effects


According to studies conducted so far, it appears that Agmatine Sulfate is safe even in relatively high doses. While there have been few studies conducted thus far, they have not shown any side effects to be associated with this supplement.

If you follow the recommended Agmatine sulfate dosage protocol and do not have any pre-existing contraindications for use, the risk of serious adverse effects is very low.

Minor side effects included nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting in a small percentage of participants, which cleared up after a few days of discontinuing use. [R]

User Experience


Not only does it have varied anti-addiction properties to Opioids, amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine & alcohol, but it also seems to make other drugs, and medicines more potent in their effects. It also shares the properties of Ketamine’s antidepressant effects, via the mTOR AMPA pathway. A small study found a robust antidepressant effect; all patients reported remission of depression. Considering that, shutting down Serotonin production via parachlorophenylalanine, did not reverse the antidepressant effects, shows how punchy this substance is. It’s also a painkiller. I’d recommend this be added to everyone’s stack, provided they aren’t too fond of Alcohol, as I noticed it definitely seems to blunt the good feelings of certain drugs.

Reddit user

Frequently Asked Questions


What is Agmatine Sulfate?

Agmatine Sulfate is a biogenic amine that is derived from the amino acid L-Arginine. This happens by a process called decarboxylation, which is better known as the removal of carboxylic acid group from the amino acid.

Is Agmatine safe?

Yes. And here is a 5 year-long, daily high dosage of Agmatine in order to measure and proof its safety:

Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. [R]

How long does Agmatine take to work?

Agmatine starts working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption. Users can expect to experience an increase in muscle pumps, vascularity and muscular endurance within this timeframe. [R]

How much Agmatine should I take?

The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.

Can you take Agmatine with creatine?

This is the reason creatine and protein work so well together, in a nutshell. Bodybuilders can cut out the creatine middle man by supplementing with agmatine sulfate directly. … You take creatine to improve the protein effects. You take nitric oxide to improve the creatine effects.

Further External Readings


Agmatine – Wikipedia

Agmatine – Scientific Review – Examine

MindLab Pro

MindLab Pro

Summary: MindLab Pro is a pre-formulated nootropic. A blend of 11 natural and potent ingredients in 1 pill. It offers a great convenience while delivering measurable and obvious increases in physical and mental performance.


Introduction


I have come across Mind Lab Pro after the rebranding and introduction, and was immediately drawn to its overall presentation. I care about companies images just as much as I care about the product itself. After immersing myself into reading every word on the extensive ingredient list and description of each, I thought to myself, and I owe it to myself to give it a shot. The price was reasonable for the content, and I ordered my first bottle.

Fast forward about a year later, I still have it standing amongst the first on my shelf. Except now I also have my mom and two sisters, as well as a friend or two, all enjoying supplementing and using it on a daily basis.

We all got easily attracted to the product because of its moderate dosage, and commitment to natural ingredients. I don’t mind other nootropics but I know people who wouldn’t come near anything synthetic, so Mind Lab Pro seemed appealing to them. Each serving (2 pills) contains the following 11 “enhanced potency form”

The Formula


With such an impressive list of ingredients formulating together into one (or two) pills, it’s no surprise why Mind Lab Pro made quite a name for itself and maintaining a loyal, returning customers.

Benefits & Effects


Unlike any other nootropic on the website, it’s a little bit more challenging to list down the benefits and effects of using Mind Lab Pro because it consists of 11 different ingredients, each of which serves many benefits. However, you can click on each component and see the list of its benefits and effects.

I’ve used it short term and long term and have seen results in both ways. What I like the most about Mind Lab Pro is the fact that it has citicoline, which means I can perfectly pair it with a racetam without having to get an additional choline source (currently I take Alpha GPC when taking racetams). As well as the fact that it also has Lion’s Mane Mushroom which I think is one of the most profound nootropics I have come across. So when I wake up in the morning and wanting to head out to work fast and arrive fresh and mentally prepared, (also because I’m almost always late), I would only take 2 pills instead of reaching out to 11 different containers and taking 1 by 1 – I am one who really goes the extra mile for convenience.

