Fasoracetam ADHD FDA Approval

FDA Approves Fasoracetam as ADHD Treatment

Remember all the notes following descriptions of Fasoracetam when it was first coming around as a "potential ADHD treatment", but the FDA delaying approval, and being stuck at stage 3 trials for what seems like 20 years? Check this out. It seems to have finally received the FDA's approval as a "non-stimulant ADHD Treatment"

What is Pramiracetam?Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsFAQs

Summary: after a study showing an outstanding success rate of 96% in reversing amnesia, surpassing the original and most popular racetam (Piracetam) – Pramiracetam started drawing more and more attention until eventually getting to stand out amongst racetams the way it does today. Additionally, it boosts cognition and improves memory, increases concentration, learning capacity, and supports engaging in, and maintaining prolonged focus sessions.

Pramiracetam Video TTS


What is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is one of the best-selling nootropics today due to being the highest in potency out of all racetam nootropics.

It has a distinctive mechanism of action that allows for efficient utilization of brain capabilities, thereby improving memory recall, learning capacity, concentration, and focus. Serves as an excellent supplement on its own and furthermore, a powerful potentiator to other nootropics, intensifying as well as prolonging effects. It is quickly rising towards a well-deserving reputation for its profound effects.

A synthetic derivative of piracetam, Pramiracetam is an invention of Parke-Davis from the 1970s. It is a highly effective nootropic, up to 30 times more potent than piracetam. It is marketed in Europe under brand names Neupramir, Pramistar, and Remen; often as a prescription for individuals with dyslexia, ADHD, dementia, and memory impairment due to neurodegenerative conditions. It was a patent in the US in 1979 but without the support nor the approval of the US FDA.

Regardless, it is popularly used off-label as a different approach to cognitive challenges and memory impairments. Its also undergoing further trials as a potential treatment for a variety of nervous system disorders.

Pramiracetam is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. It is marketed by Menarini under the brand name Pramistar as a treatment for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative and vascular dementias in Italy and some Eastern European countries.


Benefits and Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Benefits?

  1. Enhances Overall Cognitive Function
  2. Enhances Memory Formation
  3. Reduces Symptoms of Depression & Relieves Anxiety
  4. Increases Learning Capacity
  5. Promotes Thought & Sense of Clarity
  6. Increases Social Fluency & Sociability
  7. Enhances Sensory Perception
  8. Helps in Memory Restoration and Recall

Supporting research:

Enhances Overall Cognitive Function

Pramiracetam optimizes brain performance and produces noticeable cognitive enhancement, especially regarding memory, in both formation of as well as consolidation. Due to the euphoric-like focus, it induces along with a sense of “emotional blunting,” users report the feel of it being comparable to Ritalin.

Pramiracetam Enhances Memory

Due to stimulating the hippocampus, the section of the cerebellum that’s accountable toward the formation of new memories, pramiracetam is raising in acknowledgment as a sharp memory enhancer. Users report significant improvement in memory formation and speed of recall; a claim confirmed by animal studies. (R)

Additionally, extensive studies find that it significantly improves long-term memory, and able to reverse amnesia to surprising levels. The findings of that study led to the synthesizing and production the drug.  (R) (R)

Pramiracetam Reduces Depression and Anxiety

Pramiracetam reports show it improves cognitive deficits associating with traumatic brain injuries. Studies demonstrate and confirm its neuroprotective effects. Studies show that its overall impact on lowering symptoms of depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. Nevertheless, it was beneficial for both. (R)

Increases Learning Capacity

Users allegedly report pramiracetam makes learning faster, more efficient, as well as more pleasant. Such finding can be explained, at least in part, by pramiracetam facilitation of higher neuroplasticity and support of long-term memory. The latter seems to be more accurate as per the following study: (R)

Pramiracetam Increases Sense of Clarity

Anecdotal reports from the nootropic community tell that pramiracetam provides them with a strong sense of mental awareness, clarity, with a deeper understanding of life; similar to many of those reporting the same effects from piracetam.

Pramiracetam Promotes Social Fluency

Furthermore, a lot of people taking pramiracetam report enjoying socializing whereas before, they avoided social settings for lack of interest. This could be due to the cognitive boost or the emotional blunting effect, which is likely to reduce social anxieties (R).

Enhances Sensory Perception

Another report backed by a clinical study shows that pramiracetam indeed enhances sensory perception and heightens observation. That is including amplified and more vibrant sound and more precise, richer visual perception with distinct color contrast. (R)

Pramiracetam Aids Memory Restoration

In clinical experiments, pramiracetam has been noted to be an efficient remedy approach for memory impairment and other cognitive difficulties caused by brain injuries(R). It is also one of the various nootropics that are carried out to examine in the US as a potential treatment for memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease amongst other neurological disorders. There is a study that shows it to be capable of reversing chemically produced amnesia in healthy volunteers of 18-65 years of age(R).


Mechanism of Action

How Does Pramiracetam Work?

Similar to several nootropics, pramiracetam affects the release of neurotransmitters, brain chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. Though pramiracetam performs it indirectly, in different fashion than that of other racetams, and it excites the brain in different methods as well. Pramiracetam is fat-soluble which means the bloodstream absorbs it via fatty acids. It reaches peak concentrations and highest bioavailability, usually within 30 minutes, and has a somewhat long half-life of 4 to 6 hours.

Racetams work by directly stimulating neurotransmitter receptor sites, thus increasing production and release of specific neurotransmitters. However;  pramiracetam doesn’t directly produce alterations in neurochemical levels, neither does it seem to possess an affinity for any vital neurotransmitter.

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter thoroughly engaging in cognitive processes including learning pace, thought recall, and attention. By inciting choline uptake, it indirectly modulates the release of acetylcholine and triggers increased activity within the hippocampus. Due to this part of the brain being crucial to revival function, the generalized stimulation that pramiracetam formulates can enhance both the creation of new memories and the retention of reference or long-term memories.

Cerebral Blood Flow

The improving action in the hippocampus also improves cerebral blood flow, which enhances attentiveness and boosts cognitive capabilities. Besides, Pramiracetam has additional mechanisms of action. Neuroscientists hypothesize that in addition to influencing the brain, pramiracetam serves outer sections that rely upon the adrenal glands. (R)

Concerning Membrane Fluidity

Animal studies imply that pramiracetam may additionally improve or repair brain membrane fluidity, which promotes cell signaling (R). Pramiracetam does not seem to alter either alertness or emotional states actively. This advantage is understandable by pramiracetam low impact on the generation and release neurotransmitters that possess the most notable results on tranquility, stress, and anxiety levels such as serotonin, GABA, and dopamine.


How to Take Pramiracetam?

Recommended Pramiracetam dosage is 1200 mg per day, split into two 600 mg or three 400 mg doses throughout the day.

This is the lowest effective dose. On an individual level, it should be adjusted as required to accomplishing the desired effect.

Currently, the evidence using pramiracetam in humans uses either 400mg thrice daily or 600mg twice daily; both of these dosing regimens totals 1,200mg of pramiracetam daily.

It is unsure if pramiracetam should be taken with meals, and it is not clear if 1,200mg is the optimal dosage or not. This does, however, does appear effective.


Side Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Side Effects?

Studies testing Pramiracetam doses found it to be safe and not causing any side effects at doses of 400 mg and up to 1,600 mg (R).

Furthermore, a study concerning Alzheimer’s disease shows it’s safe even at doses as high as 4,000 mg. (R)

Headache may occur due to low acetylcholine levels in the brain. Therefore, it is wise to pair racetams drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha GPC). Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, they will furthermore work synergistically together firing cognitive function. (R)


Pramiracetam is a powerful nootropic that is relatively new to many of the nootropics community. Yet is rapidly attaining a well-deserved recognition. Due to having more complications in synthesizing, it costs more than most other racetams. Users often complain about that, however, the distinct potency proposes that lower doses are required to achieve the results. Users also have mixed reactions to the Ritalin-like emotional blunting outcome of the supplement. For some, it creates refreshing objectivity and easing of social anxiety, while others find it makes them feel somewhat disengaged. Pramiracetam is generally unique nootropic, notably enhancing memory creation and recollection, learning pace, and overall mental clarity. Its usually a worthy addition to nootropic stacks. Often existing there as an agent for prolonging their effects. Pramiracetam is safe, effective, fast-acting, and reasonably long-lasting.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Oxiracetam
  3. Fasoracetam
  4. Coluracetam
  5. Citicoline (CDP-choline)

Frequently Asked Questions

Where to buy Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is available on many vendors if you simply do a quick Google search. If I had to pick one of the many choices, I would recommend Nootropics Depot because I have personally used almost every racetam they offer, and I trust their product quality.

Can you snort Pramiracetam?

Although it is reportedly possible, it’s not recommended due to the large powder amount required as well as the associated pain. Unlike certain substances that yield results with small amount, snorting Pramiracetam wouldn’t be worth the effort.

How long does Pramiracetam last?

Pramiracetam reaches its peak concentration in about 30 minutes after ingestion and has an average half-life of 5 hours.

What does Pramiracetam do?

Pramiracetam enhances memory formation and memory recall, increases learning ability, reduces social anxiety, and could potentially treat amnesia as well as prevent neurodegeneration.

When to take Pramiracetam?

Ideally, the best timing to take Pramiracetam would be once after breakfast, and another dose after lunch, keeping a 5-hour time interval between the two dosages.

How to take Pramiracetam?

Although it is recommended to take Pramiracetam after food for optimal absorption, it can still be taken without food. So if absorption is your concern, it does not matter much. It depends on your personal preference.

How long does Pramiracetam last?

On average, Pramiracetam effect lasts somewhere between 4 to 6 hours.

Why is Pramiracetam so expensive?

Regardless of all the forum talks of Pramiracetam being so expensive, and whether this used to be true in the past or not; the actual price of Pramiracetam powder from Nootropics Depot is $9.99 for 5g, and $26.99 for 15g.

How much choline to take with Pramiracetam?

Personally, I would take and recommend 300 mg of Alpha-GPC with each Pramiracetam dose. If you prefer Citicoline instead (as the choline source) then the recommended dosage would be 250 mg

For more Frequently Asked Questions, check out the following pages:

  1. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ List
  2. Racetams 101: Guide & FAQs

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

Introduction Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceConclusion

Summary: Sunifiram is an experimental, potent and powerful nootropic that enhances memory, expands learning capacity, and uplifts mood. A recent addition to the racetam family that seems more than promising. Sunifiram dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

Sunifiram Video TTS


What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam. Although there has not been much evidence about its efficacy, it has been proven to be beneficial for the (many) individuals using it. With research and trials ongoing and growing, its use will increase along as well. Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) has been one of the best nootropics that powerfully influence cognition. It enhances mood, lowers stress, and increases energy and focus.

Sunifiram dosage
Sunifiram Structure

It is an invention from the year 2000. And although it is very new to the market, it is proving to be effective and useful to individuals both in long and short terms. It is an effective nootropic that improves learning and memory, and furthermore enhances cognitive function. It is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amnesia, like most racetams. There are no reports of any severe side effects from its use, making it effective, useful, and safe.

Although it belongs to the racetam class, Sunifiram has a different structure. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as a piperazine alkaloid rather than racetam. It delivers many of the same memory and learning enhancements as piracetam but is much more potent.

Sunifiram is also an ampakine. It increases the efficacy and activity of neurotransmitter glutamine. This leads to significant changes such as mood and energy improvement along with other cognition benefits.

