Summary: Sunifiram is an experimental, potent and powerful nootropic that enhances memory, expands learning capacity, and uplifts mood. A recent addition to the racetam family that seems more than promising. Sunifiram dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.
What is Sunifiram?
Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam. Although there has not been much evidence about its efficacy, it has been proven to be beneficial for the (many) individuals using it. With research and trials ongoing and growing, its use will increase along as well. Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) has been one of the best nootropics that powerfully influence cognition. It enhances mood, lowers stress, and increases energy and focus.
It is an invention from the year 2000. And although it is very new to the market, it is proving to be effective and useful to individuals both in long and short terms. It is an effective nootropic that improves learning and memory, and furthermore enhances cognitive function. It is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amnesia, like most racetams. There are no reports of any severe side effects from its use, making it effective, useful, and safe.
Although it belongs to the racetam class, Sunifiram has a different structure. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as a piperazine alkaloid rather than racetam. It delivers many of the same memory and learning enhancements as piracetam but is much more potent.
Sunifiram is also an ampakine. It increases the efficacy and activity of neurotransmitter glutamine. This leads to significant changes such as mood and energy improvement along with other cognition benefits.
Sunifiram (developmental codename DM-235) is an experimental drug which has antiamnesic effects in animal studies and with significantly higher potency than piracetam. Sunifiram is a molecular simplification of unifiram (DM-232). As of 2016, sunifiram had not been subjected to toxicology testing, nor to any human clinical trials, and is not approved for use anywhere in the world. Wikipedia
Sunifiram Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression
As an antidepressant and anxiety reliever, Sunifiram produces its effects as a mirror image of an ampakine. It reacts with glutamatergic AMPA receptors. That also allows it to act as a mild stimulant.
Sunifiram Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy
Sunifiram is known to increase energy and enhance mood. This is likely due to its antidepressant-like effect.
Sunifiram Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation
Sunifiram is a potent and powerful nootropic. It enhances memory formation and retention as well as expanding the learning capacity. It is in use in case of diseases that cause memory loss or amnesia. Its use is not yet regulated by the FDA, but still widely in use by many individuals for its nootropic benefits. [R] [R]
Appears to promote long term potentiation in the hippocampus with oral ingestion, which should result in an improvement in memory in animals that have otherwise impaired memory. Examine.com
Sunifiram Enhances Focus and Motivation
Sunifiram enhances focus and concentration. It is known to improve motivation and enable a person to complete mentally-demanding tasks at ease and comfort. The focus heightening and motivation is due to the increase in the release and utilization of acetylcholine; which has a direct impact on cognitive abilities.
Sunifiram Enhances Visual Perception
Sunifiram keeps you out of stress and negative thinking. It makes you have a confident, better outlook on life. It allows you to look at the future positive and ambitiously. Such useful effects are helpful for people at any and every stage of life.
Sunifiram Increases Libido
Increase in the sex drive is often in anecdotal reports. However, there is no clinical evidence on this specific claim and only anecdotal ones support it.
Mechanism of Action
How Does Sunifiram Work?
Sunifiram is a piracetam derivative. But it often comes as a surprise that it has a different chemical structure from the other racetams. It is basically a piperazine alkaloid which can act as an ampakine that will increase the activity of glutamine receptors and increase the stimulation effects. Or it can serve as a cholinergic that stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine.
Although no such evidence is still available about its use and its action in humans due to the lack of the trials, the primary factor that drives it to work would be the ampakine factor which allows it to provide the stimulation effects by acting at the glutamate receptors. Ampakines are mild stimulants. They can increase alertness and energy. They do not cause restlessness which like other antidepressants or anxiolytics. The increase the energy levels and the activity factor is also one of the significant roles Sunifiram plays. Due to its effect on the glutamate receptors, it leads to functions such as spatial navigation and the formation and storage of memory, which are crucial for many neurological conditions.
Sunifiram acts as a cholinergic as well. Due to this effect, it leads to the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Acetylcholine increases brain function and cognition abilities. The primary functions are memory enhancement, learning speed and capacity which grow and expand very notably. You can also count on the fluid intelligence or ability to solve unique problems with this supplement. Sunifiram is an essential nootropic to students as well as athletes to increase their performance and achieve better results.
Sunifiram appears to act on the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, which enhances signalling and activates some intracellular proteins (CAMKII and PKCα) which then positively regulate the AMPA receptors. These mechanisms are highly similar to that seen with nefiracetam. Examine.com
The mechanism of action of sunifiram is unknown. Sunifiram, as well as unifiram, were assayed at a wide panel of sites, including the most important receptors, ion channels, and transporters, but showed no affinity for any of the sites. They specifically did not bind to the glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, acetylcholine, or opioid receptors at concentrations of up to 1 μM. In addition, the drugs were tested on recombinant AMPA receptors and showed no potentiation of the receptors, indicating that they do not act as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators. However, they were able to prevent the amnesia induced by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX in the passive avoidance test, suggesting that indirect/downstream AMPA receptor activation may be involved in their memory-enhancing effects. Sunifiram, as well as other nootropics such as piracetam, levetiracetam, and aniracetam are able to antagonize inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital), diazepam, and certain other drugs in human erythrocytes in vitro (Ki = 26.0 uM for sunifiram), and this action has been found to correlate with their potency in reversing scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. However, this action has been regarded as very unlikely to represent the main mechanism of action of sunifiram.
How to Take Sunifiram?
Sunifiram works effectively at a dosage of 5 to 10 mg – at a maximum of three times per day. This is the safe dose which is often taken sublingual for maximum efficacy and absorption.
It is advised that one starts with the smallest doses to prevent side effects and toxicity. Although it is not in documentation, tolerance can grow with excessive usage, so it is better to take it occasionally instead of daily basis.
only 4-8 mg 2-3 times a day is needed with this ultra potent nootropic. When you’re talking about the Bugatti of the nootropics world, less is more. A little goes all the way!
Possible side effects:
it is possible to experience headaches from choline depletion with excessive use. This can be combated by consuming sources of choline. In rare cases individuals have experienced nausea.
– Nootropics City
For Boosting Cognitive Function
By pairing sunifiram with one or more of the racetams like piracetam, oxiracetam, or Noopept, we can achieve this increase which has been the most common and most favorite Sunifiram combo. A choline source like Alpha GPC is an important part of this combo due to the increased choline depletion by the former nootropics.
For Mood Enhancement
Combining Aniracetam with sunifiram is a good option for mood enhancement. You can combine L-theanine, which increases production of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA with sunifiram. Sulbutiamine, which is a potent enhancer of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic functions can be a good combination as well. Choline source should always be present in those combos to prevent getting a headache.
What Are Sunifiram Side Effects?
Due to being fairly new and not as widely popular as the rest of the racetams, no severe side effects of sunifiram have surfaced yet. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still ongoing, and it is yet to get FDA approval. Use with caution.
On a Reddit user wrote down a thorough experience of sunifiram:
For years I have been a hardcore coffee drinker and other than that I had not used any other substances to enhance my cognition in any way. A few months ago I started a doctor-supervised weight loss program that included the use of 30 mg of Phentermine daily as an appetite suppressant.
Unfortunately, Phentermine is an amphetamine that gave me an extreme energy rush that was affecting my focus and concentration. I could not sit and study because I was getting easily distracted by anything. This was starting to affect my performance in my current classes and at work so I tried using 200 mg of L-Theanine and reduce my caffeine intake with moderately positive effects.
After losing about 100 lbs, I am ready to stop the Phentermine and continue my healthy eating habits for a long-term weight loss maintenance. This Phentermine is addictive so my doctor is reducing the dose gradually to minimize the withdrawal effects. However, I started feeling slightly depressed and foggy. This is when I decided to go on my own and experiment with Noots to see if they would help.
My doctor is not familiar with any nootropics nor did he think anything like that would be appropriate since the effects of phentermine withdrawal would pass in a few weeks.
I did some research about nootropics that would help me with this situation and decided to go shopping. I was low on cash but had a credit on Amazon so the only strong nootropic that I found was Sunifiram. Despite the warnings that there are no sufficient studies on the long-term effects, I decided to assume all risks and give it a try.
I started five days ago with 10mg of Sunifiram administered sublingually. Approximately 10-15 minutes after the first dose I felt what others have called “sunny”. It is hard to explain but it was somewhat overwhelming and the effect did not last long.