Side Effects


Again, from personal experience, and at least six people that I know from friends and family, none of us have encountered any side effects that were leading back to Mind Lab Pro. I’ve recommended that they take it with a fat source for better absorption and to avoid any stomachache, but I almost always take it first thing in the morning and never had any adverse effects.

Personal Experience


Honestly, if anyone asks me for a recommendation when first starting on nootropics, I would recommend Mind Lab Pro. And I am not even an affiliate nor sponsored by them whatsoever (although I should be…)  – it is a genuine suggestion.

It has many good ingredients and at moderate dosages. Beginners can easily understand the mix and expand their knowledge further intro nootropics if they wanted to. Moreover, I also really enjoy the (if not mistaken) buy two get 3rd free & buy three get 4th free. It makes a good value for money and always comes in handy for last minute packing, late and rushing situations, and can even be carried out in your bag on day to day basis unlike when you’re using a stack of different products. I don’t think I can’t even fit all the containers I have from various companies in my car trunk.

Phenibut

Phenibut


Summary: Phenibut is a a GABAergic agent that works on the GABA neurotransmitter distinctly reducing anxiety. It also lessens depression, and PTSD symptoms, improving sleep, and providing an overall feeling of ease and well-being. Due to the euphoric-like effects it offers, users prefer to stick to occasional use rather than frequent in respect of its abuse and addiction risk potential.



Introduction


What is Phenibut?

Phenibut might not have as widespread use as other nootropics on the market. However, it has demonstrated numerous benefits over tens of decades through both formal studies and anecdotal documentation. It’s a nootropic designed to simulate the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that acts on the central nervous system. It marketed as a psychotropic with a positive effect on mental capability and improved neurological functioning. The anxiety diminishing effects of phenibut are the most praised of all its attributes. Once anxiety is resolved, natural sleep patterns and enhanced cognitive processes shortly start following.

Phenibut was invented in the Soviet Union almost half a century ago. A fascinating, documented anecdote reveals that Russian cosmonauts were supplementing with phenibut especially during the 1975 mission Apollo-Soyuz at the joint of the USSR and US. It remains in use to date in Russia as a treatment and remedy to many conditions including anxiety, depression, prevention of motion sickness, even alcohol withdrawal syndrome, to name a few. Not to mention, of course, its nootropic attributes.

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.

Wikipedia

Benefits & Effects


Phenibut Reduces Anxiety

This attribute is the most appreciated benefit of phenibut which is documented by Izyaslav Lapin (R). Anxiety is often the result of overactivity in brain’s concentration and overthinking and analyzation of unnecessary, or irrelevant matters; often with the inability to realize the direction to which the train of thought is heading. Turning down and resting the continuous and distracting neuron processing frees the negative thought preoccupation which in turn opens a fresher, vibrant, and often productive range of possibilities.

Phenibut Increases Sociability

The anxiolytic effect leads to openness towards social interaction which by itself is an issue almost always associating with anxiety disorders. Studies suggest phenibut to be a promoter of enhanced cognitive processing, but the fundamental reason practically still due to the anxiety relief. Those seeking to improve interaction in social settings report better results with the supplement in comparison with alcohol or prescription medication such as benzodiazepines. While attempted anxiety-reduction using traditional tranquilizers often lead to drowsiness and reduction in motor skill and cognitive ability, phenibut seems to mitigate the feelings, except without the associating and undesired side effects that associate with traditional prescription medication. (R)

Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality

People living through the depression, anxiety, stressful life events, while going through hormonal changes such as menopause, often report degenerating sleep quality, sleep disturbance, and insomnia. While melatonin is a remarkable and beneficial supplement to consider, some require pharmaceutical sleep aid for more sedating and sleep-inducing effects. Lack of continuous quality sleep can cause an impairment in cognitive processing, opening the way to more anxiety and more sleep disturbance. Used consciously, Phenibut an excellent supplement that can restore significant, natural sleep patterns, duration, and quality. The ability to fall asleep, remain asleep, maintaining an extended period of healthy, rejuvenating deep sleep is attainable with phenibut. (R) (R)

Phenibut May Improve ADHD

Since phenibut improves attention, it may also help with ADHD symptoms. In one clinical trial of 50 children with ADHD, it improved cognition, self-control, sustained, attention, and memory after 1 month (500-700 mg/day). One month is a short time for evaluating ADHD effects; long-term studies need to determine if the beneficial effect can be sustained.