Sunifiram (developmental codename DM-235) is an experimental drug which has antiamnesic effects in animal studies and with significantly higher potency than piracetam. Sunifiram is a molecular simplification of unifiram (DM-232). As of 2016, sunifiram had not been subjected to toxicology testing, nor to any human clinical trials, and is not approved for use anywhere in the world. Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Sunifiram Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  2. Improves Symptoms of Depression
  3. Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy
  4. Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation
  5. Enhances Focus and Motivation
  6. Enhances Visual Perception
  7. Increases Libido

Supporting research:

Sunifiram Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression

As an antidepressant and anxiety reliever, Sunifiram produces its effects as a mirror image of an ampakine. It reacts with glutamatergic AMPA receptors. That also allows it to act as a mild stimulant.

Sunifiram Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy

Sunifiram is known to increase energy and enhance mood. This is likely due to its antidepressant-like effect.

Sunifiram Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation

Sunifiram is a potent and powerful nootropic. It enhances memory formation and retention as well as expanding the learning capacity. It is in use in case of diseases that cause memory loss or amnesia. Its use is not yet regulated by the FDA, but still widely in use by many individuals for its nootropic benefits. [R] [R]

Appears to promote long term potentiation in the hippocampus with oral ingestion, which should result in an improvement in memory in animals that have otherwise impaired memory. Examine.com

Sunifiram Enhances Focus and Motivation

Sunifiram enhances focus and concentration. It is known to improve motivation and enable a person to complete mentally-demanding tasks at ease and comfort. The focus heightening and motivation is due to the increase in the release and utilization of acetylcholine; which has a direct impact on cognitive abilities.

Sunifiram Enhances Visual Perception

Sunifiram keeps you out of stress and negative thinking. It makes you have a confident, better outlook on life. It allows you to look at the future positive and ambitiously. Such useful effects are helpful for people at any and every stage of life.

Sunifiram Increases Libido

Increase in the sex drive is often in anecdotal reports. However, there is no clinical evidence on this specific claim and only anecdotal ones support it.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Sunifiram Work?

Sunifiram is a piracetam derivative. But it often comes as a surprise that it has a different chemical structure from the other racetams. It is basically a piperazine alkaloid which can act as an ampakine that will increase the activity of glutamine receptors and increase the stimulation effects. Or it can serve as a cholinergic that stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine.

AMPAkine Action

Although no such evidence is still available about its use and its action in humans due to the lack of the trials, the primary factor that drives it to work would be the ampakine factor which allows it to provide the stimulation effects by acting at the glutamate receptors. Ampakines are mild stimulants. They can increase alertness and energy. They do not cause restlessness which like other antidepressants or anxiolytics. The increase the energy levels and the activity factor is also one of the significant roles Sunifiram plays. Due to its effect on the glutamate receptors, it leads to functions such as spatial navigation and the formation and storage of memory, which are crucial for many neurological conditions.

Cholinergic Action

Sunifiram acts as a cholinergic as well. Due to this effect, it leads to the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Acetylcholine increases brain function and cognition abilities. The primary functions are memory enhancement, learning speed and capacity which grow and expand very notably. You can also count on the fluid intelligence or ability to solve unique problems with this supplement. Sunifiram is an essential nootropic to students as well as athletes to increase their performance and achieve better results.

Sunifiram appears to act on the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, which enhances signalling and activates some intracellular proteins (CAMKII and PKCα) which then positively regulate the AMPA receptors. These mechanisms are highly similar to that seen with nefiracetam. Examine.com

The mechanism of action of sunifiram is unknown. Sunifiram, as well as unifiram, were assayed at a wide panel of sites, including the most important receptors, ion channels, and transporters, but showed no affinity for any of the sites. They specifically did not bind to the glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, acetylcholine, or opioid receptors at concentrations of up to 1 μM. In addition, the drugs were tested on recombinant AMPA receptors and showed no potentiation of the receptors, indicating that they do not act as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators. However, they were able to prevent the amnesia induced by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX in the passive avoidance test, suggesting that indirect/downstream AMPA receptor activation may be involved in their memory-enhancing effects. Sunifiram, as well as other nootropics such as piracetam, levetiracetam, and aniracetam are able to antagonize inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital), diazepam, and certain other drugs in human erythrocytes in vitro (Ki = 26.0 uM for sunifiram), and this action has been found to correlate with their potency in reversing scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. However, this action has been regarded as very unlikely to represent the main mechanism of action of sunifiram.



How to Take Sunifiram?

Sunifiram works effectively at a dosage of 5 to 10 mg –  at a maximum of three times per day. This is the safe dose which is often taken sublingual for maximum efficacy and absorption.

It is advised that one starts with the smallest doses to prevent side effects and toxicity. Although it is not in documentation, tolerance can grow with excessive usage, so it is better to take it occasionally instead of daily basis.

Suggested dose:

only 4-8 mg 2-3 times a day is needed with this ultra potent nootropic. When you’re talking about the Bugatti of the nootropics world, less is more. A little goes all the way!

Possible side effects:

it is possible to experience headaches from choline depletion with excessive use. This can be combated by consuming sources of choline. In rare cases individuals have experienced nausea.

– Nootropics City

Sunifiram Stack

For Boosting Cognitive Function

By pairing sunifiram with one or more of the racetams like piracetam, oxiracetam, or Noopept, we can achieve this increase which has been the most common and most favorite Sunifiram combo. A choline source like Alpha GPC is an important part of this combo due to the increased choline depletion by the former nootropics.

For Mood Enhancement

Combining Aniracetam with sunifiram is a good option for mood enhancement. You can combine L-theanine, which increases production of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA with sunifiram. Sulbutiamine, which is a potent enhancer of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic functions can be a good combination as well. Choline source should always be present in those combos to prevent getting a headache.

Side Effects

What Are Sunifiram Side Effects?

Due to being fairly new and not as widely popular as the rest of the racetams, no severe side effects of sunifiram have surfaced yet. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still ongoing, and it is yet to get FDA approval. Use with caution.

User Experience

On a Reddit user wrote down a thorough experience of sunifiram:

For years I have been a hardcore coffee drinker and other than that I had not used any other substances to enhance my cognition in any way. A few months ago I started a doctor-supervised weight loss program that included the use of 30 mg of Phentermine daily as an appetite suppressant.

Unfortunately, Phentermine is an amphetamine that gave me an extreme energy rush that was affecting my focus and concentration. I could not sit and study because I was getting easily distracted by anything. This was starting to affect my performance in my current classes and at work so I tried using 200 mg of L-Theanine and reduce my caffeine intake with moderately positive effects.

After losing about 100 lbs, I am ready to stop the Phentermine and continue my healthy eating habits for a long-term weight loss maintenance. This Phentermine is addictive so my doctor is reducing the dose gradually to minimize the withdrawal effects. However, I started feeling slightly depressed and foggy. This is when I decided to go on my own and experiment with Noots to see if they would help.

My doctor is not familiar with any nootropics nor did he think anything like that would be appropriate since the effects of phentermine withdrawal would pass in a few weeks.

I did some research about nootropics that would help me with this situation and decided to go shopping. I was low on cash but had a credit on Amazon so the only strong nootropic that I found was Sunifiram. Despite the warnings that there are no sufficient studies on the long-term effects, I decided to assume all risks and give it a try.

The Experience

I started five days ago with 10mg of Sunifiram administered sublingually. Approximately 10-15 minutes after the first dose I felt what others have called “sunny”. It is hard to explain but it was somewhat overwhelming and the effect did not last long.

The following day I took the same dose and got the same but short effect. I did have a mild headache after waking up but nothing unbearable. I started to get the full effect on Day 3. Suddenly I was able to focus on whatever I wanted and the ideas flowed easily. I had struggled to finish a paper for days but this time I finished it in less than an hour.

Today is Day 5 of using Sunifiram and I have to say it has been a positive experience so far. I wish I could explain better my experience but I have not used anything with comparable results. It is not an extreme rush of energy nor a sedative effect. I just feel a sense of clarity that I had not felt before.

I don’t want to take the risk of using Sunifiram for long-term cognition enhancement given the unknown effects of continued use, so I will stop taking it as soon as I finish this class. Once I have some cash to spend, I might look into other alternatives like Piracetam, Noopept or something similar.


Sunifiram was my first experience with a “smart drug”. During the first two days the effects were mild and nearly unnoticeable. After the third day I felt a positive improvement in my mood and focus. Since there are no sufficient studies on the long term use of this substance, I will discontinue its use and seek other Nootropics with better background research.



Sunifiram is one of the nootropics having huge and fast-growing demand, so its not easily accessible. Its potency, efficacy, and effectiveness have been superb. Although it does not have a lot of trials under its belt, it is nevertheless one which has been encouraging and promoted as a safe and effective nootropic.

Not for everyday use, but it can be a good companion to have in your stack. Increasing energy, cognitive abilities, and physical performance are the prime features of this product which make it one worth trying out.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

Although I haven’t tried Sunifiram nor have I purchased from this vendor myself, I am listing them here for those coming to this page to find vendors. So far the ones I found and seem reputable are:

  1. Nootropics City for Sunifiram Capsules
  2. Nootropics Retail for Sunifiram Powder

Within the UAE, you can order sunifiram from our store.

Interesting Finds

While researching a bit more on Sunifiram, I came across an article on Nootropics City titled ‘Why was Sunifiram Taken Off the Market,’ and dates back to 2004. I thought it would be an interesting read to someone looking for all and any information about Sunifiram. It says:

“In 2000, Sunifiram was introduced to the market. It is well known as DM-235. While clinical trials are done before releasing any drug on the market, as a brand name or a generic one, it is not the only parameter that measures that it will react to general people in the same way. Hence, some drugs are taken off the shelves. Now, why was Sunifiram was taken off the market when some people were responding well towards it. What is the safety information that one should know related to this drug?

The real reason for Sunifiram to be off the market is that there were few safe studies conducted on it. This made it difficult for many physicians to prescribe it to their patients. It is now seen as a recreational drug and a stimulant. Some stimulants like this may be legit but dangerous. It is always best to keep in touch with the ones that have a proven track record, not only in clinical results but in public domain also.

It was introduced as a nootropic to help patients recover mental alertness. The effect of the composition is stronger, and it certainly raises safety issues. Some of its negative properties have made it to remain on the shelves for a little longer. Even healthcare professionals advise its limited usage considering there are other nootropics also on the market that have positive effects.

With its composition, the drug is capable of releasing AMPA receptors that are in the brain. The tolerance level of some patients may have triggered its negative reviews. In fact, some reports also suggested that the drug had toxic effects on consumption. Even small milligram dosages seemed to be bad for the rest of the system. It is also responsible for increased heartbeats in patients who have increased the dosage.

Some of the effects cannot be reversed, and this makes it important to take it off the shelves. It is a very strong drug. Even though it is legal, one must take a medical opinion before consuming it. The Internet offers several slices of information about this drug and its replacements.

What makes it so forceful as a memory booster?

It is an ampakine that immediately brings on the ‘horsepower’ to the brain. The brain has AMPA receptors. When they are activated with the help of an ampakine like Sunifiram, it increases the energy. When people have stress on performance in certain jobs, they have been known to consume it. It ensures that there is no other external distraction that can interfere with the mind’s working. People who have short-term memories also have consumed this drug. Since it is strong in its content, it tends to make ‘colors brighter’, ‘sounds clearer’ and general ambience becomes well defined. This could be a dangerous trend.


  1. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram improves cognitive deficits via CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activation in olfactory bulbectomized mice.
  2. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram enhances hippocampal synaptic efficacy via glycine-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is an experimental, potent racetam. It shares most of racetams benefits and effects. The dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

What is Sunifiram Legal Status? Is Sunifiram legal?

