Pharmaceuticals

Modafinil is a powerful stimulant that promotes ‘wakefulness' and treats sleep disorders. It prevents daytime sleepiness and fatigue, as well as offering nootropical benefits such as enhancing mood, increasing mental alertness, increasing motivation, improving reaction time, reducing fatigue, and even enhancing memory.

Overview

What is Modafinil?

In use by the French army, the American Air Force, the Indian Air Force, and Canadian astronauts….. (astronauts!) [R]. Modafinil is a powerful stimulant that promotes wakefulness and treating daytime sleep disorders such as narcolepsy – excessive, uncontrollable daytime sleepiness. Besides tats, it offers nootropic benefits such as enhancing mood, increasing mental alertness, increasing motivation, improving reaction time, reducing fatigue, and even enhancing memory.

As a prescription medicine, Modafinil is available in the US, Canada, the UK, and almost every developed country today. It is also available in the UAE where I had it prescribed for a month. Aside from the original name, it also sells under brand names Provigil, Modvigil, and Alertec. It’s a eugeroic (a class of medical drugs that promotes wakefulness and alertness) used to treat conditions such as narcolepsy, a disorder that decreases the ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles, as well as the effects of shift work and similar sleep disorders. It’s used off-label by students, businesswomen, men, and shift-workers due to its nootropic effects.

Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea. In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. – Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Modafinil Benefits?

  1. Improves Alertness
  2. Reduces Fatigue
  3. Improves Cognition
  4. Reduces Daytime Sleepiness
  5. Enhances Learning Capacity
  6. Effective Neuroprotectant
  7. Reduces Anxiety and Anger Response
  8. Reduces ADHD and Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

Supporting research:

Improves Alertness

Although its effects are comparable to amphetamines like Adderall, which produce a temporary increase in cognition, Modafinil reports providing smoother and jitter-free energy. It also has fewer side effects and better toleration. Furthermore, it has low abuse and addiction potential.

Reduces Fatigue

Modafinil increases resistance to fatigue more than amphetamines, along with improving mood, motivation, and reaction time. It is also effective at reducing “impulse response,” i.e., bad decisions. A study on forty-one military subjects receiving Modafinil shows better scores in not only fatigue but also reaction time. Additionally, measurable scores are showing in performance, mood, logical thinking, and even memory. [R]

Improves Cognition

It improves cognitive function by increasing wakefulness and enhancing mental performance during a sleep-deprivation state.
A by-product of the ground-breaking stimulant Adrafinil, Modafinil acted faster and was promoted as a different drug in the 1970’s. After extensive clinical trials, Modafinil got the FDA’s approval to use as hypersomnia treatment. [R]

Reduces Daytime Sleepiness

Modafinil is useful for shift workers. It is used to help pilots staying alert throughout operations by the American military.
According to the World Health Organization, off-label users take Modafinil as a Nootropic. Moreover, with that, reports showing they get the most cognitive boost as well as most of the compelling benefits when they are not sleep-deprived. It is useful for both, still. [R]

Enhances Learning Capacity

Modafinil is powerful strengthening the ability to learn and expanding the capacity to process information. Research confirms that it reinforces mental endurance and performance, especially in cases of drug dependence and ADHD individuals. According to the clinical trials, Modafinil enhances mood, performance, response time and even memory in healthy individuals as well as those who are sleep-deprived.

Effective Neuroprotectant

Experiments further suggest Modafinil promotes brain health. In brain tissue, its inhibitors properties decrease the manifestation of damaging free radicals, thereby making it an effective neuroprotectant [R], [R], [R].

Reduces Anxiety and Anger Response

Although less of a featured trait, Modafinil seems to have the ability to reduce anxiety as well as decreasing anger. A result of the reduction it allows in the reactivity stimuli within the brain [R]. There is a paradoxical study [R] for the curious cats like myself. The research shows that on the contrary, Modafinil increases aggression and anxiety in a subject taking a 100mg dose. When the treatment is doubling to 200mg, the items display a reduction in anxiety. It’s a case where less is not more and more is more.

Reduces ADHD and Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms

Modafinil is one of the standard stimulants for the treatment of attention hyperactivity deficit disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, research suggests that it is an effective treatment for memory impairment in cases of multiple cases of sclerosis. Current clinical trials measure modafinil as a treatment for conditions such as depression, psychosis, seasonal depression, and even drug addiction. It confirms that it strengthens mental performance, thereby becoming beneficial in ADHD and drug dependence. [R] [R]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Modafinil Work?

The unique mechanisms of action differentiates Modafinil effect from the traditional stimulants though they are similar. Modafinil activates neurons by focusing on the hypothalamus and amygdala, unlike amphetamine, methylphenidate, and other central nervous stimulants that only induce wakefulness by general widespread neuronal activation. The precise mechanisms of Modafinil action have not been identified regarding locating a single site of action, though it modulates the brain’s histamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, orexin, and dopamine systems. However, it is evident that Modafinil’s effect on numerous essential neurotransmitters is at the heart of its potency, both as a eugeroic and nootropic.

Orexin Neuropeptide

Orexin neurons exist in the hypothalamus but project to many different parts of the brain including several areas that regulate wakefulness. Leading cause of Narcolepsy is lack of orexin, which Modafinil addresses by acting on orexin neurons. Activation of these neurons also increases production of histamines and other important neurotransmitters that are related to wakefulness and alertness.

On Histamine

Histamine is known to allergies and local immune responses, it also plays an essential part in regulating the sleep/wake cycle. Modafinil actions elevate hypothalamic histamine, a known wakefulness mechanism.

On Dopamine

Dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter associating with stimuli/reward response, and therefore can enhance mood as well as increase motivation and focus. Modafinil works by blocking the receptors that remove dopamine from synapses, which raises levels of dopamine available for instant use in the brain. Unlike amphetamines, which stimulate the release and increase of dopamine levels in a high but rapid amplified manner. This indirect gradual action on the dopamine system is a primary feature of how Modafinil works in the brain. It decreases the “rush” type of euphoria that associates with addiction.