Selfhacked

My Thought on That Note:

Well I am ADHD and have taken Phenibut and similar “GABA-acting” drugs, such as gabapentin for about a year. Its interesting that, at the time, I had not been diagnosed with ADHD yet and was not aware nor had a clue what ADHD is. I self-medicated with gabapentin and phenibut along the way, and now years later, looking back at how routinely I was taking it, I realize the reason I was hooked and amazed by it was its effect on me as an ADHD, prior to any anxiety triggers that might associate. It was a transformative medication – but overtime, mister W (withdrawals) had been sitting and just waiting for me to get off it in order to introduce himself – and that horrible experience was almost equally as transformative.


Mechanism of Action


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (also known as GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in our central nervous system.

The blood-brain barrier makes supplementing with GABA close to being ineffective due to its inability to bypass the blood-brain barrier.

However, phenibut crosses the barrier due to the addition of the phenyl group molecule. Once in the brain, it slows the neuronal excitability, resulting in the effects as mentioned earlier.

GABA frees up channels in the neurons, reduces the function of other neurotransmitters, and diminish collective fears and anxieties in the neuron. It remains vague whether or not phenibut binds to the GABA receptor, although some studies suggest that it only does so in high concentrations.

Lapin’s research found that phenibut increases the levels of dopamine as well. Dopamine is another vital neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It regulates emotions and creates the reaction of what we call motivation.


Dosage


How to Take Phenibut?

Phenibut is a potent compound.

Start at the lowest effective dose and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs.

A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers.

Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.


Side Effects


Similarly to anything we put inside our body, the best source of measurement and criticism is the human body itself. 

To avoid adverse effects, start at a low dose and see your body’s reaction and adaptation to it. Often individuals report dizziness and drunk-life sensation as a side effect. On the other hand, many people use to supplement with phenibut for the very same impact.

The experience is entirely subjective. Rarely users report fatigue, nausea, and stomach discomfort. People on epilepsy medication or MAO inhibitors are advised to consult a professional doctor before taking phenibut. Alcohol should be consumption should cautiously within reasonable limits ion due to the synergistic effects of alcohol and phenibut.

Avoid taking on a daily basis.

Phenibut has high abuse potential. If taken regularly, be mindful of possible withdrawal effects upon discontinuation. It’s wise to limit intake to once or twice a week. Thereby maintain a low tolerance, enjoy its benefits, and avoid building a destructive habit of use.

Do not underestimate the power of phenibut and do your research if you decide to include it in your stack.


Legal Status


Is Phenibut Legal?

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary.

In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential.

In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose.[R]

As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list.

Wikipedia

Conclusion


Phenibut is a useful anxiety-relieving supplement that does not cause the infamous drowsiness often accompanying anxiety medication. It is well-studied and standing amongst the top in line when it comes to anxiety relief, sleep regulation, and cognitive improvement.

Noopept

Noopept

In-Depth, Progressive, and Updated Review & FAQ


Summary: Noopept is one of the most potent nootropics available. It boosts overall cognition with a slight psychostimulatory effect. Effects kick-in within minutes of consumption, making it a handy choice right when dealing with or getting to mentally-demanding tasks.


Introduction


What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that’s been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.

Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action.

But when it comes to noopept, results are usually felt minutes after ingestion.

It shares similar onset of action as somewhat related racetam phenylpiracetam.

N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester is promoted as a nootropic and is a prodrug of cycloprolylglycine. Other names include the brand name Noopept, developmental code GVS-111; proposed INN omberacetam. Its synthesis was first reported in 1996.

Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug’s effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question.