In the US, Sunifiram is unscheduled, and not FDA approved.

How To Take Sunifiram?

Being an ‘experimental’ drug, and a very potent one, its important to take very low doses (5 mg, 10 mg tops) and do your research to find news and updates on the matter. You can find the post I cited from Nootropics City under Conclusion which has more information regarding that.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

I have found a few different vendors, none of which I tried, rather, only listing for research purpose. Nootropics City, Nootropics Retail, as well as NewMind – all offer Sunifiram in powder as well as capsules.

What is Sunifiram Dosage?

Unless you are quite experienced in racetams, I wouldn’t recommend anything over 5 mg as a starting point. People reported side effects after deciding to increase the dose for more results.

Where to Buy Sunifiram Powder?

Nootropics Retail & New Mind

Where to find Sunifiram capsules?

Nootropics City

What is Sunifiram half-life?

Sunifiram has a half-life of 1-2 hours

Further and Related Readings

  1. Coluracetam, Fasoracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Pramiracetam
  2. Alpha-GPC, Citicoline (CDP), Choline
  3. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ,

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceFAQs

Summary: Fasoracetam is a newer addition to the racetam family. It’s a nootropic that helps in relieving anxiety, enhancing memory, and improving overall cognition. It’s reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms.

nootropic fasoracetam
Fasoracetam Skeletal Structure

Fasoracetam Video TTS


What is Fasoracetam?

Fasoracetam is a promising and exciting addition to the racetam family. It’s reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms. Even though Fasoracetam is a new name on the nootropic scene, it was developed by a Japanese pharmaceutical company more than 20 years ago as a potential treatment for vascular dementia. However, it was put on hiatus after a failed trial.  The clinical data were then bought by NeuroFix in 2013. Clinical trials began in 2016 with its focus on treating ADHD symptoms in children. The experiments have shown a great promise as a potential ADHD treatment.

In 2016, the FDA accepted the substance for evaluation.

Fasoracetam is a research chemical of the racetam family. It is a putative nootropic that failed to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials for vascular dementia. It is currently being studied for its potential use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.


Benefits & Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory Cognition
  2. Relieves Anxiety and Depression
  3. Potential ADHD Treatment
  4. Increases Creativity and Motivation

Supporting Research:

Fasoracetam Improves Memory Cognition

Fasoracetam minimizes memory decline, forgetfulness, and amnesia. Individuals who use it report it positively impacts their memory. That is due to the chemical that it produces, which increases learning, memory and cognitive functions. (R)

Fasoracetam Relieves Anxiety and Depression

Fasoracetam relieves anxiety, improves mood, and eases depression by acting on glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). By up-regulating GABA and suppressing the excess production of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, Fasoracetam offers a non-jittery and smooth feeling of calmness, relaxation and improved mood. (R) (R)

Potential ADHD Treatment

A study on 30 individuals ranging between 12 to 17 years old test the impact of Fasoracetam on ADHD patients. The subjects were receiving fasoracetam for five weeks, after which improvements were observed relating to ADHD symptoms. (R)

Increases Creativity and Motivation

With more research done on Fasoracetam, the improvement in creativity and motivation progresses as well. Many users report that not only it makes them inspired by nature but keeps them motivated too. These self-reports are credible for boosting moods and ability to increase the release and production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is responsible for cognition and learning.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Fasoracetam Work?

There is no clear evidence to support how it works to improve cognition. The theories that exist that describe that it as an interaction with the receptors of glutamate and GABA and the cholinergic system.

Fasoracetam works of a specific group of glutamate receptors known as metabotropic glutamate receptors, which play multiple roles in the brain and body mainly relating to memory, learning, and anxiety.

In increasing acetylcholine fasoracetam is a powerful cholinergic, significantly increasing the uptake of choline in the cortex and hippocampus.

The brain uses the additional choline to produce more acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter most strongly associated with learning, memory, and overall cognition.


How to Take Fasoracetam?

A 20 mg dose is a good starting point.

Anecdotal reports suggest smaller doses of 15 to 30 mg per day, while dosages used in clinical trials for ADHD were 100, 200, and 400mg twice a day.

Personally I tried anywhere from 20 mg per dose to 60 mg per dose. The difference was barely notable to me.

Always pair it with Alpha GPC or any choline source to potentiate the effect and prevent a headache.

Side Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Side Effects?

Fasoracetam is safe when taken responsibly. The most common side effect, similar to all racetams, including fatigue, headache, and digestive discomfort.

The is no scientific evidence available on the specific interactions between other drugs and fasoracetam.

User Experience

Here is an ongoing discussion thread on Reddit’s stack advice regarding Fasoracetam usage that is packed with both information on the nootropic, as well as different user experiences (myself included), suggestions, and thoughts on the nootropic:

Any positive feedback on fasoracetam for anxiety?

Some of the interesting & diverse comments from that thread:

Not from me, unfortunately. Made me feel worse. I’ve lost any faith in common nootropics because they do nothing for me. Oxetine

10-20mg gave me near instantaneous relief from anxiety—sublingual that is. tawatson2

While it seemed to help somewhat with anxiety (not a magic bullet) I also felt like some cognitive abilities were actually reduced by it. I had problems carrying out my work with usual performance and with internalizing new tasks. Sometimes you can’t judge if a nootropic really helps much of anything at all but in case of fasoracetam the downsides seemed pronounced enough for me not to continue. sheldonopolis


Fasoracetam (as well as Coluracetam) is a new nootropic but has had numerous experiments done on it. However, it has already developed a strong force in the nootropic community.

Many people find it an excellent choice to relieve anxiety and depression. Some people also say that it helps in cognition, clarity, and focus. It works well when used responsibly.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the effect of Fasoracetam?

“I have been dosing for 3 days now. I started noticing my legs were becoming relaxed as if I took a benzo combined with that sense of horniness phenibut gave me when I first began taking it. Typically after a few days of Phenibut use dopamine builds up which leads to euphoria combined with anxiolytic effects. Those effects have been long gone and I’ve basically just been taking about 1.6 grams to avoid withdrawals. I’ve gotten off it a few times only to go back on. Now i’m feeling the orginal effects coming back stronger after each dose of Fasoracetam. I can honestly say I don’t feel many other effects aside from the Phenibut now. I’m dosing Phenibut low so its amazing that the effects are coming back with such low doses. I’m wondering if Fasoracetam will completely abolish all Phenibut Withdrawal. It almost seems like that may be the case since its Re-upregulating Gaba B. I wish I understand the Upregulation and Downregulation process on a deeper level”

Further and Related Readings

  1. Fasoracetam – Wikipedia
  2. Fasoracetam (with the addition of another compound, a new formula) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for ADHD
  3. Phenylpiracetam
  4. Nootropics FAQ

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Coluracetam is a new member to the racetam family of nootropics. Early scientific trials confirm that it is beneficial in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder as well as with Generalized Anxiety, in addition to its a bunch of nootropic value it offers.

Coluracetam review
Coluracetam Skeletal Structure
Coluracetam TTS on Youtube


What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a drug that falls in the racetam family. The way it works and its structure are different from other racetams. Despite it being in the racetam family, this drug has gained a widespread reputation on its uniqueness in memory boosting and reduction of anxiety and depression. It is popular in the nootropic community to raise optic properties.

However, additional studies are needed to realize the mechanism that supports these benefits. It was initially synthesized in 2005 by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in Japan as a probable cure for Alzheimer’s disease. BrainCells, Inc. later licensed it for more study after it did not make to reach its clinical endpoint.

Brain Cells began to conduct experiments on its effects. Most of these tests were on rats due to lack of enough participants to undertake the clinical trial. From the clinical analysis carried out, coluracetam showed to improve memory retention and relieve anxiety.

Benefits & Effects

What Are Coluracetam Benefits?

  1. Coluracetam Improves Memory and Learning
  2. Coluracetam Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression
  3. Coluracetam Reduces Anxiety
  4. Promotes Neurogenesis
  5. Helps with Schizophrenia
  6. Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam Improves Memory and Learning

Coluracetam benefits proves to work in enforcing cognitive and memory function in rats and similar effects on humans. Brain Cells Inc. conducted a study which reveals an improvement of mind in rats after receiving AF64A for eight days. The development continued to last even beyond treatment. Alzheimer’s disease leads to lower levels of acetylcholine. By growing acetylcholine in the hippocampus, coluracetam will increase symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease such as learning disorders and poor memory (R) (R).

Coluracetam Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression

In a study of 101 individuals with depression, who did not achieve result treatment with antidepressants, it had a constructive impact on the apparent improvement in the quality of life at 80 mg 3 times a day. However, this is the only study on humans. The capacity it holds to minimize glutamate noxiousness may be liable for its positive impacts in the depression treatment. (R)

Coluracetam Reduces Anxiety

In a rat study, dosing 21 days of coluracetam shows a 20% improvement in anxiety, which was higher than the 12% effect valium impact in a single dose in the same study. (R)

Promotes Neurogenesis

Some studies mention that  it helps with neurogenesis. The primary mechanism is still not clear, but it relates to the administration of it for several weeks, which increase in acetylcholine in the hippocampus area.

“Patents state that it promotes nerve cell growth (neurogenesis). The mechanism is unknown, yet is thought to be related to the increase in hippocampal acetylcholine when coluracetam is dosed daily for a few weeks.” (R)

Helps with Schizophrenia

Coluracetam increases the activity of ChAT in rats with nerve cell damage. This increase suggests it may benefit patients with schizophrenia through this same enzyme. More research directly on people with schizophrenia is undergoing. (R) (R)

Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam has shown its optic strengths such as improved color recognition, vision, and vividness. Specifically, it promotes nerve growth for the degenerative retinal disease. Numerous studies mention better color vision and sharpening of the eyesight, but no scientific research has confirmed these effects. (R)

Mechanism of Action

How Does Coluracetam Work?

It works through the process of high-affinity choline uptake. That’s its mechanism of action. The brain chemical responsible for storing cognitive abilities and memories is acetylcholine.

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine within our brain. Studies on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove vital for improving learning, memory, and cognition.

It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine in the brain. Many studies done on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove very important for improving learning, memory formation, and typically cognitive abilities. It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.


How to Take Coluracetam?

Typically, the recommended starting dose is 20mg due to that being the manufactured one. There are claims that researchers testing coluracetam dosage of 240 mg per day are finding no side effects. However, the source link to that claim is broken. [R]. [R]

My Personal Experience

The maximum I’ve taken is 60mg in single dose. It caused me a slight headache and yield no special outcome.

Advise: Take it with a choline source. It can be in supplement form (Alpha-GPC. Citicoline), or from foods in your own diet.

Pairing coluracetam with a choline source will both, increase its effect, and prevent an associating headache.

Side Effects

What Are Coluracetam Side Effects?

There isn’t enough evidence regarding the side effects of coluracetam. The human brain and body are well receiving this nootropic drug. Taking coluracetam does not have many side effects, but when they appear, they are similar to other recitals. Some of the concerns are nausea and irritability which are rare.