The following day I took the same dose and got the same but short effect. I did have a mild headache after waking up but nothing unbearable. I started to get the full effect on Day 3. Suddenly I was able to focus on whatever I wanted and the ideas flowed easily. I had struggled to finish a paper for days but this time I finished it in less than an hour.
Today is Day 5 of using Sunifiram and I have to say it has been a positive experience so far. I wish I could explain better my experience but I have not used anything with comparable results. It is not an extreme rush of energy nor a sedative effect. I just feel a sense of clarity that I had not felt before.
I don’t want to take the risk of using Sunifiram for long-term cognition enhancement given the unknown effects of continued use, so I will stop taking it as soon as I finish this class. Once I have some cash to spend, I might look into other alternatives like Piracetam, Noopept or something similar.
Sunifiram was my first experience with a “smart drug”. During the first two days the effects were mild and nearly unnoticeable. After the third day I felt a positive improvement in my mood and focus. Since there are no sufficient studies on the long term use of this substance, I will discontinue its use and seek other Nootropics with better background research.
Sunifiram is one of the nootropics having huge and fast-growing demand, so its not easily accessible. Its potency, efficacy, and effectiveness have been superb. Although it does not have a lot of trials under its belt, it is nevertheless one which has been encouraging and promoted as a safe and effective nootropic.
Not for everyday use, but it can be a good companion to have in your stack. Increasing energy, cognitive abilities, and physical performance are the prime features of this product which make it one worth trying out.
Where to Buy Sunifiram?
Although I haven’t tried Sunifiram nor have I purchased from this vendor myself, I am listing them here for those coming to this page to find vendors. So far the ones I found and seem reputable are:
Nootropics City for Sunifiram Capsules
Nootropics Retail for Sunifiram Powder
Within the UAE, you can order sunifiram from our store.
While researching a bit more on Sunifiram, I came across an article on Nootropics City titled ‘Why was Sunifiram Taken Off the Market,’ and dates back to 2004. I thought it would be an interesting read to someone looking for all and any information about Sunifiram. It says:
“In 2000, Sunifiram was introduced to the market. It is well known as DM-235. While clinical trials are done before releasing any drug on the market, as a brand name or a generic one, it is not the only parameter that measures that it will react to general people in the same way. Hence, some drugs are taken off the shelves. Now, why was Sunifiram was taken off the market when some people were responding well towards it. What is the safety information that one should know related to this drug?
The real reason for Sunifiram to be off the market is that there were few safe studies conducted on it. This made it difficult for many physicians to prescribe it to their patients. It is now seen as a recreational drug and a stimulant. Some stimulants like this may be legit but dangerous. It is always best to keep in touch with the ones that have a proven track record, not only in clinical results but in public domain also.
It was introduced as a nootropic to help patients recover mental alertness. The effect of the composition is stronger, and it certainly raises safety issues. Some of its negative properties have made it to remain on the shelves for a little longer. Even healthcare professionals advise its limited usage considering there are other nootropics also on the market that have positive effects.
With its composition, the drug is capable of releasing AMPA receptors that are in the brain. The tolerance level of some patients may have triggered its negative reviews. In fact, some reports also suggested that the drug had toxic effects on consumption. Even small milligram dosages seemed to be bad for the rest of the system. It is also responsible for increased heartbeats in patients who have increased the dosage.
Some of the effects cannot be reversed, and this makes it important to take it off the shelves. It is a very strong drug. Even though it is legal, one must take a medical opinion before consuming it. The Internet offers several slices of information about this drug and its replacements.
What makes it so forceful as a memory booster?
It is an ampakine that immediately brings on the ‘horsepower’ to the brain. The brain has AMPA receptors. When they are activated with the help of an ampakine like Sunifiram, it increases the energy. When people have stress on performance in certain jobs, they have been known to consume it. It ensures that there is no other external distraction that can interfere with the mind’s working. People who have short-term memories also have consumed this drug. Since it is strong in its content, it tends to make ‘colors brighter’, ‘sounds clearer’ and general ambience becomes well defined. This could be a dangerous trend.
Sunifiram is an experimental, potent racetam. It shares most of racetams benefits and effects. The dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.
What is Sunifiram Legal Status? Is Sunifiram legal?
In the US, Sunifiram is unscheduled, and not FDA approved.
How To Take Sunifiram?
Being an ‘experimental’ drug, and a very potent one, its important to take very low doses (5 mg, 10 mg tops) and do your research to find news and updates on the matter. You can find the post I cited from Nootropics City under Conclusion which has more information regarding that.
Where to Buy Sunifiram?
I have found a few different vendors, none of which I tried, rather, only listing for research purpose. Nootropics City, Nootropics Retail, as well as NewMind – all offer Sunifiram in powder as well as capsules.
What is Sunifiram Dosage?
Unless you are quite experienced in racetams, I wouldn’t recommend anything over 5 mg as a starting point. People reported side effects after deciding to increase the dose for more results.
Summary: Coluracetam is a new member to the racetam family of nootropics. Early scientific trials confirm that it is beneficial in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder as well as with Generalized Anxiety, in addition to its a bunch of nootropic value it offers.
What is Coluracetam?
Coluracetam is a drug that falls in the racetam family. The way it works and its structure are different from other racetams. Despite it being in the racetam family, this drug has gained a widespread reputation on its uniqueness in memory boosting and reduction of anxiety and depression. It is popular in the nootropic community to raise optic properties.
However, additional studies are needed to realize the mechanism that supports these benefits. It was initially synthesized in 2005 by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in Japan as a probable cure for Alzheimer’s disease. BrainCells, Inc. later licensed it for more study after it did not make to reach its clinical endpoint.
Brain Cells began to conduct experiments on its effects. Most of these tests were on rats due to lack of enough participants to undertake the clinical trial. From the clinical analysis carried out, coluracetam showed to improve memory retention and relieve anxiety.
Coluracetam benefits proves to work in enforcing cognitive and memory function in rats and similar effects on humans. Brain Cells Inc. conducted a study which reveals an improvement of mind in rats after receiving AF64A for eight days. The development continued to last even beyond treatment. Alzheimer’s disease leads to lower levels of acetylcholine. By growing acetylcholine in the hippocampus, coluracetam will increase symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease such as learning disorders and poor memory (R) (R).
In a study of 101 individuals with depression, who did not achieve result treatment with antidepressants, it had a constructive impact on the apparent improvement in the quality of life at 80 mg 3 times a day. However, this is the only study on humans. The capacity it holds to minimize glutamate noxiousness may be liable for its positive impacts in the depression treatment. (R)
Coluracetam Reduces Anxiety
In a rat study, dosing 21 days of coluracetam shows a 20% improvement in anxiety, which was higher than the 12% effect valium impact in a single dose in the same study. (R)
Some studies mention that it helps with neurogenesis. The primary mechanism is still not clear, but it relates to the administration of it for several weeks, which increase in acetylcholine in the hippocampus area.
“Patents state that it promotes nerve cell growth (neurogenesis). The mechanism is unknown, yet is thought to be related to the increase in hippocampal acetylcholine when coluracetam is dosed daily for a few weeks.” (R)
Helps with Schizophrenia
Coluracetam increases the activity of ChAT in rats with nerve cell damage. This increase suggests it may benefit patients with schizophrenia through this same enzyme. More research directly on people with schizophrenia is undergoing. (R) (R)
Coluracetam has shown its optic strengths such as improved color recognition, vision, and vividness. Specifically, it promotes nerve growth for the degenerative retinal disease. Numerous studies mention better color vision and sharpening of the eyesight, but no scientific research has confirmed these effects. (R)
Mechanism of Action
How Does Coluracetam Work?
It works through the process of high-affinity choline uptake. That’s its mechanism of action. The brain chemical responsible for storing cognitive abilities and memories is acetylcholine.
This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine within our brain. Studies on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove vital for improving learning, memory, and cognition.
It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.
This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine in the brain. Many studies done on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove very important for improving learning, memory formation, and typically cognitive abilities. It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.
How to Take Coluracetam?
Typically, the recommended starting dose is 20mg due to that being the manufactured one. There are claims that researchers testing coluracetam dosage of 240 mg per day are finding no side effects. However, the source link to that claim is broken. [R]. [R]
My Personal Experience
The maximum I’ve taken is 60mg in single dose. It caused me a slight headache and yield no special outcome.