On Norepinephrine

Modafinil increases the availability of norepinephrine, a stimulant neurotransmitter that promotes wakefulness and increases alertness in the hypothalamus. How Modafinil increases norepinephrine levels isn't clear.

On Glutamate

Modafinil elevates levels of glutamate, the primary neurotransmitter in the brain which is responsible for excitement, by activating the extracellular release of glutamate in the hypothalamus. Glutamate plays a crucial role in human’s psychological functions, playing a significant role in Modafinil’s enhancing effects. Such effects include increased memory, focus, and even brain modification. Not all that Modafinil has to offers is clear, but more than 40 years of extensive research reveals its powerful effects.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Modafinil is well-absorbed with peak plasma concentration reached approximately two to four hours after administration. Food has no effect on overall modafinil bioavailability; however, absorption (tmax) may be delayed by approximately one hour if taken with food.

Distribution

Modafinil is moderately bound to plasma protein (approximately 60%), primarily to albumin, which indicates that there is a low risk of interaction with strongly bound drugs.

Biotransformation

Modafinil is metabolised by the liver. The chief metabolite (40 – 50% of the dose), modafinil acid, has no pharmacological activity.

Elimination

The excretion of modafinil and its metabolites is chiefly renal, with a small proportion being eliminated unchanged (< 10% of the dose).

Half-life

The effective elimination half-life of modafinil after multiple doses is about 15 hours.

For patients 6 to 7 years of age, the estimated half-life is approximately 7 hours and increases with increase in age until half-life values approach those in adults (approximately 15 hours). This difference in clearance is partially offset by the younger patients' smaller size and lower weight which results in comparable exposure following administration of comparable doses. Higher concentrations of one of the circulating metabolites, modafinil sulfone, are present in children and adolescents as compared to adults. [R]

The electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC)

Effects in Comparison to Amphetamines

Modafinil vs Amphetamines: despite causing the lesser motor activity increase when comparing to methamphetamine, a 1997 study still reported that Modafinil is a better inhibitor of sleep drive and a producer of more periods of wakefulness. Although it is possible to get to addiction to Modafinil is also being proposed as a treatment for methamphetamine and cocaine addictions, restoring normal levels of learning ability and generally yielding more positive results than amphetamines. [R]

Effects on Exercise and Sports Performance

Modafinil enhances sports and exercise performance by the duration of time before exhaustion and reduces the feelings of fatigue. In 2004, it got banned by Anti-Doping Agencies. [R]

Effects on Cognitive Abilities

Several years of research explain that Modafinil improves a big range of psychological feature talents. From memory and fluid intelligence to each abstract and personal memory, government performance, pattern recognition, and performance on tasks that requires a high level of thinking. Further research also states that Modafinil’s effects may be most marked among low-performing subjects. Though Modafinil might end up in anxiety, clinical trials have examined that it improves mood in healthy subjects. [R] [R]

Dosage

How To Take Modafinil?

Modafinil is safe for continuous use at moderate doses (100-200 mg). Large-scale clinical trials show no significant indications of tolerance over periods of up to several months.

Side Effects

What Are Modafinil Side Effects?

Commonly reported side effect of modafinil (although minor) can include anxiety, insomnia, headache, nausea, digestion issues, dizziness, diarrhea, dry mouth, and inflammation. Many of these side effects are temporary. If they persist, its advisable to seek professional advice.

Conclusion

Everyone responds differently to nootropics, but decades of research have shown modafinil is safe, effective, and well-tolerated. If you’re into maximizing cognitive abilities and minimizing fatigue, modafinil is a nootropic worth trying. My personal experience with it has been very interesting and positive. I mostly noticed the massive interest in learning as well as the capacity to process information. Nevertheless, I still prefer Adrafinil over Modafinil, even though they are almost identical products.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Modafinil?

Modafinil is a medication that promotes wakefulness through a variety of mechanisms. Although Modafinil is structurally like central nervous system stimulants like amphetamines, its effects and mechanisms of action are notably different. Modafinil influences the activity of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA and serotonin. Dopamine is one of the neurotransmitters that seems to be most strongly affected. Modafinil inhibits the reuptake of dopamine through specific dopamine transporter channels but is very selective as to which ones it inhibits. Serotonin activity increases in both the amygdala and frontal cortex with Modafinil use.

How Long Does Modafinil Stay In Your System?

Modafinil is a medication that promotes wakefulness. It’s prescribed to treat narcolepsy, hypersomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and shift work sleep disorder. Modafinil is widely used off-label as a cognitive enhancing drug. Individuals who use Modafinil as a cognitive enhancer claim that it dramatically improves focus and concentration, especially when taken to counteract fatigue. The effects of Modafinil are long-lasting compared to other medications.
The half-life of Modafinil ranges from 12 to 15 hours, although the metabolism of Modafinil can be affected by several factors, including genetic predispositions, kidney and liver health. Allergy and hypersensitivity are the only contraindications to using Modafinil. Scientists are still trying to understand precisely how Modafinil achieves its effects. Modafinil targets several neurotransmitters, including dopamine and norepinephrine.

How Long Does Modafinil Stay In Your Urine, Hair And Blood?

Depending on various factors, urinary excretion of unchanged Modafinil ranges from 0 percent to 18.7 percent. Most Modafinil is excreted as one of two major circulating metabolites: modafinil acid or modafinil sulfone. Modafinil and its metabolites may be present at testable levels in the urine for up to 30 hours following ingestion. Modafinil and modafinil acid can be tested for in plasma, serum and urine. Modafinil is not usually tested for in routine drug screenings and its use is unlikely to cause false positives for stimulants such as amphetamines.