User Experiences

Here’s a couple of randomly selected reddit users experiences of Coluracetam:

“Definitely my favorite nootropic besides phenibut. The anxiolytic effects are great, also a very nice mood enhancer. And I noticed it significantly improved my vision, my short and long term memory, and even improved my verbal fluency.
I suffer from depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizo effective disorder. 20 to 100 mg Coluracetam seems comparable to Zoloft in terms of helping anxiety. It also helps me keep calm during my delusion induced panic attacks. I highly recommend it. In overall satisfaction for Coluracetam I rate it 9/10. I ordered my Coluracetam from Nootropics Depot.” u/sunflesh [

“I know that coluracetam is pretty controversial to begin with, but I went into my use of it hopeful because I’ve heard of lots of crazy benefits some people were getting out of it. Sadly, when I tried it I experienced nothing except for a phenomenally bad mood. I’ve never been so angry in my life, and it’s not because I’m disappointed, it just put me into this hyper aggressive pessimist mood. I had been microdosing LSD for about 2 weeks prior to trying coluracetam and it seemed to completely reverse the effects of microdosing and actually put me into a worse mood overall than before I started microdosing. I had high hopes for this product, and maybe I’ll try it again because it could just be circumstantial, but for now I don’t plan on using it for a long time.” [link]

This one is a bit more extensive, but quite informative. A self-trial by another reddit user:

“History with Nootropics: in 2015 I began my journey working on my bachelors in Psychology. During my second semester I came across Nootropics Depot while searching for a reasonably priced Bacopa, and that’s when I found Noopept. Sublingually I usually took around 20mg or less nightly with decent results. This went on for around 3 months and my test taking abilities definitely grew more fluent. My expectations may have been too high though as I found it just wasn’t giving my the edge I was looking for. I moved to Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pram/Phenyl, and I just wasn’t getting marginal results in my focus, productivity, or recall.

Recent Finding: I gave Nootropics a break for years until about a week ago when I read up on Fasoracetam and Coluracetam. Package arrived yesterday and i took 15mg of both sublingually. Within 30min my head was clear and the flow of my work almost effortless. I work as an Inventory Auditor, so i’m constantly counting, doing long math, and finding patterns. Today was the breeziest day at work, I was honestly on my A game. I found a flaw in previous audits and had my work done about a quarter of the time ahead of schedule. I understand these may be placebo feelings and coincidence occurrences, that is why i am making this post. I will update bi weekly with logic test results. At the end of each month i will post links to graphs of progression in answer response times if any.

Update 2/23/19
Tomorrow will be the first logic test results update but i just wanted to pop in and relay a few things. I have noticed a tad of unclear thought with the faso, I dosed only colur this morning just to see any marked difference and the colur definitely clears and focuses my mind more. For the sake of this trial i did make sure to dose faso later in the day and will give it around a month to see if the foggy feeling leaves. Also, a strange but incredibly noticeable thing as happened. I cant tell which of the two may be causing it, but in dark situations or driving at night i have realized my eyes have been adjusting almost immediately and to a higher degree than normal. I can see relatively everything, not like a cat lol but its definitely a lot clearer than normal.

Update #1:
Logical reasoning testing. Took 2 different tests one 10 questions the other 18 questions. Neither having the same questions, and varying difficulties. The first test took 3min, got 7 out of 10 correct. 2nd took me 12min getting 8 out of 18 correct. About average logical reasoning. At the end of the next test taking session (2 weeks from today) results will be added to the post along with statistics. Also, choline supplementation is being introduced tomorrow morning due to moderate headaches.

Update #2:
i’ve noticed that my arithmetic based thought processes have grown extremely fluent. Long math has become increasingly easier while done mentally. I’ve always attempted to do most math in my head than ended up writing down the problems but since about a week and a half ago, writing the problems down is pointless. I began dosing Alpha GPC around 2 weeks ago instead of bitartrate due to the low bioavailability of the latter. Choline source is a must with the amount of racetams I supplement (colur, faso, ani).

Most recent update:
Alrighty guys and gals it has now successfully been over a month spent testing these racetams. Memory and short/long term recall is definitely better than it was before this trial. The tests may not be giving marginal results, but I can vouch for a stronger attention span. I find myself noticing details and patterns, more observant of daily obstacles. My LR tests I took today resulted in a 4/7 on both, with both taking 3.5 minutes. Im seeing that my ability to not need to read the questions more than once to retain it and find the answers. Faso has had marked effects on my baseline depression, with more motivation for a few hours after dose. Colur has been reminiscent of past noopept experiences. I’ve also narrowed down the increase in serotonin levels to the aniracetam.

Find the full thread with more information and discussions here [link]


Coluracetam doesn’t have extensive amount of research, the studies available do show a great potential for its use.

It is one of the more recent-going-mainstream racetams, alongside Fasoracetam. However, recently, the FDA has approved an “enhanced” form of Fasoracetam for the treatment of ADHD.

The relating information on that announcement can be found on the blog post here.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a nootropic agent of the racetam family. It was initially developed and tested by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation for Alzheimer’s disease. Coluracetam increases the production of acetylcholine, and also speeds up its flow in brain synapses. The product was first registered in 2005 and phase 2A trials were completed back in 2010.

What is Coluracetam half-life?

The half-life of Coluracetam is about 3 hours.

What is coluracetam and how does it compare with other racetams?

“It’s not a hardcore focus drug like Modafinil, nor does it give me a bunch of energy and pep like caffeine or Piracetam. What it really does is just add a subtle and underlying positivity to my mood. There’s a noticeable difference on it and off it, especially in this dreadfully, gloomy part of the world.

A Youtube commenter suggested stacking Coluracetam with L-Theanine, which I tried and it’s actually a pretty good stack, especially in combination with some delicious Bulletproof Coffee. The creative mindset that L-Theanine puts me in, is nicely complimented by the optimism that Coluracetam stimulates, this has actually become my go to stack since I ran out of Piracetam. Speaking of coffee, anecdotally Coluracetam has this really cool effect of reversing caffeine tolerance. I unfortunately did not experience this, at least not noticeably. Another really consistent way to reverse caffeine tolerance is just to stop consuming caffeine for about 10 days and your caffeine tolerance will almost completely go away, and after consuming just a single cup of coffee you will again feel like a Greek god consuming ambrosia in the fields of Elysium. Coluracetam did not have the same effect for me.

It’s has a rocky, clumpy consistency that reminds me of cocaine – the tiny rocks feel like boulders under my tongue. You may need to break it up before consumption. I’ve been taking it sublingually, because it’s so damn expensive that I don’t want to waste a single granule of it. It’s taste is not pleasant and it kind of lingers on your palette, I don’t recommend taking it before a meal. It doesn’t taste great but it’s not as bad as some drugs I’ve tried.

Scienceguy suggested it potentiates Oxiracetam, I’ve taken it now a couple of time with Caballo which has Oxiracetam but I’m not sure if I’ve experienced this yet…

One day I was operating on about 4 hours of sleep, so somewhat sleep deprived and kept slipping back into an unfocused funk. I took Coluracetam around 1PM and 4PM and there was a disappointing absence of effect.

I wish I could rate Coluracetam higher, but I’m deducting 2 stars because it’s just not a great value, there’s plenty of Nootropics that gram for gram, cost a 3rd or 4th of Coluracetam and have just as helpful effect on mood, focus and memory. For mere economics, I wouldn’t reorder it.”

Jonathan Roseland

Additional Nootropics FAQs can be found here [link]

Further Readings

Coluracetam – Wikipedia

Coluracetam – Scientific Review – Examine

Related Racetam Nootropics

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Piracetam
  3. Pramiracetam
  4. Oxiracetam
  5. Fasoracetam
  6. Phenylpiracetam
  7. Sunifiram

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide Effects

Summary: Effective, efficient and recommended, Oxiracetam is one of the most valuable racetam class nootropics. Its ability to boost productivity and problem-solving has made it a favorite – and a best seller.

Oxiracetam review
Oxiracetam Skeletal Structure

Oxiracetam Video TTS


What is Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is a cognitive function booster that has many different benefits and uses. It heightens focus and concentration as well as enhancing memory and learning. It furthermore intensifies sensual, observational, and logical thinking. Oxiracetam stimulate the brain, thereby producing mental stamina and boosting energy. It allows for achieving better skill-use which make it a useful nootropic at any point in life.

Oxiracetam is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam, a discovery from the 1970’s. Research suggests that it is five times as effective as its racetam relatives. With properties like those of Phenylpiracetam, it has proven its effectiveness. Additionally, it doesn’t bring the adverse effects that usually come with stimulants.

It benefits memory, attention and learning. Furthermore, it is a potential treatment for amnesia. Research show that it has potential to treat dementia as well, but the FDA has yet to approve it (surprise surprise!). So it’s not in the big-pharma market. Its not regulated by the Canadian, Australian, or UK authorities. It is safe and effective, and its use for neurodegeneration is growing bigger with time. It is safe, potent and useful for many medical conditions, beside its nootropic effect.

Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug of the racetam family and very mild stimulant. Several studies suggest that the substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time. However, the mechanism of action of the racetam drug family is still a matter of research. – Wikipedia

Benefits & Effects

What Are Oxiracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Improves Logical Thinking
  3. Improves Focus and Learning
  4. Enhances Prolonged Concentration
  5. Boosts Physical and Mental Energy

Supporting Research:

Oxiracetam Improves Memory

Oxiracetam is effective on memory and and is in use by students looking for a memory boost. Users report positive experiences about its effectiveness in that regard (R).

Improves Logical Thinking

Many anecdotal reports state that it increases and improves logical thought. Some also say that Oxiracetam improves their analytical and reasoning skills.

Improves Focus and Learning

All racetams are effective in increasing focus and learning abilities. Trails on humans and animals both show that Oxiracetam enhances focus and learning. (R)

Enhances Prolonged Concentration

Oxiracetam has a positive effect on concentration allowing a person to stick to a subject without distraction. So it is a smart option during finals – where self-discipline is very important (R).

Boosts Physical and Mental Energy

Oxiracetam is a mild stimulant that increases both physical and mental activity. But it is unique in that it doesn’t bring amphetamine-like side effects.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Oxiracetam Work?

Precise mechanism of actions are unclear, but its related to neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Which is crucial in many neurological disorders and diseases.

It alters the release of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and glutamate from these receptors. These chemicals impact memory, learning, logical and cognitive functions. Although all racetams show similar effects, Oxi can last longer than the rest.

By increasing the neuronal linking in the hippocampus, the drug has impacts on the lipid metabolism. It leads to the production of D-Aspartic acid which is crucial for neural signaling. Oxiracetam has mild central nervous system stimulant effects as it is an ampakine act at the glutamatergic AMPA receptors. However, it has no severe side effects like insomnia, weight loss, gain or any other that is often associating anxiolytics and antidepressants.

As far as chemistry is concerned, Oxiracetam is a water-soluble compound. Its absorption occurs mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that it reaches the maximum levels within 1-3 hours of intake. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and has long half-life of 8-10 hours, therefore is stable.


How To Take Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam average dose is 1,200-2,400mg taken in 2 or 3 even doses throughout the day.

An example would be:

  • 2x 800mg per day or
  • 3x 400mg per day

Side Effects

What Are Oxiracetam Side Effects?

At a 1,600mg dose per day, it does not have any significant side-effects when compared to placebo. As with all racetams, headache is a possibility. It is preventable by adding a choline source such as Alpha GPC.


Oxiracetam passes all the obstacles that come in the way of a drug to be in the market for the public. It is safe and has no adverse effect reported. Furthermore, its a potential treatment for neurological disorders. It has been a useful (and life-saving) nootropic for people suffering mental illness. Although still pending FDA approval, it confirmed its effectiveness in many studies and clinical trials.