Pairing coluracetam with a choline source will both, increase its effect, and prevent an associating headache.
What Are Coluracetam Side Effects?
There isn’t enough evidence regarding the side effects of coluracetam. The human brain and body are well receiving this nootropic drug. Taking coluracetam does not have many side effects, but when they appear, they are similar to other recitals. Some of the concerns are nausea and irritability which are rare.
Here’s a couple of randomly selected reddit users experiences of Coluracetam:
“Definitely my favorite nootropic besides phenibut. The anxiolytic effects are great, also a very nice mood enhancer. And I noticed it significantly improved my vision, my short and long term memory, and even improved my verbal fluency. I suffer from depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizo effective disorder. 20 to 100 mg Coluracetam seems comparable to Zoloft in terms of helping anxiety. It also helps me keep calm during my delusion induced panic attacks. I highly recommend it. In overall satisfaction for Coluracetam I rate it 9/10. I ordered my Coluracetam from Nootropics Depot.” u/sunflesh [link]
“I know that coluracetam is pretty controversial to begin with, but I went into my use of it hopeful because I’ve heard of lots of crazy benefits some people were getting out of it. Sadly, when I tried it I experienced nothing except for a phenomenally bad mood. I’ve never been so angry in my life, and it’s not because I’m disappointed, it just put me into this hyper aggressive pessimist mood. I had been microdosing LSD for about 2 weeks prior to trying coluracetam and it seemed to completely reverse the effects of microdosing and actually put me into a worse mood overall than before I started microdosing. I had high hopes for this product, and maybe I’ll try it again because it could just be circumstantial, but for now I don’t plan on using it for a long time.” [link]
This one is a bit more extensive, but quite informative. A self-trial by another reddit user:
“History with Nootropics: in 2015 I began my journey working on my bachelors in Psychology. During my second semester I came across Nootropics Depot while searching for a reasonably priced Bacopa, and that’s when I found Noopept. Sublingually I usually took around 20mg or less nightly with decent results. This went on for around 3 months and my test taking abilities definitely grew more fluent. My expectations may have been too high though as I found it just wasn’t giving my the edge I was looking for. I moved to Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pram/Phenyl, and I just wasn’t getting marginal results in my focus, productivity, or recall.
Recent Finding: I gave Nootropics a break for years until about a week ago when I read up on Fasoracetam and Coluracetam. Package arrived yesterday and i took 15mg of both sublingually. Within 30min my head was clear and the flow of my work almost effortless. I work as an Inventory Auditor, so i’m constantly counting, doing long math, and finding patterns. Today was the breeziest day at work, I was honestly on my A game. I found a flaw in previous audits and had my work done about a quarter of the time ahead of schedule. I understand these may be placebo feelings and coincidence occurrences, that is why i am making this post. I will update bi weekly with logic test results. At the end of each month i will post links to graphs of progression in answer response times if any.
Update 2/23/19 Tomorrow will be the first logic test results update but i just wanted to pop in and relay a few things. I have noticed a tad of unclear thought with the faso, I dosed only colur this morning just to see any marked difference and the colur definitely clears and focuses my mind more. For the sake of this trial i did make sure to dose faso later in the day and will give it around a month to see if the foggy feeling leaves. Also, a strange but incredibly noticeable thing as happened. I cant tell which of the two may be causing it, but in dark situations or driving at night i have realized my eyes have been adjusting almost immediately and to a higher degree than normal. I can see relatively everything, not like a cat lol but its definitely a lot clearer than normal.
Update #1: Logical reasoning testing. Took 2 different tests one 10 questions the other 18 questions. Neither having the same questions, and varying difficulties. The first test took 3min, got 7 out of 10 correct. 2nd took me 12min getting 8 out of 18 correct. About average logical reasoning. At the end of the next test taking session (2 weeks from today) results will be added to the post along with statistics. Also, choline supplementation is being introduced tomorrow morning due to moderate headaches.
Update #2: i’ve noticed that my arithmetic based thought processes have grown extremely fluent. Long math has become increasingly easier while done mentally. I’ve always attempted to do most math in my head than ended up writing down the problems but since about a week and a half ago, writing the problems down is pointless. I began dosing Alpha GPC around 2 weeks ago instead of bitartrate due to the low bioavailability of the latter. Choline source is a must with the amount of racetams I supplement (colur, faso, ani).
Most recent update: Alrighty guys and gals it has now successfully been over a month spent testing these racetams. Memory and short/long term recall is definitely better than it was before this trial. The tests may not be giving marginal results, but I can vouch for a stronger attention span. I find myself noticing details and patterns, more observant of daily obstacles. My LR tests I took today resulted in a 4/7 on both, with both taking 3.5 minutes. Im seeing that my ability to not need to read the questions more than once to retain it and find the answers. Faso has had marked effects on my baseline depression, with more motivation for a few hours after dose. Colur has been reminiscent of past noopept experiences. I’ve also narrowed down the increase in serotonin levels to the aniracetam.
Find the full thread with more information and discussions here [link]
Coluracetam doesn’t have extensive amount of research, the studies available do show a great potential for its use.
The relating information on that announcement can be found on the blog post here.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Coluracetam?
Coluracetam is a nootropic agent of the racetam family. It was initially developed and tested by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation for Alzheimer’s disease. Coluracetam increases the production of acetylcholine, and also speeds up its flow in brain synapses. The product was first registered in 2005 and phase 2A trials were completed back in 2010.
What is Coluracetam half-life?
The half-life of Coluracetam is about 3 hours.
What is coluracetam and how does it compare with other racetams?
“It’s not a hardcore focus drug like Modafinil, nor does it give me a bunch of energy and pep like caffeine or Piracetam. What it really does is just add a subtle and underlying positivity to my mood. There’s a noticeable difference on it and off it, especially in this dreadfully, gloomy part of the world.
A Youtube commenter suggested stacking Coluracetam with L-Theanine, which I tried and it’s actually a pretty good stack, especially in combination with some delicious Bulletproof Coffee. The creative mindset that L-Theanine puts me in, is nicely complimented by the optimism that Coluracetam stimulates, this has actually become my go to stack since I ran out of Piracetam. Speaking of coffee, anecdotally Coluracetam has this really cool effect of reversing caffeine tolerance. I unfortunately did not experience this, at least not noticeably. Another really consistent way to reverse caffeine tolerance is just to stop consuming caffeine for about 10 days and your caffeine tolerance will almost completely go away, and after consuming just a single cup of coffee you will again feel like a Greek god consuming ambrosia in the fields of Elysium. Coluracetam did not have the same effect for me.
It’s has a rocky, clumpy consistency that reminds me of cocaine – the tiny rocks feel like boulders under my tongue. You may need to break it up before consumption. I’ve been taking it sublingually, because it’s so damn expensive that I don’t want to waste a single granule of it. It’s taste is not pleasant and it kind of lingers on your palette, I don’t recommend taking it before a meal. It doesn’t taste great but it’s not as bad as some drugs I’ve tried.
Scienceguy suggested it potentiates Oxiracetam, I’ve taken it now a couple of time with Caballo which has Oxiracetam but I’m not sure if I’ve experienced this yet…
One day I was operating on about 4 hours of sleep, so somewhat sleep deprived and kept slipping back into an unfocused funk. I took Coluracetam around 1PM and 4PM and there was a disappointing absence of effect.
I wish I could rate Coluracetam higher, but I’m deducting 2 stars because it’s just not a great value, there’s plenty of Nootropics that gram for gram, cost a 3rd or 4th of Coluracetam and have just as helpful effect on mood, focus and memory. For mere economics, I wouldn’t reorder it.”
Additional Nootropics FAQs can be found here [link]
Summary: Effective, efficient and recommended, Oxiracetam is one of the most valuable racetam class nootropics. Its ability to boost productivity and problem-solving has made it a favorite – and a best seller.
What is Oxiracetam?
Oxiracetam is a cognitive function booster that has many different benefits and uses. It heightens focus and concentration as well as enhancing memory and learning. It furthermore intensifies sensual, observational, and logical thinking. Oxiracetam stimulate the brain, thereby producing mental stamina and boosting energy. It allows for achieving better skill-use which make it a useful nootropic at any point in life.