Further Readings

  1. Adrafinil
  2. Phenylpiracetam
  3. Agmatine Sulfate

PRL-8-53 (chemical name Methyl 3-(2-(benzyl(methyl)amino)benzoate) is a synthetic nootropic compound that was discovered in 1972 and patented in 1975 by then Dr. Nikolaus Hansl, a neuropharmacologist at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska.

Overview

What is PRL-8-53?

PRL-8-53 is a synthetic nootropic compound that was discovered in 1972 and patented in 1975 preliminary animal tests showed that the compound was both secure and nootropic, boosting the learning of prevention in rodents without adverse effects. However, a 1978 research on human volunteers triggered sincere interest in PRL-8-53, showing that a single dose of the compound could enhance word retention ratings by more than 200%.

Comments by author and longevity expert Durk Pearson, who was cited in' High Frontiers' as follows, fuelled interest in the compound: “PRL-8-53 is a great memory enhancer. Usually, just looking at them for a second, you can memorize about seven or eight numbers. On average, PRL-8-53 is said to increase memory span of approximately 21 to 22 digits. “Hansel's single human study on PRL-8-53, soon after patenting the compound, highly promotes the potential of the drug as a nootropic.

The research evaluated word retention between the ages of 24 and 86 in a group of 30 healthy volunteers. While participants with good baseline word retention scores showed little improvement after taking PLR-8-53, participants with low initial scores or over 30 showed significant improvement after a 5 mg dose of PLR-8-53, often more than doubling their recall rate.

In the human study, no adverse effects were observed. Anecdotal evidence seems to support claims for safety and nootropic capacities of PRL-8-53, but due to restricted testing, it is still regarded as an experimental drug.

PRL-8-53 is presently an unplanned drug and is legally available for purchase in the United States.

Benefits and Effects

What Are PRL-8-53 Benefits?

The elderly participants showed necessary improvements in memory after taking a single 5 mg dose in the only human research on PRL-8-53. A double-blind study using word memorization as a measure, testing the capacity of the respondents to recall a list of 12 one-syllable phrases, first to create a baseline and then again after PRL-8-53 or placebo has been ingested. The participants were screened for their capacity to remember the phrases 24 hours after hearing them, and then one week later again.

Results of the research show that respondents with higher baseline scores showed the least improvement after PRL-8-53 was ingested, while subjects with imperfect first memory or over 30 years of the era showed significant improvement in recall. Hansl described the impact on elderly respondents in an article on the exam as follows: “This group was 30 years of era or older. Rote memory, as could be anticipated, did not come to this group as readily as it did to younger learners. After 24 hours on placebo, the average retention was just under three words out of a possible 12.

After a week, the average retention was two words. However, the same topics maintained an average of 5.85 phrases after 24 hours and 5.25 words after a week when learning after drug administration.

Again, there were statistically essential increases. The enhancement expressed in percentage of placebo results was 108 percent for the 24-hour test and 152 percent for the one-week recall. “Many individual nootropic users who have attempted PRL-8-53 confirm their memory boosting impacts, sometimes comparing it to a more strong variant of other nootropics such as nefiracetam and Noopept.

Mechanism of Action

How Does PRL-8-53 Work?

The precise mechanisms of action of PRL-8-53 are not well understood, but the production and reaction of the brain to several key neurotransmitters is thought to be regulated.

In an article in 1979 entitled “Learning and Memory Improvement Through Chemistry: Dream or Offering Reality?”Hansl said,” PRL-8-53 has been shown to increase the peripheral and central reactions to noradrenaline in the animal model. Therefore, assuming that a comparable feature may be present in humans seems reasonable.

Translated into behavioral effects, it implies that this drug potentially is capable of facilitating the conversion of short-term to long-term memory, resulting in increased storage of information code. “According to Hansl, in the same article,” PRL-8-53 has been shown to improve the response to acetylcholine, the answer being quantitatively similar over a considerable dose range, excluding the likelihood of acetylcholine. In short, we now have a possibly effective drug that will increase a particular chemical system in the brain, the cholinergic system, thereby enhancing our capacity to recall data from a pre-existing data pool.

Dosage

How To Take PRL-8-53?

The only human study on PRL-8-53 was based on a single 5 mg dose intake. No information is available on the efficacy or prospective toxicity of any other human dosage.

Side Effects

What Are PRL-8-53 Side Effects?

No adverse effects were observed in the human study from a single 5 mg dose of PRL-8-53. Animal studies indicate that the compound has a high therapy threshold, but the proof is very restricted as there have been no extensive toxicity trials.

Keep in mind that this is exceptionally experimental chemistry for studies, so caution is recommended.

Conclusion

PRL-8-53 is a fascinating synthetic nootropic, if mainly unexplored, which many think will eventually prove to be an invaluable smart drug.

Although it gave rise to high concern when it was launched 40 years ago, after a few animal tests and a single human study, research into its opportunities came to a halt; little has been learned about it since the review that sparked such compelling interest in its potential as a memory enhancer.

There does not seem to be any continuing research on the compound at this moment, but nootropic lovers continue to be curious about its opportunities and are regarded one of the most excellent short-term memory boosters on the market.

Verified by Dr. Sundru M. Devi
M.D. Microbiology, PhD Biotechnology, January 28, 2020

Phenibut is a a GABAergic agent that works on the GABA neurotransmitter distinctly reducing anxiety. It also lessens depression, and PTSD symptoms, improving sleep, and providing an overall feeling of ease and well-being. Due to the euphoric-like effects it offers, users prefer to stick to occasional use rather than frequent in respect of its abuse and addiction risk potential.

Overview

What is Phenibut?

Phenibut is a supplement that is a derivative of GABA, but much stronger. It was discovered in Russia and is considered as a nootropic (a substance that helps your brain work better) because it can help with focus and then help to cause profound sleep. Russian researchers found that phenibut protected against the psychological side effects of chronic stress.