Due to increasing focus and concentration, Oxiracetam became a popular choice for students. And one that is often recommended by those using it.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Sunifiram, Fasoracetam, Coluracetam
  2. Choline, Alpha-GPC, CDP-choline
  3. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsFAQs

Summary: Phenylpiracetam is a potent and fast-acting racetam type nootropic. It enhances cognitive abilities and boosts physical strength, stamina, energy, as well as reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety. Being stimulatory, it is banned by the Olympics Anti-Doping committee to the participating athletes.

phenylpiracetam review
Phenylpiracetam Skeletal Structure
Phenylpiracetam Video TTS


What is Phenylpiracetam?

Phenylpiracetam (also known, and sold under the brand name Phenotropil) is one of the most effective, most efficient and most potent racetam nootropics which is widely used, and have been available on the market for many years. With the safe and effective use, many regards Phenylpiracetam a “lifesaver” and “faithful companion” in times of need. Quite dramatic descriptions.

Although it is a new nootropic in comparison to classic racetams such as Piracetam, over the past few years, it gained popularity due to its practical use.

Phenylpiracetam – as the name indicates, is a derivative of piracetam, with the phenyl addition. Which is why it shares so many properties with piracetam. However, it seems to be much more powerful. It is anywhere between 30 to 60 times more potent, and therefore effective, in its action.

For the sake of illustration, and to paint the idea well, look at the two following picture. First comes the piracetam skeletal formula, or chemical structure:

Second is Phenylpiracetam skeletal formula, in which you see Piracetam above the red line, and under the line is the phenyl addition, making it into phenylpiracetam:

The phenyl addition on its own:

phenylpiracetam piracetam


Phenylpiracetam is quite popular for its neuroprotective properties which are the dominant feature of many racetam nootropics. But in comparison to piracetam, its neuroprotective attributes are more effective.

It is also psychostimulatory, in other words, it is a stimulant. For that reason, Phenylpiracetam enhances physical performance, which is the primary reason behind its increased consumption among athletes.

Due to these attributes, Phenylpiracetam has become a favorite amongst other nootropics, and its sales have also increased over the past few years due to the positive response it keeps receiving.

Benefits & Effects

What Are Phenylpiracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Cognitive Function, Memory, and Attention
  2. Reduces Anxiety and Depression
  3. Boosts Energy and Increases Physical Mobility
  4. Enhances Physical Performance
  5. Additional Benefits

Supporting research:

Phenylpiracetam Improves Cognitive Function, Memory, and Attention

In studies of subjects with cognitive impairment, phenylpiracetam improves cognitive function and enhances overall memory impressively after a month of treatment. The study’s abstract notes:

“Ninety-nine patients with encephalopathy developed in the remote period after acute lesions of cerebral blood circulation, brain traumas and cerebral gliomas surgery have been studied. Phenotropil was used in a dosage of 200 mg per day during one month.

A CT survey revealed that in a stable state of brain changes phenotropil exerted the mostly pronounced influence on movement disturbances: decreased an extent of pareses in limb and face muscles, improved motor coordination, higher brain functions, memory, attention, counting.” [1]

Phenylpiracetam Reduces Anxiety and Depression

In the same study, one of the revelations in the state of brain changes that Phenylpiracetam caused were:

  1. Higher mobility and daily activity
  2. Lower and less feelings of discomfort
  3. Lower anxiety
  4. Reduction depression

“Patients exhibited higher mobility and daily activity, along with lower discomfort, anxiety and depression. EEG study showed more intensive alpha- and beta-rhythms, a decrease of paroxysmal activity and slow waves as well as a general tendency to its normalization.” [2]

Phenylpiracetam Boosts Energy and Increases Physical Mobility

A study patient with chronic fatigue syndrome finds that a one-month treatment of phenylpiracetam reduces fatigue notably.

The study included 1170 patients with brain ischemia, aged 45-65 years, treated with phenotropil in dose 100 mg during 2 and 3 months. Clinical examination and MFI-20 subscales were administered.

The results of the study:

“The high incidence of asthenic syndrome was observed across all MFI-20 subscales. The decrease in asthenic syndrome severity was significant already in the end of the first month of treatment with phenotropil. Such dynamics maintained to the end of the second and third month of treatment. More than 2-fold decrease in the severity of asthenia symptoms was achieved in all subgroups 3 months after treatment. More rapid and apparent decrease in asthenic syndrome was observed in younger patients.” [3]

Furthermore, a notable increasing of movement and physical activity is seen in this study, though it is conducted on rodents. The abstract of the study reads:

“Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil).” [4]

Phenylpiracetam Enhances Physical Performance

Here is another very interesting rodent study in which Phenylpiracetam was found to increase the speed and distance traveled during an open-race test. Some of the highlights of that study:

“After a single administration, it increased locomotor and antidepressant activity in the open‐field and forced swimming tests, respectively, as well as enhanced memory in the PAR test. Racemic phenotropil and S‐phenotropil also stimulated locomotor activity and induced some antidepressant effect after acute administration.”

It’s quite an interesting, and extensive study. You may find the study here: [5]

Additional Phenylpiracetam Benefits

Anecdotal reports claim It was used by Russian soldiers and astronauts to achieve high physical strength and mental abilities. Although it makes sense and I do believe it personally, those studies are very hard to find due to having taken place a very long time ago, and in another period of time, and another language (Russian).

Mechanism of Action

How Does Phenylpiracetam Work?

Phenylpiracetam is a piracetam which comes with a phenyl group attached to it. It has similar functions and potency as that of piracetam, which is its parent molecule. However, the addition of the phenyl group has increased its effectiveness in many ways which have led to the increased usage and exposure of Phenylpiracetam in the market.

Furthermore, it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Thus it has CNS effects. Most users compare its impact to that of Adderall and modafinil. It is more potent than other racetams and has a high bioavailability, making it a great first line agent to take in case if you are having an exhaustive day ahead.

Its half-life is about 3-5 hours.

No mechanism is in the documentation for the action it produces and the way it processes them and makes them work. However, it has energy and performance boosting properties, and it has a close resemblance to phenyl-ethylamine, which has stimulatory effects. Phenylpiracetam has a close affinity with neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.


How To Take Phenylpiracetam?

The general Phenylpiracetam dose is usually 100 to 200 mg per dose, and can be taken in up to 2 to 3 doses per day at max. Although I wouldn’t go that far myself. The higher end is often for specific conditions and are less frequent than the lower end dosage.

Personally, I prefer taking one 200 mg dose, once only. The effects are much more present and pleasing at that dosage. I feel like anything more than 200mg would be too stimulatory for me, especially given that I often take it along with other nootropics as part of a stack.

Its also important to note that Phenylpiracetam tolerance builds up quickly. Therefore, minimize your use to when you need it rather than making it a part of a daily stack. Once to twice per week is a good practice.

A little bit more science from Examine.com about recommended dosage, active amounts, and other details:

Phenylpiracetam is taken at a dosage of 100-200mg acutely, and this dose is taken 2-3 times per day (totalling a daily range of 200-600mg). The lower range seems effective, but the optimal dosage is not yet known.

The R-isomer appears to be more active on the common usages of phenylpiracetam (stimulation and cognition) than does the S-isomer, and while the racemic mixture (commonly sold version) is effective for cognitive decline it is not certain if it works for nootropic purposes in youth.

Side Effects

What Are Phenylpiracetam Side Effects?

The major issues and side effects that appear with Phenylpiracetam are the same that occur with other racetams.

The most common side effect of Phenylpiracetam is a headache. which is due to the choline reserves depletion. Using a choline source such as Alpha-GPC or Citicoline would quickly resolve the issue.

Due to that, I try to always pair Phenylpiracetam and a choline source together instead of waiting to see whether or not I am going to have a headache. That, plus I wouldn’t mind the potentiating boost of the additional choline.

Rarely reported side effects are related to the GI tract, such as digestion issues, and constipation.

User Experience

A review from a Nootropics Depot customer:

This is a great product, don’t get me wrong. Personally, however, my tolerance built up almost instantaneously. First use was wonderful, worked exactly as advertised. Took it a second time 2 days later. Still felt the effects, but was noticeably diminished. Waited a week before taking it again and felt like that first use. Decided to take it the very next day and felt it somewhat, but hardly. Abstained for a week and decided to take 2 in the morning. The effects were comparable to the first time. Took the same dose 3 days later and didn’t notice the effects at all. Waited a week before taking it again, took two again and felt the effects like the previous week but it wore off rather quickly. Since then I’ve only taken it once a week in the latter part of the day when I work a double at my job. This product definitely works, but in my opinion should be used very sparingly. I acknowledge the fact that I tend to develop tolerance to most substances quickly, so if you consider yourself to have that same trait this review would likely apply to you.

Another customer’s review:

Phenylpiracetam without a doubt works, and quite well at that. This was my introduction to the racetam family. I’m eager to try the others now, but wanted to start with one that provided an energy boost. I definitely picked the right one. Within an hour after use you will feel the effects, and they last around 5 hours for me. Sometimes I would take 2-3 capsules instead of 1, and it never made me feel jittery or anxious like too much caffeine would. Highly recommend this product if you are looking for a clean boost in energy and motivation. Works well along side caffeine in my opinion as well.


Phenylpiracetam has attained the attention and popularity among the nootropic users for its powerful, dynamic impacts and effects. It is a potent activator of the CNS activities. Its ability to increase the energy and physical performance have made it a favorite for many in the field of study and sports as well. As time passes, these highly active ingredients are only going to gain more attention.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Phenylpiracetam used for?

Phenylpiracetam is more potent than piracetam and is used for a wider range of indications. In combination with a vasodilator drug, piracetam appeared to have an additive beneficial effect on various cognitive disabilities. [R]

Does Phenylpiracetam get you high?

Phenylpiracetam boosts memory, cognition level, stamina and energy levels. Having those benefits to someone who has deficiencies in one or more of them would lead him to experiencing a euphoric state, which many people may refer to as being high. Therefore, ultimately, the answer to the question of does phenylpiracetam get you high would be yes.

Is Phenylpiracetam a stimulant?

Yes, in comparison to the general nootropics, Phenylpiracetam is considered to be stimulating nootropic. Moreover, Phenylpiracetam is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (Olympics) due to its reported psychostimulatory and cold resistance properties . But it is not a hard stimulant like amphetamines, methamphetamine, and other pharmaceutical & street drugs. It would be the better alternative – although its not recommended for day to day use due to quick tolerance-building. Ideally, taking Phenylpiracetam once to twice a week is the best way to use it without worrying about tolerance build-up or abuse potential.

Is Phenylpiracetam Legal?

Phenylpiracetam legality status depends on country to country basis. In the US, Phenylpiracetam is uncontrolled, unscheduled compound. Which means it is legal to buy and posses. While in Russia, Phenylpiracetam is a prescription drug (sold under brand name Phenotropil). Therefore, in Russia, you need a prescription to legally posses Phenylpiracetam.

How much Phenylpiracetam should I take?

The general Phenylpiracetam dose is usually 100 to 200 mg per dose, and can be taken in up to 2 to 3 doses per day at max. Although I wouldn’t go that far myself. The higher end is often for specific conditions and are less frequent than the lower end dosage.

Personally, I prefer taking one 200 mg dose, once only. The effects are much more present and pleasing at that dosage. I feel like anything more than 200mg would be too stimulatory for me, especially given that I often take it along with other nootropics as part of a stack.

It’s also important to note that Phenylpiracetam tolerance builds up quickly. Therefore, minimize your use to when you need it rather than making it a part of a daily stack. Once to twice per week is a good practice.

What is the best way to cycle Phenylpiracetam?