Oxiracetam is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam, a discovery from the 1970’s. Research suggests that it is five times as effective as its racetam relatives. With properties like those of Phenylpiracetam, it has proven its effectiveness. Additionally, it doesn’t bring the adverse effects that usually come with stimulants.
It benefits memory, attention and learning. Furthermore, it is a potential treatment for amnesia. Research show that it has potential to treat dementia as well, but the FDA has yet to approve it (surprise surprise!). So it’s not in the big-pharma market. Its not regulated by the Canadian, Australian, or UK authorities. It is safe and effective, and its use for neurodegeneration is growing bigger with time. It is safe, potent and useful for many medical conditions, beside its nootropic effect.
Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug of the racetam family and very mild stimulant. Several studies suggest that the substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time. However, the mechanism of action of the racetam drug family is still a matter of research. – Wikipedia
Oxiracetam is effective on memory and and is in use by students looking for a memory boost. Users report positive experiences about its effectiveness in that regard (R).
Improves Logical Thinking
Many anecdotal reports state that it increases and improves logical thought. Some also say that Oxiracetam improves their analytical and reasoning skills.
Improves Focus and Learning
All racetams are effective in increasing focus and learning abilities. Trails on humans and animals both show that Oxiracetam enhances focus and learning. (R)
Enhances Prolonged Concentration
Oxiracetam has a positive effect on concentration allowing a person to stick to a subject without distraction. So it is a smart option during finals – where self-discipline is very important (R).
Boosts Physical and Mental Energy
Oxiracetam is a mild stimulant that increases both physical and mental activity. But it is unique in that it doesn’t bring amphetamine-like side effects.
Mechanism of Action
How Does Oxiracetam Work?
Precise mechanism of actions are unclear, but its related to neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Which is crucial in many neurological disorders and diseases.
It alters the release of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and glutamate from these receptors. These chemicals impact memory, learning, logical and cognitive functions. Although all racetams show similar effects, Oxi can last longer than the rest.
By increasing the neuronal linking in the hippocampus, the drug has impacts on the lipid metabolism. It leads to the production of D-Aspartic acid which is crucial for neural signaling. Oxiracetam has mild central nervous system stimulant effects as it is an ampakine act at the glutamatergic AMPA receptors. However, it has no severe side effects like insomnia, weight loss, gain or any other that is often associating anxiolytics and antidepressants.
As far as chemistry is concerned, Oxiracetam is a water-soluble compound. Its absorption occurs mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that it reaches the maximum levels within 1-3 hours of intake. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and has long half-life of 8-10 hours, therefore is stable.
How To Take Oxiracetam?
Oxiracetam average dose is 1,200-2,400mg taken in 2 or 3 even doses throughout the day.
An example would be:
2x 800mg per day or
3x 400mg per day
What Are Oxiracetam Side Effects?
At a 1,600mg dose per day, it does not have any significant side-effects when compared to placebo. As with all racetams, headache is a possibility. It is preventable by adding a choline source such as Alpha GPC.
Oxiracetam passes all the obstacles that come in the way of a drug to be in the market for the public. It is safe and has no adverse effect reported. Furthermore, its a potential treatment for neurological disorders. It has been a useful (and life-saving) nootropic for people suffering mental illness. Although still pending FDA approval, it confirmed its effectiveness in many studies and clinical trials.
Due to increasing focus and concentration, Oxiracetam became a popular choice for students. And one that is often recommended by those using it.
Summary: Alpha-GPC is a natural choline compound. It works on its own as a powerful memory booster. In combination with other nootropics, it works as a potentiator boosting cognitive capabilities. It’s also used as a milt stimulant to boost energy and power output when exercising. Furthermore, it promotes cell regeneration and acts as a neuroprotective agent, against cognitive decline.
What is Alpha-GPC?
Alpha-GPC is a cholinergic compound naturally present in the body in small amounts and commercially manufactured as an extract of purified soy lecithin. 
Although there are dietary resources of Alpha-GPC such as dairy products, organ meats, and wheat germ, concentrations achieved by dietary intake are lower than those obtainable by a supplement. It works rapidly and reliably by delivering necessary choline to the brain. 
It provides valuable nootropic qualities, including memory enhancement and protection against brain aging, attributing to longevity. Clinical trials covering thousands of participants confirm Alpha-GPC is a remarkable remedy for memory loss that accompanies Alzheimer’s disease , vascular dementia , and stroke. 
Moreover, it provides neuroprotective, anti-aging benefits. Studies further suggest it is useful in the treatment of generalized anxiety.  
Another benefit is its ability to enhance cells membrane health and promote rapid recovery following physical activity. Studies indicate that it also acts as a dopaminergic, encouraging the release of dopamine, meaning it works as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, in addition to being an overall mood enhancer.  
However, many consider the real strengths of Alpha-GPC is the potentiating feature when in combination with other nootropics. The choline that it provides the brain with significantly magnify the cognitive enhancing effects of other nootropics, especially the racetams.
I’ve always liked both Alpha-GPC and Citicoline and appreciated their profound effect, until one day I added Aniracetam 750mg and it was as if I had just took a racetam for the first time. The effects of both nootropics synergize together so well, a year later both of them are on the front line among my nootropic stack.
Alpha-GPC vs Other Choline Sources
According to examine and based on a handful of different studies, Alpha-GPC appears to be the best currently known cholinergic in increasing plasma and brain choline levels, as it has better transportation into the brain than does choline (somewhat similar to CDP-choline) but since it is a greater percentage choline by weight (relative to CDP-choline) taking X dose of either drug gives more choline when using Alpha-GPC
This effect is mainly due to the increase of choline it makes available for conversion to acetylcholine, which is profoundly correlating with cognitive functions and the ability to create and revive memories. Studies confirm it an effective treatment for memory impairment caused by age-related diseases, including Alzheimer’s and several forms of dementia. It has further proven to be capable of recovering memory in volunteers following brief chemically-induced amnesia. [10, 11, 12]
Neuroprotection and Development of New Brain Cells
It protects and maintains overall brain health by promoting the development of new brain cells and enhancing the body’s capability to repair damaged cell membranes. This attribute is a significant longevity advantage. 
Increases Energy and Speeds up Recovery
Because it stimulates the production of human growth hormone (HGH), Alpha-GPC is valuable for individuals looking to perform better, increase lean muscle mass, feel peak energy during workouts and recover quickly afterward. A pilot study shows that 600 mg of Alpha-GPC taken 90 minutes before bench pressingincreases power output by 14%. [14, 15, 16]
Increases Attention and Enhances Mood
Users report that using Alpha-GPC provides distinguished mental clarity while improving mood. This elevating effect is explained partially by the additional choline it presents, which increases attentiveness and promotes effortless clear-thinking. It’s also a link to its production of human growth hormone, which provides energizing, longevity effects. 
In combination with other nootropics, it offers adequate choline to achieve optimal cognitive enhancement effects, and it prevents the minor headaches often associating with racetams.
Mechanism of Action
How Does Alpha-GPC Work?
Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.
It is a fundamental associate of many cognitive functions including memory formation, learning capacity, and attention. By stimulating the production of acetylcholine, it acts as a neuroprotectant; maintaining neuronal health and preventing potential damage. [Ref 1, 2, 3, 4]
Oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can also be dopaminergic, by increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors. It also has involvement in increasing brain serotonin concentrations following oral administration. [22, 23, 24]
What is The Recommended Alpha-GPC Dosage?
Alpha-GPC digests and absorbs smoothly and is gentle on the stomach taken at the typical dose of 300mg. Although many nootropists tend to prefer a dose of 600mg, with a total daily intake ranging from 300 to 1200 mg, either at once or split into two doses. 
Personally I find 300mg is effective enough especially because I almost always take it as part of a stack. If not Aniracetam then its Piracetam, Phenylpiracetam or Noopept. On the few occasions where I took it on its own, I still felt very at ease and eager to produce, learn, move.
As with any other nootropic, start with the lowest effective dose and build up gradually as desired.
What Are Alpha-GPC Side Effects?
Some side effects rarely occur, such as headaches, fatigue, nervousness, nausea, diarrhea and gastrointestinal distress. It may rarely induce dizziness and low blood pressure in some individuals.
Personally never experienced any side effects from its use. But I’ve never taken more than 300mg in one dose, and never more than 600mg in a 24-hours frame.
Note: Alpha-GPC interacts adversely with scopolamine. Those using scopolamine are advised to avoid it.