It was also suggested that maintaining a  dose less than 600 mg is effective, or else it might stop working  when taken daily. There are reports of people abusing it by taking high doses for long periods and becoming dependent on it. This is a very powerful sleep hack, but it doesn’t mix with alcohol or some other medications.

Phenibut might not have as widespread use as other nootropics  in the market. However, it has demonstrated numerous benefits over ten  decades through both formal studies and anecdotal documentation. It's a nootropic designed to simulate the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that acts on the central nervous system. It is marketed as a psychotropic with a positive effect on mental capability and improved neurological function. The anxiety diminishing effects of phenibut are the most praised of all its attributes. Once anxiety is resolved, natural sleep patterns and enhanced cognitive processes shortly start following.

Phenibut was invented in the Soviet Union practically 50 years back. An intriguing, recorded tale uncovers that Russian cosmonauts were supplemented with phenibut, particularly during the 1975 mission Apollo-Soyuz at the joint of the USSR and US. It stays being used to date in Russia as a treatment and solution for some conditions, including anxiety, depression, prevention of motion sickness, even alcohol withdrawal syndrome, to name a few. Also, obviously, its nootropic properties.

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications. – Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Phenibut Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress Levels
  2. Increased Sociability
  3. Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality
  4. Improves Symptoms of ADHD

Supporting research

Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Anyone who suffers from anxiety knows that it can be tough to control; it’s not just something that can be ‘switched’ off. When taking Phenibut, you will be able to gain more control. Once administered, you can expect to feel more relaxed and composed.

This attribute is the most appreciated benefit of phenibut, which is documented by Izyaslav Lapin. [1]

Anxiety is often the result of overactivity in the brain's concentration and overthinking and analysis of unnecessary or irrelevant matters, often with the inability to realize the direction to which the train of thought is heading. Turning down and resting the continuous and distracting neuron processing frees the negative thought preoccupation, which in turn opens a fresher, vibrant, and often productive range of possibilities.

Increases Sociability and Enhances Mood

The anxiolytic impact prompts receptiveness towards social interaction, which without anyone else is an issue quite often connecting with nervousness. Studies suggest phenibut to be a promoter of enhanced cognitive processing, but the fundamental reason is practically still due to anxiety relief. Those seeking to improve interaction in social settings report better results with the supplement in comparison with alcohol or prescription medication such as benzodiazepines. While attempted anxiety-reduction using traditional tranquilizers often leads to drowsiness and reduction in motor skill and cognitive ability, phenibut seems to mitigate the feelings, except without the associating and undesired side effects that associate with traditional prescription medication. [R]

Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality

People living through the depression, anxiety, stressful life events, while going through hormonal changes such as menopause, often report degenerating sleep quality, sleep disturbance, and insomnia. While melatonin is a remarkable and beneficial supplement to consider, some require pharmaceutical sleep aid for more sedating and sleep-inducing effects.

Lack of continuous quality sleep can cause impairment in cognitive processing, opening the way to more anxiety and more sleep disturbance. Used consciously, Phenibut is an excellent supplement that can restore significant, natural sleep patterns, duration, and quality. The ability to fall asleep, remain asleep, maintain an extended period of healthy, rejuvenating deep sleep is attainable with phenibut. [R] [R]

May Improve ADHD

According to Selfhacked, since phenibut improves attention, it may also help with ADHD symptoms. In one clinical trial of 50 children with ADHD, it improved cognition, self-control, sustained attention, and memory after one month (500-700 mg/day). One month is a short time for evaluating ADHD effects; long-term studies need to determine if the beneficial effect can be sustained.

Editor's Thought

Well, I am ADHD and have taken Phenibut and similar “GABA-acting” drugs, such as gabapentin, for about a year. It's interesting that, at the time, I had not been diagnosed with ADHD yet and was not aware nor had a clue what ADHD is. I self-medicated with gabapentin and phenibut along the way, and now years later, looking back at how routinely I was taking it, I realize the reason I was hooked and amazed by it was its effect on me as an ADHD, before any anxiety triggers that might associate. It was a transformative medication – but overtime, mister W (withdrawals) had been sitting and just waiting for me to get off it to introduce himself – and that horrible experience was almost equally transformative.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Phenibut Work?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (also known as GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in our central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier makes supplementing with GABA close to being ineffective due to its inability to bypass the blood-brain restriction. However, phenibut crosses the barrier due to the addition of the phenyl group molecule. Once in the brain, it slows the neuronal excitability, resulting in the effects as mentioned earlier.

GABA frees up channels in the neurons, reduces the function of other neurotransmitters, and diminishes collective fears and anxieties in the neuron. It remains vague whether or not phenibut binds to the GABA receptor, although some studies suggest that it only does so in high concentrations.

Lapin’s research found that phenibut increases the levels of dopamine as well. Dopamine is another vital neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It regulates emotions and creates the reaction of what we call motivation.

More from the Web

To affect one’s cognitive functioning, mood, and overall relaxation levels, this supplement needs to cross the blood-brain barrier. GABA cannot effectively do this, while Phenibut can. This is due to a phenyl group that is attached to GABA’s structure.

Naturally, GABA balances out the effects of chemicals that stimulate neurons. When neurons are overstimulated, this can lead to feelings of anxiety and restlessness. Since Phenibut works like GABA, it helps to restore this balance.

The result is neurons firing only when they’re supposed to. Once Phenibut reaches the brain, it targets GABA receptor sites.

It is believed that Phenibut is non-selective, as it stimulates both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors. This allows you to feel a sense of relaxation, lessening anxiety. This is relatively different from other nootropic supplements, which is why it’s beneficial in a stack.

Phenibut also stimulates dopamine receptors, which is critical  in terms of your mood. Once dopamine is increased, you will experience a more positive attitude. Users also tend to experience high levels of motivation, allowing them to achieve more.

Dosage

How to Take Phenibut?

Phenibut is a potent compound. Start at the lowest effective dose and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs. A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers with no tolerance. 500 mg would be ideal, in my opinion.

Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and the optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.

Phenibut is GABA (the major calming neurotransmitter in your brain) with a phenyl ring attached, which allows the molecule to pass your blood-brain barrier and reach receptors in your brain. Phenibut was developed initially for Russian astronauts, to ease the stress of flight and help them sleep in space. It relieves anxiety and drives you into a deeper sleep. Phenibut is also a nootropic: it boosts cognition, giving you relaxed clarity of thought.

Powder Phenibut Dosage

For people trying to figure out which capsules to buy, here's how much phenibut I can pack into each capsule size (using lift mode fine crystals phenibut HCL powder):

Terms:

“Packed body” is when you press as much powder as you can into the large inner portion of the capsule.

“Entirely packed capsule” is when you pack the cap (top) of the capsule and the body of the capsule as tightly as you can while still being able to close it to the point of “popping” together.

Size 000

Packed body: ~1100-1150

Entirely packed: ~1200-1250

Size 00

Packed body: ~800 mg

Entirely packed: ~850 mg

Size 1

Packed body: ~410mg

Entirely packed: ~430mg

Dave Aspey on Phenibut

Phenibut can be addictive, so it’s very important to take it correctly. The two common mistakes people make are taking phenibut daily and increasing the dose over time. Phenibut’s effects last for 48-72 hours, so you only want to take it once every three days (twice a week max).

You also want to cycle it to avoid tolerance. Go two weeks on phenibut, two weeks off. Don’t go past 250 mg doses; if you stop feeling the effects at 250mg, cycle off for a couple of weeks. Don’t mix phenibut with alcohol, either. It amplifies the consequences, which can be dangerous.

Dose: 250 mg (never higher)

Time: Anytime, but only twice a week max (Monday and Thursday, for example).

Do two weeks on phenibut, two weeks off.

Side Effects

Phenibut Side Effects

Like anything we put inside our body, the best source of measurement and criticism is the human body itself. To avoid adverse effects, start at a low dose and see your body's reaction and adaptation to it.

Often individuals report dizziness and drunk-life sensation as a side effect. On the other hand, many people supplement with phenibut for the very same impact.

The experience is entirely subjective. Rarely users report fatigue, nausea, and stomach discomfort. People on epilepsy medication or MAO inhibitors are advised to consult a professional doctor before taking phenibut. The consumption of alcohol must be within reasonable limits, as a synergistic effect might be induced in combination of alcohol and phenibut. 

Avoid taking daily.

Phenibut has high abuse potential. If taken regularly, be mindful of possible withdrawal effects upon discontinuation. It's wise to limit intake to once or twice a week. Thereby maintain a low tolerance, enjoy its benefits, and avoid building a destructive habit of use. Do not underestimate the power of phenibut and do your research if you decide to include it in your stack.

Withdrawals

Essential and useful resources on phenibut usage, abuse, retreats, and much more can be found on Reddit's phenibut sub. Please use it with caution.

It is essential to be aware of the possible withdrawal effect upon discontinuation of phenibut, which can be mild to wild, depending on whether or not it has been abused or not, the dosage, a period of use, amongst other things. An example from the wilder end is the following opinion, from a long-time, high-dose phenibut (ab)user:

In my experience, it is the worst feeling ever. If you had problems in your life anyway and were using Phenibut to mask them, then they will come back twenty times as bad. Withdrawal strips away any optimistic delusions the Phenibut might have given you, and puts you into a state of intense ‘depressive realism'. You see things seemingly for how they are, and find it physically impossible to believe in potential hope of a miracle happening. You are forced to confront the crushing hopelessness of your situation. Any optimism you remember from your Phenibut days seems like meaningless self-delusion. Regrets and doubts multiply. You start planning for the worst, expecting the worst.

Waking up at 3 am every morning after ultra-depressing dreams, your energy reserves are depleted. Your range of vision widens so you can see out of the corners of your eyes, like a prey animal. It feels like there are cold, damp, grey clouds above your eyes. Vision becomes blurry, and you feel old. Smiling becomes physically impossible and fake. Breathing is difficult; you can hold your breath for a long time before having to force yourself to take a big, stressful gulp of air. You may get audible hallucinations, such as hearing a chorus of a particular song repeated over and over again, almost mockingly loudly, when you lie in bed. Things like tooth pain that were masked with GABA are felt again. If you were worried about balding, your scalp would feel cold. Your worst fears will be played upon, as if by a demon, and exaggerated. You find it easy to believe in Hell, but impossible to believe in Heaven.

It gets worse for the first three days, then stays bad, becomes manageable by the end of the first week of cold turkey, though you remain melancholy for about two more weeks. This is based on having taken a relatively high dose daily for several months. With a more sensible dosage, the withdrawal will be far milder.

Phenibut Warnings

The following Reddit page is valuable for anyone uses or planning to use or stop phenibut:

  1. Phenibut Warnings
  2. Phenibut Dependence
  3. Phenibut Overdose

Phenibut Legal Status

Is Phenibut Legal In Australia and Hungary?

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary.

In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential.

In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose. [R]

As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list. [R]

FDA on Phenibut

Phenibut is a substance that does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) defines a dietary ingredient as a vitamin; mineral; herb or other botanical; amino acid; nutritional substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or a combination of the preceding substances. Because phenibut does not fit any of the categories of dietary ingredients under the FD&C Act, any nutritional supplements that declare phenibut as a dietary ingredient are misbranded.

Phenibut is also known as:

  1. fenibut
  2. phenigam
  3. PhGaba
  4. Phenigamma
  5. Phenygam
  6. 4-Amino-3-phenylbutanoic acid
  7. β-(aminomethyl)benzenepropanoic acid
  8. beta-(Aminomethyl)hydrocinnamic acid
  9. β-phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid+

Phenibut in Dietary Supplements

Phenibut in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Phenibut is unregulated in the UAE. It is legal for personal use, however, it is not permitted for retail sale.