Wikipedia

In Russia and a few of the surrounding countries, Noopept is prescribed for its nootropic qualities. The demand for it is dramatically rising and is currently retailing worldwide, amongst the best selling nootropics on the major vendor websites.

It also acts similar to the way Piracetam does – however, it is said to be somewhere over 1,000 more potent. That is why people tend to reach desired effect or outcome from as little as 10mg and usually not exceeding 30mg as total, per day. It smoothly settles itself onto the brain’s receptors.

Even with a dose as small as 10mg, many report it to be quite comparable, and many (myself included) actually favor it over Piracetam.

Noopept is also inexpensive comparing to other nootropics because of its high potency.

Its effectiveness and inexpensive price led to it being a classic, very popular, and in many case, a favorite, amongst the nootropic community.


Benefits & Effects


What is Noopept Used For?

  • Supporting Memory & Learning
  • Offers Neuroprotection & Promotes Longevity
  • Increases NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) & BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)
  • Improves Association between Brain Hemispheres

Noopept Supports Memory & Learning

Noopept primary interest is how it improves memory and ease the learning process. It helps in memory creation, with additional benefits such as memory consolidation and speed of recall. Noopept helps the correct management of all sorts of stimuli as they are under process by the cerebellum, which permits better memory retrieval. In other terms, signal handling by our sensations is more smooth as they are carrying forward into our memory. Through the continued use of Noopept, individuals report information to be more easily digested and processed, giving them the availability to be ready-for-use in everyday activities. One might remember names, places; maybe a word chatted in contact, a tune thought to be forgotten, and such. Memory failures will diminish or to the least will be kept to a very minimum. (R)

Neuroprotection & Promoting Longevity

Studies prove that noopept possesses excellent neuroprotective attributes. The stimulation of the neurons produced by the supplement blocks oxidative damage in the human brain. Many patients dealing with cognitive impairment can benefit from a consistent dosage of noopept to avoid further cognitive decline. (R)

Noopept Increases NGF and BDNF

NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) is a protein in the body that is involved in the growth, preservation, and continuation of nerve cells, including brain cells. Nerve growth factor is also deemed to be very important in neurogenesis; the body’s ability to generate new cells. By raising NGF levels in the cerebellum, it allows for new neural connections. The result indicates potentially improved mental skills in nearly all areas of cognition. (R)

BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) is another protein in the body that has s role to the NGF mentioned above. BDNF is one of the most critical molecules that associate with memory, playing an essential role in both short and long-term memory formation. (R) (R)

Improves Association Between Brain Hemispheres

Both the right and left hemispheres of the brain to have their localized functions. Through the use of noopept, each of those functions is developing through the synthesis of various memories, ideas, and stimuli. There are nuances among these functions that improve the way we think. That is why many people have claimed that their quality of life had a significant improvement when taking noopept on a regular basis.


Mechanism of Action


How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim.

Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known.

A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).

Examine

Noopept users report results of improved clarity, better memory, and focus. More studies are undergoing to determine precisely how it provides those privileges to the brain. Studies on animals have shown that Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity in all brain areas (R).

On Memory & Cognitive Decline

Noopept seems to be especially effective, and demonstrates the greatest benefits to patients with mild cognitive decline.

It is now undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cognitive deficiency of post-traumatic origin and cerebrovascular cause.

The cerebellum benefits include antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory qualities,  along with repression of toxicity by the removal of excessive glutamate, and calcium.

Similarly, blood rhythm and flow signifies further improvement.

Two possible mechanisms of action for enhancing cognition are a sensitizing effect on acetylcholine processes or induction of neurotrophin production, both of which theoretically enhance memory formation

Examine

Noopept absorption is a process by the digestive system and succeeding to cross the blood-brain barrier readily. The brain utilizes it almost entirely, very little goes to waste.

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning.

Noopept works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes.

Anecdotal reports often recall the “sudden abundance of clarity and precision” delivered by the immediate advantage of added oxygen to the brain and enhanced glucose use. Furthermore, its frequently reported that it also improves eyesight and perception, expanding one’s awareness to his or her surroundings and perceiving colors and objects to be more alive, vibrant, and vivid.