Here is 3 random alpha-gpc reddit community thoughts and experiences:
First reddit user experience:
This might be considered a bit on the excessive side, but I’ve been taking 300mg of GPC daily for ~2.5 years. I’ve found it to be one of the most effective ways to treat the severe anxiety that I’ve suffered throughout most of my life. Initially, I periodically experienced the insomnia you mentioned, but that passed within a month or so. Every once in a while, I’ll go several days without taking the stuff. During those short, sporadic periods of “cycling off”, I’ve noticed that I feel significantly more “dull” and lethargic than I otherwise do, but that might just be placebo in action. I understand that such a lengthy use of an under-researched substance might be a bit careless. I suppose the greatest concern would likely be down regulation of choline receptors and reduced choline production, but I doubt that any studies of the effects of long-term heavy choline supplementation currently exist to prove that one way or another. [find thread here]
Second user experience:
As the title says, Alpha GPC has next to eradicated my social anxiety. It’s incredible. Only downside is I’m having a hard time sleeping at night. Guess my question is, how long can I cycle this stuff safely. [find thread here]
Third user experience:
So I used to take Alpha GPC, as well as a ton of other nootropics for a few months but recently took a couple months off. Anyway, I’ve been trying to get back into them so I took only Alpha GPC this morning. I already feel more at ease with everything. I font have much depression but its crazy how great I feel already. I happened to just see this and put it all together. [find thread here]
Alpha-GPC is a compound with decades of research, and its worldwide appreciation comes from the effects of memory enhancement. In addition to the dominant nootropic qualities, it’s also an excellent companion to racetams. Moreover, it stimulates the production of human growth hormone. This hormone production improves strength, reduces recovery time, and support the development of lean muscle mass. Therefore; it is an excellent nootropic for individuals who enjoy leading an active lifestyle.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is Alpha-GPC Safe?
Personally never experienced any side effects from its use. But I’ve never taken more than 300mg in one dose, and never more than 600mg in a 24-hours frame. Additionally, according to a study by Food Chem Toxicol in 2011 said Alpha-GPC does not appear to possess mutagenic activity, as well that No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for humans was at least 150 mg/kg over 26 weeks based on extrapolation from dogs.
Is Alpha-GPC the Same as Choline?
Alpha-GPC is cholinergic (compounds that increase the levels of acetylcholine or choline in the brain). While Choline is actually a molecule mostly used for turning into acetylcholine, the learning neurotransmitter, as well as live health agent reducing fatty liver buildup.
Is Alpha-GPC Water Soluble?
Alpha-GPC is very water-soluble. It’s much more likely to be soluble in water than non-polar solvents such as fat. The reasons why I would say that are as follows: the molecule itself has two ionic sites, ionic organic compounds generally have at least some solubility in water. Two ionic sites significantly increases the likelihood of it being soluble in water. Furthermore, the molecule has many OH a Oxygen moieties. Molecules with a lot of oxygen containing moieties are also likely to be water soluble, due to the hydrogen bonding of water. A good example of this are monosaccharides, they are not ionic, yet dissolve readily in water because of the numerous oxygen containing functional groups on the molecule. Decent answer from a chemist reddit user: everyone_wins
Does Alpha-GPC Work?
Yes. Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.
Does Alpha-GPC Keep You Awake?
Although traditionally known as being non-stimulating, some persons do report cognitive stimulation with supplemental alpha-GPC.
Can Alpha-GPC Increase Dopamine?
Yes, some research studies suggests that oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can be dopaminergic, by both increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors
How Much Alpha-GPC To Take?
A standard dosage of alpha-GPC is 300-600 mg, according to the most common label doses. 300mg for general use, and 600 mg for increasing power output. This dose is in accordance with the study using alpha-GPC to enhance power output (600 mg) and the two studies noting an increase in growth hormone secretion, and is likely a good dose to take for athletes.
How Does Alpha-GPC Work?
Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.
How Much Alpha-GPC to Take with Piracetam?
Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Piracetam stack, the dose would be: Piracetam: 1,600 mg and Alpha-GPC: 300 mg.
How Much Alpha-GPC to take with Aniracetam?
Same as with Piracetam, when taking an Aniracetam and Alpha-GPC stack, the ideal dosage would be: 750 mg of Aniracetam and 300 mg of Alpha-GPC.
How Much Alpha-GPC to Take with Noopept?
Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Noopept stack, the dosage would be 30mg of Noopept (or 15mg if you prefer 2 doses per day instead than one), and 300mg of Alpha-GPC.
When to Take Alpha-GPC?
Alpha-GPC can be taken any time, although preferably not late in the evening due to some reports that it stimulates some people. Other than that, you can take it any time with or without food because its water-soluble.
Where to Buy Alpha-GPC?
Alpha-GPC can be bought on many places. You local drugstore, pharmacies, department store where they have supplements. Its also available with many different vendors online and on Amazon.
Which is the Best Alpha-GPC brand?
Personally, I only used Nootropic Depot’s Alpha-GPC which I highly recommend. It can be found either on their website or on Amazon here.
Does Alpha-GPC Increase HGH?
Yes, Alpha-GPC increases growth hormone, but due to a rapid normalization of growth hormone concentrations within 2 hours it may not lead to practical benefits.
Summary: Adrafinil is the pro-drug of Modafinil, and a stimulating nootropic that fights fatigue, increases the brain’s capacity of processing information, boosts energy, as well as enhances subjective well-being. It metabolizes in the body into the widely popular Modafinil (Adrafinil vs Modafinil comparison below). It’s a useful supplement for pulling through long, mentally demanding tasks, learning new topics, or working in shifts as opposed to fixed schedule.
What is Adrafinil?
Adrafinil is a synthetic nootropic supplement that acts as a central nervous system stimulant. Previously known as Olmifon, and often mistaken with Modafinil, it is a stimulant that does not produce amphetamine-like effects.
It is a precursor to Modafinil. That means it leads to increased concentrations of modafinil in the body. Adrafinil combats fatigue, boosts energy, improves attention, concentration and focus. It’s also known to enhance mood, motivation, and reaction time. Its potential cognitive benefits extends further to improving memory and increasing the brain’s capacity of learning, digesting, and processing information.
A 1970’s invention by French pharmaceutical company Lafon Laboratories, which manufactured, branded and marketed the invention in Europe under the name Olmifon. It spread throughout Europe and became widely prescribed by practitioners for narcolepsy and related sleep disorders that has symptoms of heavy and excessive daytime drowsiness. As well as widely used off-label for its nootropic and stimulating effects.
In 2011, production of Olmifon ended when the french regulating authorities reversed its legality.
Its unregulated in the US, Canada, and most other countries around the world. It’s found in drugstores and online on many vendors and is widely used for combating fatigue, enhancing energy, and boosting overall cognitive function
Adrafinil is a eugeroic that was formerly used in France to promote alertness, attention, wakefulness, mood, and other parameters, particularly in the elderly.
Many people often compare adrafinil vs modafinil upon hearing of it. Usually because they try to get modafinil and find out its prescription medication, so they go for the non-[rescription, online-available alternative.
What popularizes it the most as a nootropic is the fact that its the closest legal, prescription-free to the “limitless” modafinil. But for those who knew and were familiar with it before this movie association know its profound effect and can differentiate between it and that of modafinil. In fact, many users actually report preferring adrafinil vs modafinil for certain, slightly different nootropic effects that each produces.
Although Adrafinil metabolizes into Modafinil after ingestion, it still requires a higher dosage to reach the level of effectiveness that one would feel from modafinil. For example, modafinil is mostly prescribed in dosages of 100 to 200 mg. Adrafinil often sells in the lowest dosage being 300mg. So in order to achieve the same concentration level of modafinil using adrafinil, one would have to be aware of this and measure the dosage following that pattern, as required.
Modafinil is often prescribed therapeutically in doses of 50mg being the lowest effective. For comparison, taking 300mg Adrafinil, which is the smallest manufacturing dose, would actually be more effective than the lowest effective dose of modafinil.
Although it cannot be an exact figure due to the fact that breakdown and metabolizing varies from each individual to another, a general and easy way of understanding and remembering the math of adrafinil vs modafinil in terms of dosages, or at least how I personally measure it when taking either one, is that that 100mg of Modafinil is more or less equals to 300mg Adrafinil.