If you order Phenibut from overseas, if has a chance of being seized by customs, but that won't be an issue of serious importance, however, you will have lost the money paid for it.

You can Buy Phenibut in Dubai locally from here.

User Experience

Reddit

We all love phenibut. It removes our social anxiety (which everybody has nowadays), removes inhibitions we have as humans, removes a mental condition we didn't know we had before the use of this substance, makes us more motivated so we can focus on tasks.

Phenibut is a substance which is very handy to treat all of this. You can use it for the rest of your life. You will have continuous anxiolysis, but the motivational aspects will disappear. This is because of a down-regulation of GABA-B on the lesser hand and especially down-regulation of your dopamine receptors. It's called tolerance.

I was 3 years addicted and I have a long road of nootropic use behind me. Herbal extracts, synthetic nootropics, soft- and hard drugs… Some to get high, others to make me smarter and others to remove phenibut tolerance. But 99% of these maybe 100+ compounds I used really helped.

However I discovered 2 very useful substances on my long road.

First of all, memantine. It's an Alzheimer's medication. It works as an NMDA-antagonist. NMDA receptors are receptors in your brain part of the glutamate system, used for learning and memory. These are said to reverse tolerance for stimulants such as caffeine and amphetamine. Phenibut can be classified as a relaxant and stimulant, and while it has like all the other stimulants tolerance problems, NMDA antagonists come in handy to reduce this. Various reports of people you can find on the internet indeed back this claim up. Other compounds who work in this system are ketamine, DXM (cough surpressant), MXE and N20. We also call these compounds dissociatives. Memantine is dissociative in higher doses as a recreational drug but for Phenibut it's more suited in 1-10mg doses for tolerance reduction. It's also a dopamine agonist. You read that good: an NMDA-antagonist (reduces tolerance for dopaminergic stimulants) and dopamine antagonist. So memantine is a stimulant while reducing tolerance for stimulants. In my use of this substance I learned this: start low – with 1 mg to begin with. Because memantine is also a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, it can have anti-nootropic effects the first week while starting. This may contribute to initial worsening of cognitive function during early memantine treatment and is the reason why many people don't take memantine for longer than I week and why you can't find many succesful reports on the internet. I was very succesful in doing this but had to way for minimum 2 weeks. Memantine is also the best in the 2 chemicals I describe in the post when comparing price/efficacy. You can find 10 grams for €75 on the internet (contact me when interested).

The other succesful substance I used is fasoracetam. It's a nootropic in the racetam family. Some other nootropics in this family are piracetam and aniracetam. 2 famous nootropics known for there ability to increase blood flow in your brain and make you more sharper. But only fasoracetam has the ability to increase GABA-B receptors in the brain. It's no GABA-B agonist and no GABA-B antagonist. This is good to know because GABA-B antagonists have a negative on your ability to relax in the beginning and are dangerous in general (because they can damage your nervous system). GABA-B antagonists don't know as far as I know, so this is purely hypothetical. Just wanted to say fasoracetam is an ideal substance. Fasoracetam is more expensive compared to memantine, I can find 10 grams on the internet for €60. Since you need to use higher doses (10-50mg) it will cost you more.

Because of my discovery of these substances and success with it, I decided to be a social butterfly and highly motivational person for the rest of my life. I decided it long before I discovered this, but I couldn't make it true because of the disappearment of phenibut's effects. I hope I stay them for the rest of my life.

My current method? I make 000 capsules which hold approximately 800mg powder. With a weighing scale I weigh 100g phenibut, 2.5g fasoracetam and 0.5g memantine. Then I mix it. By doing this I get a nice mixture of these powders. Be aware, people will say this is not 100% mixed because you do it manually. But this is not a huge problem, it's not really a bad thing if you get sometimes 1 mg memantine and other times 3 mg memantine. If you want to do it more precisely, you can buy a super accurate weighing scale and put 1mg memantine every morning under your tongue. But you lose the comfort of easy dosing.

Conclusion

Phenibut is a useful anxiety-relieving supplement that does not cause the infamous drowsiness often accompanying anxiety medication. It is well-studied and standing amongst the top in line when it comes to anxiety relief, sleep regulation, and cognitive improvement.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Phenibut?

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.

How should I take Phenibut?

Start at the lowest effective dose (250mg) and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs. A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers with no tolerance. 500 mg would be the ideal in my opinion. Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.

How much Phenibut should I take?

For first-time, 250mg, If you’re experienced and know well enough about it, you can take 500mg. The best approach is to start low and see how you react to it, and increase accordingly if needed. But keep in mind that it takes around an hour and a half to be felt, so make sure you keep about 2 hours interval between doses.

How long does the effect of Phenibut last?

I can only recommend products I personally tried, and in the case of Adrafinil, I only bought and tried Nootropic Depot’s 300 mg Adrafinil capsules. Although I’ve seen it available in a few different websites, there was always something sketchy about the website, or negative reviews about the vendors adding some unknown fillers to the products.

And surprisingly, I actually found that I prefer Adrafinil over Modafinil greatly, even though I’ve always (on the occasions that I took it) maintained a dose of 300mg once per day only.

If you decide to purchase from another vendor, make sure you research, find out more information about them from Reddit’s nootropics forum, find reviews on google and whatnot, before making a transaction.

If you are in Dubai, you can buy Adrafinil as well as many other nootropics from the shop page.

How long does it take Phenibut to kick in?

Phenibut has a long onset time of around 1.5 – 2 hours until its peak effect, for most people. The time that it takes to kick in depends on the amount of food in your stomach, your metabolism, the dosage, and how you took it. Taking Phenibut sublingually results in a faster onset time that taking it with water or juice.

Can I take phenibut with 5-htp?

5-HTP affects serotonin, while Phenibut effects gaba, glutamate, and dopamine. It should be ok as long as you don’t exaggerate with the dosage.