I would say limit the usage to once or twice per week as needed. Anything more than that would start the tolerance build-up. Another individual’s advise, from his personal experience:

Avoid taking phenylpiracetam for more than two consecutive days. I’ve found that by day 3 tolerance develops, even if I’m taking low doses (e.g. 50 mg). A solid schedule might be taking phenylpiracetam every other day. Better yet, twice a week only.

What does phenylpiracetam stack with?

Aniracetam, low dose of Noopept, Alpha-Gpc, Lion’s Mane Mushroom. Many other nootropics as well if you are only taking one phenylpiracetam capsule of 150mg. But in general Phenylpiracetam stacks well with most nootropics. Though most frequently its stacked with cholinergics.

Why do many people prefer phenylpiracetam to piracetam?

“It’s no secret that Phenylpiracetam is often preferred to Piracetam by some people. This is largely due to the fact that it is stronger than Piracetam. You see, phenylpiracetam was first synthesized in 1983 as a modification of the nootropic Piracetam. The primary alteration to Phenylpiracetam from its predecessor is the addition of a phenyl group– a small change that has made phenylpiracetam significantly more potent than Piracetam, even at much smaller dosages. Phenylpiracetam cognitive enhancing effects are reportedly achieved by increasing the density and number of acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA, and glutamate receptors in the brain. Through this mechanism, research suggests that Phenylpiracetam increases functional activity at the neurotransmitter binding sites most important for memory and cognition.”

Also: The stimulant qualities, which disappear after regular use. I estimate it is at first like one strong cup of coffee, weakening on subsequent doses. I think that is the reason that phenylpiracetam hasn’t replaced piracetam altogether. The advantages of phenylpiracetam have to be weighed against the greater cost. For daily or at least regular use, the price point of plain piracetam is better.

What Are Phenylpiracetam Capsules?

Phenylpiracetam capsules is a nootropic compound derivative of the parent compound in the Racetam family, Piracetam. It was first created in 1983 by a team of Russian scientists, and has recently become more well-known outside of Russia. Phenylpiracetam differs from Piracetam in the addition of a bulk phenyl grouping off the 4 position on the 2-pyrrolidone base structure. A phenyl grouping is a six-sided cyclic ring consisting of benzene, minus a hydrogen, leaving an open carbon bond available. Phenylpiracetam has very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble. It has a molar mass of 218.3 g/mol and a molecular formula of C12H14N2O2. CAS: 77472-70-9 – IUPAC: (R,S)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide

What Is The Difference Between Piracetam and Phenylpiracetam?

Phenylpiracetam is the same chemical structure of Piracetam, but with the addition of a large phenyl grouping off the 4 position of the pyrrolidone ring that all racetams share. Phenylpiracetam has very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble. The LogP of Phenylpiracetam is .16, and its solubility in water is 1-2mg/ml at 25 Celsius. The melting point of phenylpiracetam is 149-152 Celsius. Phenylpiracetam also has a stereocenter, meaning it can come in both R and L enantiomers. All phenylpiracetam available is racemic, or a 50/50 mixture of both enantiomers.

More FAQs can be found on here [link]

Related Nootropics

Phenylpiracetam is one of a nootropic-family type called racetams. Some of which are the:

Aniracetam, Piracetam, Coluracetam, Fasoracetam, Pramiracetam, Sunifiram

Return to Nootropics Information homepage.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageAniracetam StackSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Aniracetam is a multipurpose nootropic that provides several benefits. It produces remarkable anxiolytic effects, thereby improving cognition and enhancing mood by ridding anxieties. It also sharpens focus, increases verbal fluency, information processing, as well as expands the brain’s capability of digesting and processing information. Furthermore it produces sense of clarity and well-being.

Aniracetam TTS on Youtube


What is Aniracetam?

Aniracetam (systematically known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, and trade names Ampamet, Memodrin, and Pergamid ) is an invention from the 1970’s which has been since standing as one of the most popular racetams. It is more potent than Piracetam, the original racetam that led to the invention of the large family of racetams that exists today. However, Aniracetam and Piracetam work in different fashions, respectively. Aside from being a best-selling across racetams on many vendor websites, it’s also peaking among the most expensive ones. The majority of individuals using Aniracetam, myself included, report its anxiolytic and mood enhancing effects as remarkable, profound, and most noticeable.

The majority of individuals using Aniracetam report its anxiolytic and mood enhancing effects as remarkable, profound, and most noticeable.

Furthermore notable is the increase in social and verbal confidence as well as improvement of verbal fluency. Both advantages are likely to the anxiety-relieving characteristic of Aniracetam. In individuals with generalized and social anxieties, the effects are profound: relaxing and relieving anxiety levels to a significant degree due to feeling the overall mood enhancement and worrying less about random thoughts such as ones that are unchangeable. Freeing the accumulated anxiety leads to make space available for better, positive thoughts, thus leading to an open and welcoming approach to situations as well as human connections.

Aniracetam’ anti-anxiety and mood enhancing properties, strong cognitive improvements, and its minimal side effects, has made it one of the most popular nootropics. Besides improving mood and reducing anxiety, it also promotes creativity, verbal fluency, and memory.

Although immediate effects from taking Aniracetam are notable,  the most significant improvements are notable after a prolonged period of daily consumption.

Benefits & Effects

What Are Aniracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves and Enhances Memory
  2. Provides Neuroprotection and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  3. Heightens Focus and Concentration
  4. Relieves Anxiety (Especially Social Anxiety)
  5. Relieves Depression Symptoms
  6. Improves Memory and Learning Capacity
  7. Supports Management of Alzheimer’s Disease
  8. Additional Benefits of Aniracetam

Supporting Research:

Aniracetam Improves Memory

In two different rodent studies, Aniracetam proved to improve behavioral performance, and even reverse memory loss. In the second study on rodents aniracetam improved amnesia-like memory loss that was a result of sleep deprivation. [1] [2]

Aniracetam Provides Neuroprotection

Aniracetam acts as a neuroprotectant for brain cells. It helps to protect the brain damage that occurs from external influences. Furthermore, it assists in reversing brain damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption. [3], [4], [5]

Aniracetam Heightens Focus and Concentration

Aniracetam is remarkable in heightening concentration and focus. It exhibits effects such as increasing noradrenaline release in the brain, which is the reason for the stimulating effect of cognition boost as well as in concentration and focus. [6], [7]

Aniracetam Relieves Anxiety

Aniracetam shows strengths in reducing anxiety. Studies show that it affect anxiety by increasing social interactions and improving performance in fear and stress tests. With an increase in serotonin and dopamine, individuals feel a noticeable reduction in anxiety. Thus, becoming a general anxiety relieving agent. Although there are studies that support and verify this process, it is also useful to read personal experiences from Reddit and Longevity communities, where many reports it being far better than Piracetam, Coluracetam, Phenylpiracetam and similar nootropics in the field of anxiety reduction. [8], [9]

Aniracetam Relieves Depression Symptoms

It’s been proved to be useful as an antidepressant in rodent studies. In Japan, it has been used to treat stroke, depression, and anxiety. The release of dopamine and serotonin enhances mood and associating positive feelings. The impact of Aniracetam on AMPA receptors help with easing depression rising from cognitive degeneration conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. The effects of Aniracetam on depression are a result of the increase in acetylcholine and dopaminergic receptor stimulation. [10], [11]

Improves Memory and Learning Capacity

One of the main advantages of using Aniracetam is the profound findings on memory improvement and expansion of learning capacity. It enhances the formation of memories as well as the consolidation. Aniracetam increases the blood flow in the brain’s frontal cortex. The primary function of the frontal cortex is assisting in holistic thinking and the ability to form and connect ideas and thoughts. A study on the cognitive function of rodents observes that it also helps in improving parts of the memory and learning to promote an increase in productivity and task completion, which also assists individuals with ADHD. [12], [13]

Aniracetam Supports Alzheimer’s

Aniracetam is helpful for elderly individuals. A study on patients with Alzheimer’s-related dementia found a significant improvement in comparison to another group receiving high doses of Piracetam. Over a year period, individuals receiving Aniracetam showed higher cognitive function abilities and an increase in overall emotional stability. Studies show the likelihood of Aniracetam as a preventative as well as a remedy for Alzheimer and disorders that result from central nervous system damage [14]

Additional Benefits of Aniracetam

Aniracetam is said to promote and improve REM stage sleep according to this study. [15]

Aniracetam Skeletal Structure

Mechanism of Action

How Does Aniracetam Work?

Aniracetam is fat soluble which mean the compound breaks down at a slow pace thereby extending its effect. It has a half-life of 3 hours. Its pyrrolidinone structure makes it fall into the group of racetams. It’s one of the most common structures when it comes to this class of drugs. It has an additional methoxy group with an anisoyl ring at the para position. It is absorbed and metabolized in less than 30 minutes thereby rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier [16], [17]. Although not all of its mechanisms are understood, an extensive amount of research compiling on Aniracetam and they hint that it works by modulating the following:

Glutamate Neurotransmission

Aniracetam is essential in improving information and memory retention because of its effectiveness in transmitting glutamate. This neurotransmitter is vital in the activation of neurons. The glutamate receptors connect strongly with storage of information and preservation of memory. Aniracetam has a long-term effect on improving neuroplasticity. [18], [19]

Dopaminergic Neurotransmission

In rodents, the oral ingestion of 50 mg/kg has effects of minimizing the rates of dopamine in the striatum and decreasing dopamine rates in the striatum and hypothalamus. The levels of serotonin reduce in the hypothalamus but add in the striatum and cortex, where it decreases hypothalamus turnover and increases brainstem, striatum and cortex turnover. [20]

Acetylcholine Neurotransmission

Aniracetam has effects of improving the cognitive functions by enhancing the action throughout. This is important in attention span, memory and learning speed. It works by associating to acetylcholine receptors, stopping receptor desensitization and endorsing the synaptic discharge of acetylcholine. [21]


How to Take Aniracetam?

Aniracetam has a short half-life of about 1 to 3 hours. Therefore, many users advice to take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day to prolong the effect. I only take one 750 mg dose in the morning and am satisfied with this regime.

Aniracetam powder form is also available, though not as in favor as the capsule form due to its strong, bitter taste.

The recommended as well as typical dosage is 750 to 1500 mg, subjective to the individual. Taking smaller doses of as little as 400 mg has been found to be effective. Hence, it is wise to start at the lowest effective dose and build up from there as desired.

Aniracetam Stack

Best Aniracetam Stack for Focus

For work as well as learning, Aniracetam can produce remarkable benefits and effects when taken alongside other nootropics and supplements.

It goes without a saying that stacking Aniracetam with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-GPC is a must. Leaving the potentiating effect aside, what makes it a must is the fact that many racetams work by utilizing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. Once acetylcholine is utilized and starts getting to a low or depletion levels, the user would then feel a headache. And depending on what racetam did you take and at which dose, it can be a very nasty one.

Aside from that, it really works as a great potentiator. You will feel like both nootropics are working at a better level.

Another nootropic that I like to stack with Citicoline & Aniracetam is Lion’s Mane Mushroom.

Although many don’t feel an onset effect, I find that it works very well in that stack even if I am taking it on random basis. Often, I would only use this stack for the days where I have to go to work early and know that I will be there all day from 8 to 4. (or maybe 9 to 3 but you get my point).

On the same occasion, I would also take N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine 350mg. I found that it helps me tremendously in keeping myself working on an ongoing task rather than taking a 5 minutes break every 2 minutes. I am ADHD, and NALT has been one of the greatest discoveries for me in that regard. It also lets me focus better.

If I have time to have coffee before heading out, I would also add L-Theanine to the stack. The synergizing effect of caffeine and L-Theanine is one of my favorite (and now seems old school) combos.