Dosage


How to Take Noopept?

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, take Noopept in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

  • 10 mg – divide into three doses throughout the day
  • 15 mg – divide into two doses twice a day
  • 30 mg – one dose per day

Remember: Do not exceed the 30mg Noopept dosage in one day – and ideally, no longer than 60 days cycle if taken everyday.

After that, allow yourself some time off before you start another cycle. Alternatively, you can take it on and off as needed. Experimenting is the best way to find out what works for your own body.

Given how fast the body metabolizes it, and due to its rather short half-life, it is best to take small doses multiple times a day instead of a large one at once; thereby prolonging the effects. In the beginning, it is wise to start with the smallest effective dose with careful observation, before progressing into a higher dose.


Noopept in Powder Form

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately.

According to the label, take Noopept for 1.5 to 3 weeks and then, if necessary, to begin another cycle after a 1-month break. Alternatively, many users follow 56 days on and four days off. Do not take Noopept late in the evening as its energizing effects may interfere with sleep.

And furthermore; “To supplement Noopept, take 10 – 30 mg, once a day, for up to 56 days at a time. More research is needed to determine the optimal human dose for Noopept.” again, quoting Examine.


Noopept Nasal Spray

Many people seem to discuss different mixtures to getting the most ideal ratio for a Noopept Nasal spray, but there isn’t any solid information that I could put on here. If you’re interested in user experiments and anecdotal experiences, there are a couple different threads you can find by searching ‘Noopept Nasal’ on reddit nootropics subreddit here.


Side Effects


What Are Noopept Side Effects?

Most frequently reported side effects of Noopepts are:

  • Headache
  • Restlessness (or overstimulation)
  • Dizziness
  • Irritability

These side effects of Noopepts are mostly occurring when higher doses are consumed.

Some studies suggest that it magnifies the effects of stimulants such as amphetamines, so caution is advisable for individuals using ADHD medication. I can personally advise that as well. I’ve felt that sense of overstimulation in a couple different occasion when taking a 30 mg dose of Noopept shortly after taking my ADHD medication. I now find that a 15 mg dose works best for me whether once or twice per day.


Conclusion


The benefits of Noopept are numerous, but the best thing about it is that its effects are cumulative. Noopept has quickly grown in demand and has earned its space within people’s nootropic stacks due to its impressive results, ease of small doses, and its reasonable, affordable cost. Whether an expert nootropic user or merely getting to learn about it all, noopept is an excellent choice for an overall cognitive function boost.


User Experience


Noopept. Probably the most potent memory and cognition enhancing nootropic I’ve tried besides Phenylpiracetam…noopept really makes a huge difference for me in terms of mental clarity, memory recall, and fluid thinking. I’ll be on this for life 100%

Faus1an on Reddit

My Personal Experience

Noopept was amongst the very first nootropics I got to try. I was taking it in a one dose of 30 mg in the early afternoon with 300mg of Alpha-GPC.

I think it was the most effective, and most profound feeling I ever got off a nootropic to this day. I really thought I hit the jackpot. I was able to sit throughout the day at work fully engaged and focused on my whatever I was working on, without any sort of complaining whatsoever. And that was at my corporate job, not at my home office. I was amazed by that.

I had to see if it was in my head or if it had been really that effective, and so I had both my best friend and my sister to try it out on different occasions – both of them ended up asking me to try it a few more times. My friend went on to buy her own while doing her finals at an international affairs academy programme and I never heard her talk so positively about any supplement or nootropic whatsoever the way she talked and liked Noopept.

Unfortunately though, today, after quite a long time since I first discovered it, it seems to have half the effect it had on me back in the day even if I don’t take it for a month or so. But it makes complete since due to the similarities of other racetams that I supplement with frequently – mostly Aniracetam. But the feeling I experienced in the very first few times of Noopept was something I had never felt with any other nootropic.


External & Useful Readings


NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Publications:


Related Nootropic Searches



Frequently Asked Questions


What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that’s been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning.

What Does Noopept Do?