Is Phenibut Legal?

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary. In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential. In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose. As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list. Phenibut in Dubai is unregulated. This means that it is not illegal to possess for personal use, however, it is not permitted for retail sale. If you order Phenibut from overseas, it has a chance of being seized by customs, and the money being lost.

Where can I buy Phenibut?

Based off my experience, I’d only only tried and therefore recommend Nootropic Depot Phenibut. But you can simply search online and make your choice from the different vendors. And make sure you research those vendors too, before actually making a purchase.

Can I buy Phenibut in Dubai, UAE?

You can buy Phenibut in Dubai as well as a selection of different nootropics from the shop page.

Can I use Phenibut to help me with pain and anxiety?

Phenibut is a gabapentinoid so if it’s nerve pain that you’re dealing with then there’s a good chance it will help. It’s very chemically similar to gabapentin and gab is regularly prescribed to patients with nerve pain. 

But being that phenibut is a gabapentinoid means that it will potentiate opiate medications so just be careful if you are taking any for your pain because the phenibut will make the effects of them stronger.

As for anxiety, it’s great for it.

Further Readings

  1. If you're intrigued by Phenibut, you might like and find Fasoracetam quite interesting too due to the two nootropics interaction. You may also find Agmatine Sulfate & Sunifiram worth exploring.
  2. Reddit's Phenibut Endless Information (from first-hand experiences)
  3. Phenibut – Wikipedia
  4. Nootropics Information Frequently Asked Questions

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

clonazepam chemical structure klompin nootropics information nootro.info
Clonzepam Chemical Structure


Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and the movement disorder known as akathisia. It is a tranquilizer of the benzodiazepine class. It is taken by mouth. It begins having an effect within an hour and lasts between 6 and 12 hours.

Common side effects include sleepiness, poor coordination, and agitation. Long-term use may result in tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms if stopped abruptly. Dependence occurs in one-third of people who take clonazepam for longer than four weeks. There is an increased risk of suicide, particularly in people who are already depressed. If used during pregnancy it may result in harm to the baby. Clonazepam binds to GABAA receptors, thus increasing the effect of the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Clonazepam was patented in 1960 and went on sale in 1975 in the United States from Roche. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between US$0.01 and US$0.07 per pill. In the United States, the pills are about US$0.40 each. In 2016 it was the 42nd most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 18 million prescriptions. In many areas of the world it is commonly used as a recreational drug.

Protracted withdrawal

Protracted withdrawal applies to signs that linger until the end of acute withdrawal. Patients who have abused Klonopin and have taken very high doses of the medication that experience longer withdrawal times.

Individuals may feel a general malaise, cravings, anxiety, depressive symptoms. Some somatic symptoms, such as nausea, lightheadedness, headache, mild fever or chills, and so on, may continue to occur. A further period of rebound anxiety may also occur near the end of this stage.

There is a portion of the literature on opioid withdrawal in general, including Klonopin and other benzodiazepines, which explains the third phase of withdrawal, which consists mostly of psychological symptoms such as mood swings, periods of irritability, periods of anhedonia (difficulty feeling pleasure) and depressive symptoms that tend to occur in the body. This post-acute withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) is not generally recognized as a stage of withdrawal by other experts, nor is it officially mentioned in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association; however, it is acknowledged as valid by some individuals in the field of addiction.

This is suggested that people who do not have PAWS symptoms treated are at higher risk of relapse.

Medications used to help in the removal of Klonopin

Withdrawal from benzodiazepine, such as Klonopin, can be potentially dangerous due to the possibility of seizures (though this possibility is rare).

As a consequence, therapeutic detoxification is often necessary for the removal of benzodiazepine. Several medications can be used to assist with the withdrawal process, including:

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as Paxil and Prozac, can be useful in treating some of the effects of Klonopin withdrawal.

When a patient has complications such as seizures, doctors may use anticonvulsant drugs (e.g., Tegretol or carbamazepine to manage seizures).

Some of these anticonvulsants can also aid with the withdrawal process linked to the discontinuation of Klonopin.

The melatonin hormone has been beneficial in helping individuals who experience insomnia during the withdrawal process.

Melatonin is a hormone that causes sleep. Many signs of Klonopin withdrawal and reversal of tolerance can also be treated.

Any number of medications can be used to treat particular symptoms during the withdrawal period.

Research suggests that the most successful way of controlling withdrawal from benzodiazepines, such as Klonopin, is to implement a tapering mechanism where the patient in withdrawal continues to obtain progressively smaller doses of the medication before the formal withdrawal.

Beyond Detox

After an individual is considered to be physically stable, the emotional side effects of withdrawal are discussed more thoroughly.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy ( CBT) and Motivational Interview (MI) are two types of therapy that can be used during benzodiazepine addiction care.

Individuals also attend both group and individual CBT sessions, which can often include research and instructional sessions aimed at discovering the root of addiction and preventing potential stressors and causes in the potential.

MI can help increase the level of internal motivation of an individual by offering rewards for clean drug testing. Peer and family support networks are also essential components of a holistic system for treating opioid addiction.

Care standards can change during withdrawal as the individual needs and circumstances change.
Relapse is typical in individuals who are addicted to benzodiazepines and are particularly dangerous after detoxification.

Someone who has been used to using drugs at a certain amount, but has not used them for a while, and then returns to previous rates of use, may end up suffering from a fatal overdose.
The National Institute for Drug Abuse ( NIDA) registered a fourfold rise in benzodiazepine overdose deaths from 2001-13 to almost 7,000 deaths in 2013.

A relapse may occur as someone tries to self-medicate what may be uncomfortable symptoms of withdrawal.

Therapy and psychological help during benzodiazepine withdrawal are essential to reduce and prevent future relapse and avoid catastrophic consequences.

Clonazepam withdrawal is best handled by incorporating both pharmacological and clinical approaches, beginning with natural detoxification.