From my personal, own experience: the effect of Adrafinil 300mg is much more felt in comparison to Modafinil 100mg.
During the period I was prescribed Modafinil, I would have to take 200mg in order to achieve what I would achieve from 300mg of Adrafinil.
Although it is initially developed for its wakefulness-promoting qualities, Adrafinil continues showing significant cognitive benefits as well. For individuals suffering daytime exhaustion due to night work or sleep difficulties, adrafinil increases the physical and mental energy required for an active life. It also improves mental clarity and heightens focus.
Promotes Wakefulness & Boosts Energy
Adrafinil is an overall beneficial stimulant, preventing daytime drowsiness and dramatically increasing energy and attentiveness without the hyperactivity and jitteriness associated with stimulants. Users report a profound sense of well-being, stress reduction, and overall enrichment experiences. Those outcomes are primarily due to Adrafinil’s impact on dopamine.
Improves Learning Capacity & Memory Formation
In addition to promoting wakefulness and increasing energy, adrafinil holds many nootropic benefits such as improved learning capacity, better memory creation, as well as recollection. Reports indicate that it sharpens focus and increases the ability to maintain it, along with providing mental clarity, and easing mentally demanding work, especially that which extends over a prolonged period.
Mechanism of Action
How Does Adrafinil Work?
Adrafinil acts on the adrenergic system, the part of the nervous system that releases adrenaline. Typically considered in charge of the “fight or flight” response, a rapid release of adrenaline boosts energy and increases alertness. While not all of adrafinil’s actions are entirely understood, it is assumed to replicate the positive effect of adrenaline release by supporting adrenergic neurotransmitters.
Adrafinil is a synthetic prodrug, which means that its an inactive compound that metabolizes into an active form inside the body. The process of metabolizing it produces the drug, modafinil, which is an FDA-approved treatment for necropsy and similar sleep disorders. The pharmacological effects of adrafinil are practically identical to those of Modafinil.
Though the exact chemical mechanisms of it are unclear, researchers hypothesize that in its metabolized form it functions as an adrenergic receptor agonist. One of its first actions is the enhanced production and release of the neurotransmitter hypocretin, which in turn triggers the increased production of dopamine, histamine, and norepinephrine; all of which are directly related to alertness and energy, which considerably explains adrafinil’s stimulant qualities.
The remarkable mood and cognitive effects it produces result from different actions, such as the positive modulation of glutamate receptors, and inhibiting the breakdown of glutamate. Those actions lead to better neuronal communication, which improves memory and focus and creates better cognitive functions.
It also stimulates the release of serotonin, which enhances mood by reducing anxiety levels. It also inhibits the breakdown of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is mainly responsible when it comes to the brain’s pleasure and reward responses.
How To Take Adrafinil? (Recommended Dosage)
Typically, Adrafinil is manufactured and produced at the dosage of 300 mg. However, most nootropist would say, and prefer, a dose of 600mg taken once in the morning. While the highest, yet credible, dosage is 1,200 mg per day, taken as two doses. A morning dose of 600 mg and an afternoon “boost” of another 600mg.
At 300 to 600 mg, it is a safe and very effective, mildly stimulating nootropic. Its potent, therefore it’s advised to start with lower end and allow your body the time to adapt to it. Once you familiarize yourself with it, you can then gradually increase as you desire while keeping in mind not to go over the daily recommendation of 1,200 mg.
I’ve taken Adrafinil frequently over the past year or two, but never more than 600 mg per day. And even the times I took 600 mg were so few, I’m almost sure it was less than 4 times in total.
Due to its potency and wakefulness-promoting properties, it is advisable to take it in the morning or early afternoon only to avoid interfering with the sleep cycle, otherwise you wouldn’t be able to fall asleep easily at night. It is also advisable to take it on an empty stomach to allow for optimal absorption.
It kicks in around 45 minutes to an hour after ingestion.
For continuous and prolonged use, it is very advisable to use on a sequence (or cycle) of two weeks on, and one week off to detox and maintain tolerance as well as prevent potential dependency for certain people.
Adrafinil Dosage TLDR
Adrafinil dosage recommendations vary greatly among different users.
For beginners, start with 300 mg per day and see how your body reacts to it
For a stronger dose, you may take 600 mg
Maximum allowance per day is 1,200 mg taken in two doses of 600 mg
The daily dosage that is recommended is between 150 mg to 300 mg. It is a strong Nootropic, and people are usually advised to start off with a small dose and allow the body to adjust before working upwards. It is not advisable to take this drug for long-term use. But then you should take it in cycles. For example, one week on, two weeks off and so on. This helps to prolong its effects without the bodybuilding too much of tolerance level. It is also very important to consult the doctor or qualified healthcare provider if planning to use it for an extended period of time. Without doing this, it may be disastrous for the liver as the supplement is known to elevate particular enzymes within the liver.
What Are Adrafinil Side Effects?
The most typical side effects of adrafinil are headaches, dizziness, nausea, and stomach discomfort. The most severe relates to liver function. Additionally, there is potential for increased risk of high blood pressure and heart problems when taking high doses.
Should you experience any side effects, stop using and seek professional medical advice.
I love adrafinil for a once-every-couple-of-weeks ‘I need to work 11 hours today’ usage. I can take 300mg at 6:30 or 7 in the morning, and still be alert and clear headed at the office when 7 or 8pm rolls by. But I try not to use it any more than once a week, because of the possible liver implications. – WhatAboutLightly
Adrafinil is very strange for me. I noticed somewhat sporadic efficacy. Additionally, for me, I was getting bad headaches. I called them “core headaches” as they seemed to originate from the very “core” of my brain. and not in the front like other areas. now I am still uncertain if this was because of adrafinil or phenylpiracetam. but once I started experiencing core headaches frequently even without taking any nootropic whatsoever, I quit adrafinil. It did go away after a while, but again I am not sure if this was just a rebalance or due to…other things I have been up to. Good write up though. I am not certain I can answer any of the questions since I haven’t gone back to adrafinil yet…thinking of trying modafinil if I can manage to procure it, and see if that has a cleaner, more mildly-stimulating/focusing effect like I was looking for. – multipl3x
My simple protocol for Adrafinil is to only take it if I sleep poorly. and know that I still need to perform the next day. For me that means that I take it infrequently, but it’s a lifesaver every time. – stevetheguy
Where to Buy
Where Can I Buy Adrafinil?
I can only recommend products I personally tried, and in the case of Adrafinil, I only bought and tried Nootropic Depot’s 300 mg Adrafinil capsules. Although I’ve seen it available in a few different websites, there was always something sketchy about the website, or negative reviews about the vendors adding some unknown fillers to the products.
And surprisingly, I actually found that I prefer Adrafinil over Modafinil greatly, even though I’ve always (on the occasions that I took it) maintained a dose of 300mg once per day only.
If you decide to purchase from another vendor, make sure you research, find out more information about them from Reddit’s nootropics forum, find reviews on google and whatnot, before making a transaction.
Adrafinil’s mixture of mental and physical benefits make it valuable for individuals looking for more energy, stamina, and psychological acuity. Its a powerful nootropic with potent stimulant qualities. Used responsibly, it offers a unique and profound nootropic boost that one grows to appreciate.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Adrafinil used for?
Adrafinil (INN; brand name Olmifon) is a eugeroic that was formerly used in France to promote alertness, attention, wakefulness, mood, and other parameters, particularly in the elderly. It was also used off-label by individuals who wished to avoid fatigue, such as night workers or others who needed to stay awake and alert for long periods of time. Additionally, “adrafinil is known to a larger non scientific audience, where it is considered to be a nootropic agent.”
Adrafinil is a prodrug; it is primarily metabolized in vivo to modafinil, resulting in very similar pharmacological effects. Unlike modafinil, however, it takes time for the metabolite to accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream. Effects usually are apparent within 45–60 minutes when taken orally on an empty stomach.
Can adding Adrafinil to a daily Adderall regimen for ADHD help?