Last but anything from being least, Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR). When I first started experimenting with it I found it very effective on me and was taking 500mg three times a day. Eventually though, I was developing a weird allergy-like symptoms as well as feeling light, needle-like numbing in random parts of my body.

I can’t blame it on ALCAR just like that but after a while of carefully observing, I noticed that it had almost disappeared since I lowered the dosage to 0 for a while, and then got back to taking 500mg per day only. Now when I think about it, I did not get those symptoms pretty much since that time. Interesting note to self.

So in a morning where I am going to be at work all day, which is a massive corporation that drains me sometimes, this would be my stack:

  1. Aniracetam 750mg
  2. Alpha-GPC 300mg
  3. Lion’s Mane Mushroom 500mg
  4. N Acetyl L-Tyrosine 350mg
  5. Acetyl L-Carnitine 500mg
  6. Caffeine 100mg
  7. L-Theanine 200mg (if I’m having coffee)

Of course the stack is ever changing, but when it comes to Aniracetam, I remember that stack being one I liked and found to be very effective on me. It made me focused at work, energized throughout the day (esp. on days where I also took Adrafinil), diminished my occasional social anxiety, and made me very productive at my job.

Every now and then, I would take a 15 to 20mg of Noopept and take it after lunch break (not that I have lunch during those breaks, I’m just drawing the timing picture here) to get a little boost and prolong the effects of…all the above.

Aniracetam Stack for Anxiety or Stress

Another Aniracetam Stack that I really like for either when you are running late (I say this mainly for the ADHD readers, I know the struggle very well…), or just not in the mood to go after 10 containers getting one pill from each, and rather like the convenience. I often use this one when I am on the go and its

It’s a very easy and convenient stack. Simply 3 pills and you are good to go. Sometimes I would take another serving of MindLab in the afternoon as needed. The maximum allowance is 2 servings (4 pills) every 24 hours. I think its the best nootropic formula in that situation.

Note to self: re-order MindLab Pro – you used the last remaining pill today.

Side Effects

What Are Aniracetam Side Effects?

Side effects of supplementing are mild and only occur when consuming high doses. High doses can result in digestive discomfort and nervousness.

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is almost a rule to pair racetam drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha-GPC or CDP-choline). Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, but it will also work synergistically together firing cognitive function (21).

User Experiences

Below are a few randomly selected Aniracetam user experiences from people within the Reddit nootropic community:

“My first aniracetam trial at only 250 mg made me feel a little out of it for a couple hours, and “loopy” would probably be the right word had I started out with three times that much. This may refer to what is often described as an anxiolytic effect.

On the other hand, once this passed I felt more clear than usual. Others have reported such a “biphasic” effect as well. There are a number of things you can do, one of which is obviously not to use it again. Others are to try a lower dose, especially to begin with, until you become more accustomed to how it affects you. When you take it matters too; if you get this biphasic effect then take that into account when timing your use. With some experience, you also may find stacking it with another supplement, for example, phenylpiracetam, helpful. In any case, I always start low when trying anything new just as a general safety practice and to avoid unpleasant surprises.”

Another reddit user also wrote:

“I’ve been experimenting with nootropic stacks for awhile now and I decided to foray into the racetams. Per Dave Asprey (Bulletproof Exec) I decided to start with aniracetam because of its comparative potency to other the racetams, as well as it’s anxiolytic effect. I bought 30g online (I googled and found Health Supplement Wholesalers, fair-priced) and immediately noticed several changes in various aspects of my day to day life.

First and foremost I have found myself much more resilient to stress than I would normally be. Things that would spin me up in the past are barely even noticeable, and it is exponentially easier to shrug off all but the largest of stressors as if they did not even occur. I have had an elevated mood also. Feelings of happiness and contentment come much more easily to me, and I will catch myself smiling without understanding why. It is a very pleasant change from my previous baseline. I have a much easier time focusing on tasks, and accomplishing goals. My mind feels not only ready, but excited to take on challenges and meet them.

Mental plasticity is a definite benefit of this product. One of my favorite aspects to this is there is no type of mental fog, but instead complete clarity. I feel very sharp and aware, noticing things about my surroundings that I would not have noticed before. It has even given me a new appreciation for music as the tranquility and clarity of mind have allowed me to listen and pick out parts of the music that I would never have noticed before. I highly recommend getting some to anyone seeking any or all of these benefits, as everyone I’ve shared it with has asked me where to buy it for themselves. Pretty excited I found this; I’m anxious to try the other racetams as well.”

And a third experience:

“Certainly not placebo imo. I’ve tried numerous supplements and a couple other nootropics with the same hope that I would be able to make a significant difference, but without any luck. Aniracetam has been the only one to actually provide me with tangible results. But you guys are free to speculate and make your judgements.”


Diverse effects of Aniracetam make it an outstanding nootropic. It promotes calmness and improves mood. Moreover, it enhances performance and reduces social anxiety. It is useful for performing artists, public speaking, and overall anxiety reduction. It has shown positive results on cognitive functions making learning quicker and more pleasant.

Furthermore, it heightens focus and concentration over prolonged periods, making it appealing to students and researchers. Aniracetam users report a boost in creativity and an improvement in visuals and self-awareness. It has proved to offer many advantages taken at recommended doses with infrequent adverse effects.

Aniracetam reviews are very encouraging and reddit experiences will make you want to buy yourself some right away.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can I Take Aniracetam Everyday?

No. While it is completely ok to take Aniracetam on regular basis, as well as daily basis. It does not mean you can or should take it every single day for the rest of your life. Moderation is key. And too much of a good thing isn’t necessarily good. I personally have taken it for periods of months continuously, anywhere between 2 to 4 months. Then I would stop it for a while, “cycle,” if you may. If you are taking it every day, do what I often do, which is stopping (cycling it off) once I run out, then prolong the period until I repurchase and refill.

Can You Snort Aniracetam?

No. Aniracetam is fat-soluble. It’s meant to be administered orally. Unlike Noopept, for example, which people have reportedly snorted (taste is terrible and the cons outweigh the pros, not recommended). If you snort Aniracetam, due to the dosage, it wouldn’t really be absorbed much.

How Does Aniracetam Work?

Aniracetam is fat soluble which mean the compound breaks down at a slow pace thereby extending its effect. It has a half-life of 3 hours. Its pyrrolidinone structure makes it fall into the group of racetams. It’s one of the most common structures when it comes to this class of drugs. It has an additional methoxy group with an anisoyl ring at the para position. It is absorbed and metabolized in less than 30 minutes thereby rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier.

When To Take Aniracetam?

Aniracetam can be taken any time really. Although fat-soluble, it can still be well-absorbed with little and even no food. Therefore, you can take it any time. Personally, I like to take it in the morning after having my breakfast which is usually a cup of coffee. However, it is advised to avoid taking Aniracetam in the evening so it doesn’t stimulate you and keep you up and unable to fall asleep.

How Long Aniracetam Takes to Kick In?

Aniracetam is considered to be fast-acting, and able to cross the blood-brain barrier in 30 minutes only.

How Long Does Aniracetam Last?

Aniracetam has a short half-life of about 1 to 3 hours. Therefore, many users advice to take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day to prolong the effect.

How Much Aniracetam To Take Daily?

The recommended starting point and the effective dose is 750mg, which is also the dosage I take in the morning. If you prefer to prolong the feeling throughout the day, you may take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day. For example, instead of one 750 mg in the morning, you can split that into 3 doses of 250 mg, and take it once in the morning, then in the early afternoon, and again in the early evening. I personally prefer a one-time larger dose, and later in the day, use another potentiator to re-up the feeling (usually that would be CoQ10 or Noopept 15mg)

What is Aniracetam Used For?

Aniracetam is often used for memory enhancement, neuroprotection, focus, concentration, anxiety relief, depression, increasing learning capacity, as well as to support in the management of alzheimer’s disease.

Where To Buy Aniracetam?

Many vendors online sell Aniracetam and I can only recommend something I have personally tried and still use to this day, which is Nootropics Depot’ Aniracetam.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Racetams 101 (FAQ)
  2. Nootropics FAQ
  3. Piracetam
  4. Sunifiram
  5. Oxiracetam
  6. Fasoracetam

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanisms of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Piracetam is a designer nootropic made to enhance brain function. It’s the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.

Piracetam review
Piracetam Skeletal Structure

Piracetam Video TTS


What is Piracetam?

Piracetam is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It’s been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.

Nootropics such as Phenylpiracetam, Fasoracetam, and Pramiracetam are all derivatives of this compound.

“Synthetic molecule designed to enhance brain function. Piracetam is the basic ‘racetam’ molecule of a family of related compounds”


Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.

“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.”


Benefits & Effects

What Are Piracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Enhances Cognitive Function
  3. Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
  4. Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
  5. Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
  6. Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
  7. Helps with Schizophrenia

Supporting Research

Piracetam Improves Memory

Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result. [1] [2]

Piracetam Enhances Cognitive Function

There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits. [3] [4] [5]

Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration

Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. Prevention is of often the best medicine there is. [6] [7]

Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought

There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. [8]

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression

In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. Use with caution. With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social [9] [10] – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)

Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics

Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time. [11] [12]

Piracetam Helps with Schizophrenia

Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus. [13] [14]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Piracetam Work?

Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. Piracetam’ mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.

“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).

The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.

Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine

Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.


How To Take Piracetam?

The typical Piracetam dosage for adults is between 1,200 to 4,800 mg a day.The most effective dose is 1,600 mg, taken three times a day, making a total of 4,800 mg per day.

For optimal results pair it with 300mg of Alpha GPC, CDP-choline, or your choline source of choice.

Side Effects

What Are Piracetam Side Effects?

Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. [15]

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-Gpc, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.

Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. [16]

User Experiences

A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:

So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i’ve never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions. I’ve lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i’ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety. With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me. Now I focus on what is important and I don’t care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I’ve started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions. I’ve also noted i’m more honest and don’t feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour. I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i’ve been an asshole my whole life) Even so I’m still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they’re only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself. Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don’t have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.

Another reddit user experience, in which he says:

So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.) But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn’t expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.


Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.

Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Piracetam Legal in the US?

It’s legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.

What’s the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”

Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”

What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?

Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked’ in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.

What is the correct way to take Piracetam?

“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”

Why does piracetam take so long to act?

Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down’s syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.

Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?

The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:

1. Enhance some form of cognition.
2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

For the first Qualifier:

Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.

Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focus, memory, and learning.

Second Qualifier:

Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]

Check out the Ultimate Nootropics Information FAQ for more FAQs

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanisms of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Noopept is one of the most potent nootropics available. It boosts overall cognition with a slight psychostimulatory effect. Effects kick-in within minutes of consumption, making it a handy choice right when dealing with or getting to mentally-demanding tasks.

Noopept review
Noopept Skeletal Structure
Noopept Video TTS


What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that’s been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.

Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action. But when it comes to noopept, results are usually felt minutes after ingestion. It shares similar onset of action as somewhat related racetam phenylpiracetam.

“N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester is promoted as a nootropic and is a prodrug of cycloprolylglycine. Other names include the brand name Noopept, developmental code GVS-111; proposed INN omberacetam. Its synthesis was first reported in 1996. Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug’s effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question.” – Wikipedia

In Russia and a few of the surrounding countries, Noopept is prescribed for its nootropic qualities. The demand for it is dramatically rising and is currently retailing worldwide, amongst the best selling nootropics on the major vendor websites.

It also acts similar to the way Piracetam does – however, it is said to be somewhere over 1,000 more potent. That is why people tend to reach desired effect or outcome from as little as 10 mg and usually not exceeding 30 mg as total, per day. It smoothly settles itself onto the brain’s receptors.