Noopept is a powerful Nootropic compound. It protects your brain from stresses and toxins (neuroprotection). It is great at improving cognitive performance and memory. Furthermore, it shields from degenerative brain disorder relating to aging.

How Long Does Noopept Take to Work?

Noopept works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes. Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action.

How to Take Noopept Tablets?

  • 10 mg – divide into three doses throughout the day
  • 15 mg – divide into two doses twice a day
  • 30 mg – one dose per day

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, take Noopept in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

How to Take Noopept Powder?

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately.

How to Take Noopept Sublingually?

There’s no “right way” to do it. Place under tongue, close mouth and rest tongue gently on the Noopept. Just hold it there for a while. Once it’s mostly gone, swoosh it around a bit and swallow the rest. Try not to swallow the saliva that builds up in your mouth because then you are most likely swallowing some of the drug that hasn’t been absorbed yet.

What is Noopept’s Half-Life?

The half-life of Noopept is dependent on the user. The duration of Noopept is around 3 – 6 hours. Effects of Noopept increase after using it for a few days.

Where to Buy Noopept?

I have only bought Noopept from Nootropics Depot, so I can’t recommend or suggest any other vendor. If ND is an option for you, then get it from them. I tried it myself, and they are quire reputable.



Sulbutiamine

Sulbutiamine

Summary: Sulbutiamine is a nootropic that boosts energy levels and reduces fatigue. It’s an ideal choice on days when you’re feeling tired, slow, or hungover. Furthermore, Sulbutiamine elevates mood and has a substantial impact on memory.




Introduction


What is Sulbutiamine?

Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion) is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). In France, it is used to treat symptoms of weakness or fatigue. It also sells as a dietary supplement.

Sulbutiamine is a discovery from Japan as part of an effort to develop useful thiamine derivatives. [R]

It is an upgraded version of vitamin B1. Japanese researchers developed it in the 1960s while trying to address a growing vitamin B1 deficiency in the Japanese population. [R]

Sulbutiamine supplement is unusually bioavailable — in other words, you absorb it very well, and unlike standard vitamin B1, sulbutiamine passes through your blood-brain barrier, supplying your brain with the precious B vitamin.[R]


Benefits & Effects


Sulbutiamine Decreases Fatigue, Improves Mood

Several extensive studies have found that sulbutiamine significantly increases energy in people who are feeling fatigued. Sulbutiamine benefits Increase energy & stamina.

was used in the treatment of 40 patients with syndrome and asthenia. Before treatment, the patients have pronounced asthenia appearances, anxiety disorders, relevant autonomic disorders, mild depression and of working capacity, attention concentration and memory. The treatment conducted as monotherapy during 28 days with dosage 400 mg/day. After treatment, expression of autonomic and asthenic disorders was reduced significantly, along with of psychometric and neurophysiological indices. High efficacy of the medication was in 75% of the patients and moderate one–in 25%.

PMID: 14628585

Sulbutiamine Relieves Anxiety, Depression, and Social Avoidance

Sulbutiamine has no antidepressive effect but it can hasten the resorption of inhibition occurring during major depressive disorder and thereby facilitate the rehabilitation of patients in their social, professional and family life functioning. R


Sulbutiamine Boosts Motivation

There is also some evidence that sulbutiamine increases dopamine and glutamate in your prefrontal cortex, which links to increased motivation and good mood. [R]

It has a growing number of fans in the nootropic community, many of whom report improved mood and heightened mental endurance.

Sulbutiamine for Memory

Sulbutiamine is made up of two vitamin B1 molecules attached together, which could explain its effect on memory. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in acetylcholine synthesis in your brain. In fact, it’s the only vitamin that regulates acetylcholine levels, keeping them from getting too low or too high. [R]

What is acetylcholine?