Speaking from experience, J. Robert says: I had been taking a moderate level dose of adderall and experiencing the typical side effects associated with it. I researched Modafinil and took trail doses after discussing with my psych. I have since lessened my dose of adderall to a minimum 15 mg prn and am primarily on Armodafinil(the adrafinil/modafinil successor) now hoping to remove the adderall component in the near future. My experience has been overall positive. I am more focused cognitively without the overall body stimulant side effects I was getting from the adda. The one negative for me is sleep difficulty if the dose is taken later than upon getting up in the AM. Trying a test dose while decreasing or eliminating the adderall might provide a better result for you cognitively. make sure you discuss with your psych
Summary: Aniracetam is a multipurpose nootropic that provides several benefits. It produces remarkable anxiolytic effects, thereby improving cognition and enhancing mood by ridding anxieties. It also sharpens focus, increases verbal fluency, information processing, as well as expands the brain’s capability of digesting and processing information. Furthermore it produces sense of clarity and well-being.
What is Aniracetam?
Aniracetam (systematically known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, and trade names Ampamet, Memodrin, and Pergamid ) is an invention from the 1970’s which has been since standing as one of the most popular racetams. It is more potent than Piracetam, the original racetam that led to the invention of the large family of racetams that exists today. However, Aniracetam and Piracetam work in different fashions, respectively. Aside from being a best-selling across racetams on many vendor websites, it’s also peaking among the most expensive ones. The majority of individuals using Aniracetam, myself included, report its anxiolytic and mood enhancing effects as remarkable, profound, and most noticeable.
The majority of individuals using Aniracetam report its anxiolytic and mood enhancing effects as remarkable, profound, and most noticeable.
Furthermore notable is the increase in social and verbal confidence as well as improvement of verbal fluency. Both advantages are likely to the anxiety-relieving characteristic of Aniracetam. In individuals with generalized and social anxieties, the effects are profound: relaxing and relieving anxiety levels to a significant degree due to feeling the overall mood enhancement and worrying less about random thoughts such as ones that are unchangeable. Freeing the accumulated anxiety leads to make space available for better, positive thoughts, thus leading to an open and welcoming approach to situations as well as human connections.
Aniracetam’ anti-anxiety and mood enhancing properties, strong cognitive improvements, and its minimal side effects, has made it one of the most popular nootropics. Besides improving mood and reducing anxiety, it also promotes creativity, verbal fluency, and memory.
Although immediate effects from taking Aniracetam are notable, the most significant improvements are notable after a prolonged period of daily consumption.
In two different rodent studies, Aniracetam proved to improve behavioral performance, and even reverse memory loss. In the second study on rodents aniracetam improved amnesia-like memory loss that was a result of sleep deprivation.  
Aniracetam Provides Neuroprotection
Aniracetam acts as a neuroprotectant for brain cells. It helps to protect the brain damage that occurs from external influences. Furthermore, it assists in reversing brain damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption. , , 
Aniracetam Heightens Focus and Concentration
Aniracetam is remarkable in heightening concentration and focus. It exhibits effects such as increasing noradrenaline release in the brain, which is the reason for the stimulating effect of cognition boost as well as in concentration and focus. , 
Aniracetam Relieves Anxiety
Aniracetam shows strengths in reducing anxiety. Studies show that it affect anxiety by increasing social interactions and improving performance in fear and stress tests. With an increase in serotonin and dopamine, individuals feel a noticeable reduction in anxiety. Thus, becoming a general anxiety relieving agent. Although there are studies that support and verify this process, it is also useful to read personal experiences from Reddit and Longevity communities, where many reports it being far better than Piracetam, Coluracetam, Phenylpiracetam and similar nootropics in the field of anxiety reduction. , 
Aniracetam Relieves Depression Symptoms
It’s been proved to be useful as an antidepressant in rodent studies. In Japan, it has been used to treat stroke, depression, and anxiety. The release of dopamine and serotonin enhances mood and associating positive feelings. The impact of Aniracetam on AMPA receptors help with easing depression rising from cognitive degeneration conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. The effects of Aniracetam on depression are a result of the increase in acetylcholine and dopaminergic receptor stimulation. , 
Improves Memory and Learning Capacity
One of the main advantages of using Aniracetam is the profound findings on memory improvement and expansion of learning capacity. It enhances the formation of memories as well as the consolidation. Aniracetam increases the blood flow in the brain’s frontal cortex. The primary function of the frontal cortex is assisting in holistic thinking and the ability to form and connect ideas and thoughts. A study on the cognitive function of rodents observes that it also helps in improving parts of the memory and learning to promote an increase in productivity and task completion, which also assists individuals with ADHD. , 
Aniracetam Supports Alzheimer’s
Aniracetam is helpful for elderly individuals. A study on patients with Alzheimer’s-related dementia found a significant improvement in comparison to another group receiving high doses of Piracetam. Over a year period, individuals receiving Aniracetam showed higher cognitive function abilities and an increase in overall emotional stability. Studies show the likelihood of Aniracetam as a preventative as well as a remedy for Alzheimer and disorders that result from central nervous system damage 
Additional Benefits of Aniracetam
Aniracetam is said to promote and improve REM stage sleep according to this study. 
Mechanism of Action
How Does Aniracetam Work?
Aniracetam is fat soluble which mean the compound breaks down at a slow pace thereby extending its effect. It has a half-life of 3 hours. Its pyrrolidinone structure makes it fall into the group of racetams. It’s one of the most common structures when it comes to this class of drugs. It has an additional methoxy group with an anisoyl ring at the para position. It is absorbed and metabolized in less than 30 minutes thereby rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier , . Although not all of its mechanisms are understood, an extensive amount of research compiling on Aniracetam and they hint that it works by modulating the following:
Aniracetam is essential in improving information and memory retention because of its effectiveness in transmitting glutamate. This neurotransmitter is vital in the activation of neurons. The glutamate receptors connect strongly with storage of information and preservation of memory. Aniracetam has a long-term effect on improving neuroplasticity. , 
In rodents, the oral ingestion of 50 mg/kg has effects of minimizing the rates of dopamine in the striatum and decreasing dopamine rates in the striatum and hypothalamus. The levels of serotonin reduce in the hypothalamus but add in the striatum and cortex, where it decreases hypothalamus turnover and increases brainstem, striatum and cortex turnover. 
Aniracetam has effects of improving the cognitive functions by enhancing the action throughout. This is important in attention span, memory and learning speed. It works by associating to acetylcholine receptors, stopping receptor desensitization and endorsing the synaptic discharge of acetylcholine. 
How to Take Aniracetam?
Aniracetam has a short half-life of about 1 to 3 hours. Therefore, many users advice to take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day to prolong the effect. I only take one 750 mg dose in the morning and am satisfied with this regime.
Aniracetam powder form is also available, though not as in favor as the capsule form due to its strong, bitter taste.
The recommended as well as typical dosage is 750 to 1500 mg, subjective to the individual. Taking smaller doses of as little as 400 mg has been found to be effective. Hence, it is wise to start at the lowest effective dose and build up from there as desired.
Best Aniracetam Stack for Focus
For work as well as learning, Aniracetam can produce remarkable benefits and effects when taken alongside other nootropics and supplements.
It goes without a saying that stacking Aniracetam with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-GPC is a must. Leaving the potentiating effect aside, what makes it a must is the fact that many racetams work by utilizing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. Once acetylcholine is utilized and starts getting to a low or depletion levels, the user would then feel a headache. And depending on what racetam did you take and at which dose, it can be a very nasty one.
Aside from that, it really works as a great potentiator. You will feel like both nootropics are working at a better level.
Although many don’t feel an onset effect, I find that it works very well in that stack even if I am taking it on random basis. Often, I would only use this stack for the days where I have to go to work early and know that I will be there all day from 8 to 4. (or maybe 9 to 3 but you get my point).
On the same occasion, I would also take N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine 350mg. I found that it helps me tremendously in keeping myself working on an ongoing task rather than taking a 5 minutes break every 2 minutes. I am ADHD, and NALT has been one of the greatest discoveries for me in that regard. It also lets me focus better.
If I have time to have coffee before heading out, I would also add L-Theanine to the stack. The synergizing effect of caffeine and L-Theanine is one of my favorite (and now seems old school) combos.
Last but anything from being least, Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR). When I first started experimenting with it I found it very effective on me and was taking 500mg three times a day. Eventually though, I was developing a weird allergy-like symptoms as well as feeling light, needle-like numbing in random parts of my body.
I can’t blame it on ALCAR just like that but after a while of carefully observing, I noticed that it had almost disappeared since I lowered the dosage to 0 for a while, and then got back to taking 500mg per day only. Now when I think about it, I did not get those symptoms pretty much since that time. Interesting note to self.