 

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Pending review. Contribute to this article.


Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect. It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome. It may also be used to cause memory loss during certain medical procedures. It can be taken by mouth, inserted into the rectum, injected into muscle, or injected into a vein. When given into a vein, effects begin in one to five minutes and last up to an hour. By mouth, effects may take 40 minutes to begin.

Common side effects include sleepiness and trouble with coordination. Serious side effects are rare. They include suicide, decreased breathing, and an increased risk of seizures if used too frequently in those with epilepsy. Occasionally excitement or agitation may occur. Long term use can result in tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms on dose reduction. Abrupt stopping after long-term use can be potentially dangerous. After stopping, cognitive problems may persist for six months or longer. It is not recommended during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Its mechanism of action is by increasing the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).


Also read:

Melatonin for Sleep: How Effective Is It?

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant medication of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and social phobia. It is taken by mouth.

Common side effects include loss of appetite, constipation, dry mouth, dizziness, sweating, and sexual problems. Severe side effects include an increased risk of suicide, mania, and serotonin syndrome. Antidepressant withdrawal syndrome may occur if stopped. There are concerns that use during the later part of pregnancy can harm the baby. How it works is not entirely clear but it is believed to involve alterations in neurotransmitters in the brain.

Venlafaxine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1993. It is available as a generic medication. In the United States the wholesale cost per dose is less than US$0.20 as of 2018. In 2016 it was the 51st most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 15 million prescriptions.

Also read:

Inside The Fragmented Minds of People With Dissociative Identity Disorder

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Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Alprazolam, sold under the trade name Xanax among others, is a short-acting benzodiazepine. It is most commonly used in short term management of anxiety disorders, specifically panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Other uses include chemotherapy-induced nausea, together with other treatments. GAD improvement occurs generally within a week. Alprazolam is available by mouth.

Common side effects include sleepiness, depression, headaches, feeling tired, dry mouth, and memory problems. Some of the sedation and tiredness may improve within a few days. Due to concerns about misuse, some do not recommend alprazolam as an initial treatment for panic disorder. Withdrawal or rebound symptoms may occur if use is suddenly decreased. Other rare risks include suicide, possibly due to loss of inhibition. Gradually decreasing the dose over weeks or months may be required. Alprazolam, like other benzodiazepines, acts through the GABAA receptor.

Alprazolam was patented in 1971 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1981. Alprazolam is a Schedule IV controlled substance and is a common drug of abuse. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the United States is less than US$0.03 per dose as of 2018. In 2016, it was the 19th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 27 million prescriptions.

Related Read:

Inside The Fragmented Minds of People With Dissociative Identity Disorder

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Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used to treat major depressive disorder and to support stopping smoking. It is an effective antidepressant on its own, but is also used as an add-on medication in cases of incomplete response to first-line SSRI antidepressants. Bupropion is taken in tablet form and is available only by prescription in most countries.

Common side effects include dry mouth, trouble sleeping, agitation, and headaches. Serious side effects include an increased risk for epileptic seizures and suicide. The risk of seizures caused the drug to be withdrawn from the market for some time and then the recommended dose to be reduced. In comparison to some other antidepressants, it does not cause as much sexual dysfunction or sleepiness, and may result in weight loss. It is unclear if use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is safe.

Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant. It acts as a norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) and a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Chemically, bupropion is an aminoketone that belongs to the class of substituted cathinones and is similar to phenethylamines.

Bupropion was first made by Nariman Mehta in 1969 and patented by Burroughs Wellcome in 1974. It was first approved for medical use in the United States in 1985. It was originally called by the generic name amfebutamone, before being renamed in 2000. In the United States the wholesale cost per dose is less than US$0.50 as of 2018. In 2016 it was the 28th most prescribed medication and 4th most prescribed antidepressant in the United States with more than 23 million prescriptions.

Fluoxetine, sold under the brand names Prozac and Sarafem among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used for the treatment of major depressive disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It may decrease the risk of suicide in those over the age of 65. It has also been used to treat premature ejaculation. Fluoxetine is taken by mouth.

Common side effects include trouble sleeping, sexual dysfunction, loss of appetite, dry mouth, rash, and abnormal dreams. Serious side effects include serotonin syndrome, mania, seizures, an increased risk of suicidal behavior in people under 25 years old, and an increased risk of bleeding. If stopped suddenly, a withdrawal syndrome may occur with anxiety, dizziness, and changes in sensation. It is unclear if it is safe in pregnancy. If already on the medication, it may be reasonable to continue during breastfeeding. Its mechanism of action is not entirely clear but believed to be related to increasing serotonin activity in the brain.

Fluoxetine was discovered by Eli Lilly and Company in 1972, and entered medical use in 1986. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between US$0.01 and US$0.04 per day as of 2014. In the United States, it costs about US$0.85 per day. In 2016 it was the 29th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 23 million prescriptions.

Also read:

Inside The Fragmented Minds of People With Dissociative Identity Disorder

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Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an antidepressant primarily used to treat depression. Its full effect may take more than four weeks to occur, with some benefit possibly as early as one to two weeks. Often it is used in depression complicated by anxiety or trouble sleeping. It is taken by mouth.

Common side effects include increased weight, sleepiness, and dizziness. Serious side effects may include mania, low white blood count, and increased suicide among children. Withdrawal symptoms may occur with stopping. It is not recommended together with an MAO inhibitor. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. How it works is not clear, but it may involve blocking certain adrenergic and serotonin receptors. Chemically, it is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA). It also has strong antihistamine effects.

Mirtazapine came into medical use in the United States in 1996. The patent expired in 2004, and generic versions are available. In the United States the wholesale cost as of 2018 is about US$3 per month. In the United Kingdom a month supply costs less than £20 per month.[11] In the United States about 5.5 million prescriptions were written for mirtazapine in 2016.

Also read:

Diazepam
Effexor

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