It’s a substance found throughout your nervous system, that acts as a neurotransmitter. Your brain uses most of its acetylcholine to control your muscles, which could explain why taking sulbutiamine helps so much with fatigue. But acetylcholine also plays a key part in memory; it helps you consolidate new memories and remember old ones.” [R]

Improves Sexual Performance

Sulbutiamine treatment for 30 days restored sexual performance in 16 patients out of 20 (open-label) with erectile dysfunction (caused by psychological issues) [R]


Mechanism of Action


Sulbutiamine is a molecule which is two Thiamine (B1) molecules linking together, similar to how Pyritinol is two Pyridoxine (B6) molecules link together.

Sulbutiamine is a isobutyryl thiamine disulfide and sometimes goes by its brand names of Ereon or Arcalion. It is most commonly in use for Asthenia, or weakness (part neurological and part myopathic) as well as treatment of somatic and psychic inhibition. It doesn’t possess psychostimulant properties, although it is designed to act centrally (in the brain). [1]

Sulbutiamine synthesizes from Thiamine, where after the opening of the thiazole ring of Thiamine and dimerization to a disulfide compound it is then esterified. [2]

Sulbutiamine is a fat-soluble molecule that crosses the blood-brain barrier more readily than thiamine. Once in your brain, it increases levels of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is directly involving in the citric acid cycle in the brain.

This cycle breaks fatty acids, amino acids, and monosaccharides into smaller molecules that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. And provide the building blocks of the electrons needed to generate brain cells. [R]


Dosage


How To Take Sulbutiamine?

How to take: Sulbutiamine supplement recommendation dose is 400mg. However, caution is necessary in regards to cycling sulbutiamine and not supplementing on daily basis.

Sulbutiamine dosage: 200-600 mg/day, taken in the morning. Sulbutiamine is fat-soluble (in fact, that’s the reason it can pass the blood-brain barrier and have all these nootropic properties), so be sure you take it with a fat source; otherwise, you won’t absorb it. [R]


Stack


Sulbutiamine Stack

It’s quite rare to find recommendations of stacking sulbutiamine and out of all that I have come across, I think the best stack, or at least one that I would personally consider, is sulbutiamine, aniracetam, and choline stack. For example:

Sulbutiamine 200mg
Aniracetam 750mg
Alpha-GPC 300mg

Aniracetam & choline stack has been one of the most effective I have ever tried. Sulbutiamine supposedly stacks well with racetams and is a common choice due to similarities of effects on cognitive function. [R]


Side Effects


At standard doses (200-1000 mg), side effects could include a headache, nausea, and trouble sleeping.

People doing self-experiments with sulbutiamine, though, occasionally report anxiety and negative thoughts from taking higher doses (most of these side effects showed up around 1000-2000 mg). Others say they feel anxiety from taking sulbutiamine for too long without a break. [R]


Conclusion


If you decide to use sulbutiamine, be sure to cycle it. When you don’t take the occasional day off from sulbutiamine, it’s likely you’ll build a tolerance to its effects, and the sulbutiamine will stop working unless you increase the dose. [R]

Experiment is key to finding the dosage and cycle that’s just right for you and your body composition.

Its a great choice to consider on days where you need extra mental functionality.

Sulbutiamine is becoming more and more popular in the biohacking community. If you’re curious, give it a try and see how you feel.


User Experience


Here is a sulbutiamine Reddit user experience from someone who’s ADD (high five!) and prescribed Adderall:

…I only heard about nootropics for the first time around 9 months ago. Used to take Adderall for many years, but quit over 5 years ago because it was causing daily headaches and I suspected it was causing my chronic insomnia.

I have legit ADD, as well as what I would call brain fog, low level depression, lack of motivation. I’ve taken sulbutiamine a few times, and I have really good results with it. I only take it occasionally, when I have a big project I need to get done (because I don’t want it to stop working, like I’ve read that it will if you take it often). I took it today because I had a lot of organization tasks I needed to do, and since I hate these kinds of tasks, I often lack motivation to start or complete them.

When I take my capsule, I can actually feel it start to kick in around 20-30 minutes after taking it. It reminds me a lot of how Adderall worked/felt but without that unexplainable “buzzy” feeling. I felt motivated and energized, and really got into my work. Just thought I’d share for any other noobs out there who haven’t tried it yet.

u/thecountessofdevon