Even with a dose as small as 10mg, many report it to be quite comparable, and many (myself included) actually favor it over Piracetam.

Noopept is also inexpensive comparing to other nootropics because of its high potency.

Its effectiveness and inexpensive price led to it being a classic, very popular, and in many case, a favorite, amongst the nootropic community.

From Nootropics City:

Noopept is a very potent Ampakine nootropic drug, and the nootropics brand name for the research peptide “N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethyl ester.” Noopept capsules is an entirely synthetic molecule, and has a similar effect to Piracetam, though its effects are quoted as up to 1000 times stronger. Effects are very much like a “mega dose” of piracetam (when a nootropic is taken in dosages up to 8 times the usual amount) and even provides a slight psycho stimulatory effect when taken in low to moderate dosages. Typical dosages of Noopept range from 10mg at the lower end, to a maximum effective dosage of 30mg per day. When higher dosages are taken then this, tiredness can result, negating many of Noopept’s benefits, alongside tolerance and an increase in Noopept’s negative side effects. Noopept, for best results, should be taken 3 times daily (preferably once with each meal) and should be taken with a choline source (preferably CDP Choline) for maximum results. Noopept, like Piracetam, displayed many neuroprotective effects in rats and mice during testing. More studies are needed to confirm exactly what causes Noopept’s supposed neuroprotective effect.

Take into account with Noopept capsules: Remember, Noopept is entirely a research molecule (as are most nootropics) understand what you are taking, do your own personal research on it, and weigh the positives and negatives before taking Noopept. Take Noopept capsules in a regular, consistent dosing pattern of 10mg per day, and continue to supplement in the form of a U shaped curve, ie: Start off with a low dosage, increase accordingly, then taper back down towards the end of your Noopept regiment. Noopept capsules should be cycled on and off for 1-3 months at a time for best results. Be sure to take Noopept when a particularly rigorous mental task is being performed.

Benefits & Effects

What Are Noopept Benefits?

  1. Supports Memory & Learning
  2. Neuroprotective & Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  3. Supports Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) & Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)
  4. Improves Association Between Brain Hemispheres

Supporting research:

Noopept Supports Memory & Learning

Noopept primary interest is how it improves memory and ease the learning process. It helps in memory creation, with additional benefits such as memory consolidation and speed of recall. Noopept helps the correct management of all sorts of stimuli as they are under process by the cerebellum, which permits better memory retrieval. In other terms, signal handling by our sensations is more smooth as they are carrying forward into our memory. Through the continued use of Noopept, individuals report information to be more easily digested and processed, giving them the availability to be ready-for-use in everyday activities. One might remember names, places; maybe a word chatted in contact, a tune thought to be forgotten, and such. Memory failures will diminish or to the least will be kept to a very minimum. [1]

Noopept Neuroprotective & Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)

Studies prove that noopept possesses excellent neuroprotective attributes. The stimulation of the neurons produced by the supplement blocks oxidative damage in the human brain. Many patients dealing with cognitive impairment can benefit from a consistent dosage of noopept to avoid further cognitive decline. [2]

Noopept Increases Nerve Growth Factor and BDNF

NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) is a protein in the body that is involved in the growth, preservation, and continuation of nerve cells, including brain cells. Nerve growth factor is also deemed to be very important in neurogenesis; the body’s ability to generate new cells. By raising NGF levels in the cerebellum, it allows for new neural connections. The result indicates potentially improved mental skills in nearly all areas of cognition. [3]

BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) is another protein in the body that has s role to the NGF mentioned above. BDNF is one of the most critical molecules that associate with memory, playing an essential role in both short and long-term memory formation. [4, 5]

Noopept Improves Association Between Left and Right Brain Hemispheres

Both the right and left hemispheres of the brain to have their localized functions. Through the use of noopept, each of those functions is developing through the synthesis of various memories, ideas, and stimuli. There are nuances among these functions that improve the way we think. That is why many people have claimed that their quality of life had a significant improvement when taking noopept on a regular basis.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim.

“Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”


Noopept users report results of improved clarity, better memory, and focus. More studies are undergoing to determine precisely how it provides those privileges to the brain. Studies on animals have shown that Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity in all brain areas (R).

Noopept’s mechanism of action is similar to the other racetams. Noopept works on the AMPA and NDMA receptor sites and their pathways of function. It also has an affinity for the Acetylcholine system and the ACh receptor sites. Both of these factors contribute to Noopept’s array of nootropic benefits. Like Aniracetam, Noopept appears to produce an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) response in animal and human models. This is not a guaranteed result and seems to vary widely between subjects. Like with Aniracetam, Noopept seems stimulate Dopamine receptor sites (D2 and D3) as well as the ACh nicotinic receptor sites. Noopept also seems to stimulate certain Serotonin receptors and this may also contribute to its mood boosting qualities.

Nootropics City

On Memory & Cognitive Decline

Noopept seems to be especially effective, and demonstrates the greatest benefits to patients with mild cognitive decline. It is now undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cognitive deficiency of post-traumatic origin and cerebrovascular cause.

The cerebellum benefits include antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory qualities,  along with repression of toxicity by the removal of excessive glutamate, and calcium. Similarly, blood rhythm and flow signifies further improvement. Two possible mechanisms of action for enhancing cognition are a sensitizing effect on acetylcholine processes or induction of neurotrophin production, both of which theoretically enhance memory formation.

Noopept absorption is a process by the digestive system and succeeding to cross the blood-brain barrier readily. The brain utilizes it almost entirely, very little goes to waste.

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning. It works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes.

Anecdotal reports often recall the “sudden abundance of clarity and precision” delivered by the immediate advantage of added oxygen to the brain and enhanced glucose use. Furthermore, its frequently reported that it also improves eyesight and perception, expanding one’s awareness to his or her surroundings and perceiving colors and objects to be more alive, vibrant, and vivid.


How to take Noopept? What is the Recommended Noopept Dosage?

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, take Noopept in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

  1. 10 mg – divide into three doses throughout the day
  2. 15 mg – divide into two doses twice a day
  3. 30 mg – one dose per day

Do not exceed the 30mg Noopept dosage in one day – and ideally, no longer than 60 days cycle if taken everyday. After that, allow yourself some time off before you start another cycle. Alternatively, you can take it on and off as needed. Experimenting is the best way to find out what works for your own body.

Given how fast the body metabolizes it, and due to its rather short half-life, it is best to take small doses multiple times a day instead of a large one at once; thereby prolonging the effects. In the beginning, it is wise to start with the smallest effective dose with careful observation, before progressing into a higher dose.

Noopept Powder Form

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately. According to the label, take Noopept for 1.5 to 3 weeks and then, if necessary, to begin another cycle after a 1-month break. Alternatively, many users follow 56 days on and four days off. Do not take Noopept late in the evening as its energizing effects may interfere with sleep.

And furthermore; “to supplement Noopept, take 10 – 30 mg, once a day, for up to 56 days at a time. More research is needed to determine the optimal human dose for Noopept.” again, quoting Examine.

Noopept Nasal Spray (Intranasal)

Many people seem to discuss different mixtures to getting the most ideal ratio for a Noopept Nasal spray, but there isn’t any solid information that I could put on here. If you’re interested in user experiments and anecdotal experiences, there are a couple different threads you can find by searching ‘Noopept Nasal’ on reddit nootropics subreddit here.

Side Effects

What Are Noopept Side Effects?

These side effects of Noopepts are mostly occurring when higher doses are consumed:

  1. Headache
  2. Restlessness (or overstimulation)
  3. Dizziness
  4. Irritability

Some studies suggest that it magnifies the effects of stimulants such as amphetamines, so caution is advisable for individuals using ADHD medication. I can personally advise that as well. I’ve felt that sense of overstimulation in a couple different occasion when taking a 30 mg dose of Noopept shortly after taking my ADHD medication. I now find that a 15 mg dose works best for me whether once or twice per day.


The benefits of Noopept are numerous, but the best thing about it is that its effects are cumulative. Noopept has quickly grown in demand and has earned its space within people’s nootropic stacks due to its impressive results, ease of small doses, and its reasonable, affordable cost. Whether an expert nootropic user or merely getting to learn about it all, noopept is an excellent choice for an overall cognitive function boost.

User Experiences

My Personal Experience

Noopept was amongst the very first nootropics I got to try. I was taking it in a one dose of 30 mg in the early afternoon with 300mg of Alpha-GPC.

I think it was the most effective, and most profound feeling I ever got off a nootropic to this day. I really thought I hit the jackpot. I was able to sit throughout the day at work fully engaged and focused on my whatever I was working on, without any sort of complaining whatsoever. And that was at my corporate job, not at my home office. I was amazed by that.

I had to see if it was in my head or if it had been really that effective, and so I had both my best friend and my sister to try it out on different occasions – both of them ended up asking me to try it a few more times. My friend went on to buy her own while doing her finals at an international affairs academy programme and I never heard her talk so positively about any supplement or nootropic whatsoever the way she talked and liked Noopept.

Unfortunately though, today, after quite a long time since I first discovered it, it seems to have half the effect it had on me back in the day even if I don’t take it for a month or so. But it makes complete since due to the similarities of other racetams that I supplement with frequently – mostly Aniracetam. But the feeling I experienced in the very first few times of Noopept was something I had never felt with any other nootropic.

Reddit Users Experience

On reddit’s nootropics sub, a user wrote:

“Noopept: Probably the most potent memory and cognition enhancing nootropic I’ve tried besides Phenylpiracetam…noopept really makes a huge difference for me in terms of mental clarity, memory recall, and fluid thinking. I’ll be on this for life 100%”

Further and Related Readings

Related Nootropics (Racetams)

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Piracetam
  3. Phenylpiracetam
  4. Pramiracetam
  5. Oxiracetam
  6. Fasoracetam
  7. Sunifiram
  8. Coluracetam

Best Noopept Stack

Alpha-GPC or Citicoline (or whatever your choline preference may be). This will massively potentiate the effect, and will prevent the occasion occurrence of Noopept’s headaches.

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Studies

  1. Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation
  2. Neuroprotective and nootropic drug noopept rescues α-synuclein amyloid cytotoxicity
  3. The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer’s disease model

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that’s been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning.

What Does Noopept Do?

Noopept is a powerful Nootropic compound. It protects your brain from stresses and toxins (neuroprotection). It is great at improving cognitive performance and memory. Furthermore, it shields from degenerative brain disorder relating to aging.

How Long Does Noopept Take to Work?

Noopept works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes. Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action.

How to Take Noopept Capsules?

10 mg – divide into three doses throughout the day
15 mg – divide into two doses twice a day
30 mg – one dose per day

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, take Noopept in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

How to Take Noopept Powder?

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately.

How to Take Noopept Sublingually?

There’s no “right way” to do it. Place under tongue, close mouth and rest tongue gently on the Noopept. Just hold it there for a while. Once it’s mostly gone, swoosh it around a bit and swallow the rest. Try not to swallow the saliva that builds up in your mouth because then you are most likely swallowing some of the drug that hasn’t been absorbed yet.

What is the Half-life of Noopept?

Noopept’s half-life depends on the individual. The duration of Noopept is around 3 – 6 hours. Effects of Noopept increase after using it for a few days.

Where to Buy Noopept?

I have only bought Noopept from Nootropics Depot, so I can’t recommend or suggest any other vendor. If ND is an option for you, then get it from them. I tried it myself, and they are quire reputable.

More FAQs on Nootropics can be found here [link]

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