So in a morning where I am going to be at work all day, which is a massive corporation that drains me sometimes, this would be my stack:
Of course the stack is ever changing, but when it comes to Aniracetam, I remember that stack being one I liked and found to be very effective on me. It made me focused at work, energized throughout the day (esp. on days where I also took Adrafinil), diminished my occasional social anxiety, and made me very productive at my job.
Every now and then, I would take a 15 to 20mg of Noopept and take it after lunch break (not that I have lunch during those breaks, I’m just drawing the timing picture here) to get a little boost and prolong the effects of…all the above.
Aniracetam Stack for Anxiety or Stress
Another Aniracetam Stack that I really like for either when you are running late (I say this mainly for the ADHD readers, I know the struggle very well…), or just not in the mood to go after 10 containers getting one pill from each, and rather like the convenience. I often use this one when I am on the go and its
Aniracetam 750mg &
MindLab Pro (1 serving) which is a natural nootropic formula consisting of:
It’s a very easy and convenient stack. Simply 3 pills and you are good to go. Sometimes I would take another serving of MindLab in the afternoon as needed. The maximum allowance is 2 servings (4 pills) every 24 hours. I think its the best nootropic formula in that situation.
Note to self: re-order MindLab Pro – you used the last remaining pill today.
What Are Aniracetam Side Effects?
Side effects of supplementing are mild and only occur when consuming high doses. High doses can result in digestive discomfort and nervousness.
Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is almost a rule to pair racetam drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha-GPC or CDP-choline). Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, but it will also work synergistically together firing cognitive function (21).
Below are a few randomly selected Aniracetam user experiences from people within the Reddit nootropic community:
“My first aniracetam trial at only 250 mg made me feel a little out of it for a couple hours, and “loopy” would probably be the right word had I started out with three times that much. This may refer to what is often described as an anxiolytic effect.
On the other hand, once this passed I felt more clear than usual. Others have reported such a “biphasic” effect as well. There are a number of things you can do, one of which is obviously not to use it again. Others are to try a lower dose, especially to begin with, until you become more accustomed to how it affects you. When you take it matters too; if you get this biphasic effect then take that into account when timing your use. With some experience, you also may find stacking it with another supplement, for example, phenylpiracetam, helpful. In any case, I always start low when trying anything new just as a general safety practice and to avoid unpleasant surprises.”
“I’ve been experimenting with nootropic stacks for awhile now and I decided to foray into the racetams. Per Dave Asprey (Bulletproof Exec) I decided to start with aniracetam because of its comparative potency to other the racetams, as well as it’s anxiolytic effect. I bought 30g online (I googled and found Health Supplement Wholesalers, fair-priced) and immediately noticed several changes in various aspects of my day to day life.
First and foremost I have found myself much more resilient to stress than I would normally be. Things that would spin me up in the past are barely even noticeable, and it is exponentially easier to shrug off all but the largest of stressors as if they did not even occur. I have had an elevated mood also. Feelings of happiness and contentment come much more easily to me, and I will catch myself smiling without understanding why. It is a very pleasant change from my previous baseline. I have a much easier time focusing on tasks, and accomplishing goals. My mind feels not only ready, but excited to take on challenges and meet them.
Mental plasticity is a definite benefit of this product. One of my favorite aspects to this is there is no type of mental fog, but instead complete clarity. I feel very sharp and aware, noticing things about my surroundings that I would not have noticed before. It has even given me a new appreciation for music as the tranquility and clarity of mind have allowed me to listen and pick out parts of the music that I would never have noticed before. I highly recommend getting some to anyone seeking any or all of these benefits, as everyone I’ve shared it with has asked me where to buy it for themselves. Pretty excited I found this; I’m anxious to try the other racetams as well.”
And a third experience:
“Certainly not placebo imo. I’ve tried numerous supplements and a couple other nootropics with the same hope that I would be able to make a significant difference, but without any luck. Aniracetam has been the only one to actually provide me with tangible results. But you guys are free to speculate and make your judgements.”
Diverse effects of Aniracetam make it an outstanding nootropic. It promotes calmness and improves mood. Moreover, it enhances performance and reduces social anxiety. It is useful for performing artists, public speaking, and overall anxiety reduction. It has shown positive results on cognitive functions making learning quicker and more pleasant.
Furthermore, it heightens focus and concentration over prolonged periods, making it appealing to students and researchers. Aniracetam users report a boost in creativity and an improvement in visuals and self-awareness. It has proved to offer many advantages taken at recommended doses with infrequent adverse effects.
Aniracetam reviews are very encouraging and reddit experiences will make you want to buy yourself some right away.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can I Take Aniracetam Everyday?
No. While it is completely ok to take Aniracetam on regular basis, as well as daily basis. It does not mean you can or should take it every single day for the rest of your life. Moderation is key. And too much of a good thing isn’t necessarily good. I personally have taken it for periods of months continuously, anywhere between 2 to 4 months. Then I would stop it for a while, “cycle,” if you may. If you are taking it every day, do what I often do, which is stopping (cycling it off) once I run out, then prolong the period until I repurchase and refill.
Can You Snort Aniracetam?
No. Aniracetam is fat-soluble. It’s meant to be administered orally. Unlike Noopept, for example, which people have reportedly snorted (taste is terrible and the cons outweigh the pros, not recommended). If you snort Aniracetam, due to the dosage, it wouldn’t really be absorbed much.
How Does Aniracetam Work?
Aniracetam is fat soluble which mean the compound breaks down at a slow pace thereby extending its effect. It has a half-life of 3 hours. Its pyrrolidinone structure makes it fall into the group of racetams. It’s one of the most common structures when it comes to this class of drugs. It has an additional methoxy group with an anisoyl ring at the para position. It is absorbed and metabolized in less than 30 minutes thereby rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier.
When To Take Aniracetam?
Aniracetam can be taken any time really. Although fat-soluble, it can still be well-absorbed with little and even no food. Therefore, you can take it any time. Personally, I like to take it in the morning after having my breakfast which is usually a cup of coffee. However, it is advised to avoid taking Aniracetam in the evening so it doesn’t stimulate you and keep you up and unable to fall asleep.
How Long Aniracetam Takes to Kick In?
Aniracetam is considered to be fast-acting, and able to cross the blood-brain barrier in 30 minutes only.
How Long Does Aniracetam Last?
Aniracetam has a short half-life of about 1 to 3 hours. Therefore, many users advice to take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day to prolong the effect.
How Much Aniracetam To Take Daily?
The recommended starting point and the effective dose is 750mg, which is also the dosage I take in the morning. If you prefer to prolong the feeling throughout the day, you may take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day. For example, instead of one 750 mg in the morning, you can split that into 3 doses of 250 mg, and take it once in the morning, then in the early afternoon, and again in the early evening. I personally prefer a one-time larger dose, and later in the day, use another potentiator to re-up the feeling (usually that would be CoQ10 or Noopept 15mg)
What is Aniracetam Used For?
Aniracetam is often used for memory enhancement, neuroprotection, focus, concentration, anxiety relief, depression, increasing learning capacity, as well as to support in the management of alzheimer’s disease.
Where To Buy Aniracetam?
Many vendors online sell Aniracetam and I can only recommend something I have personally tried and still use to this day, which is Nootropics Depot’ Aniracetam.
Summary: Piracetam is a designer nootropic made to enhance brain function. It’s the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.
What is Piracetam?
Piracetam is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It’s been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.
Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.
“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.”
Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result.  
Piracetam Enhances Cognitive Function
There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits.   
Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. Prevention is of often the best medicine there is.  
Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. 
Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. Use with caution. With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social   – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)
Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time.  
Piracetam Helps with Schizophrenia
Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus.  
Mechanism of Action
How Does Piracetam Work?
Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. Piracetam’ mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.
“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).
The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.
Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine
Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.
How To Take Piracetam?
The typical Piracetam dosage for adults is between 1,200 to 4,800 mg a day.The most effective dose is 1,600 mg, taken three times a day, making a total of 4,800 mg per day.
Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. 
Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-Gpc, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.
Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. 
A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:
So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i’ve never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions. I’ve lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i’ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety. With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me. Now I focus on what is important and I don’t care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I’ve started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions. I’ve also noted i’m more honest and don’t feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour. I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i’ve been an asshole my whole life) Even so I’m still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they’re only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself. Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don’t have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.
Another reddit user experience, in which he says:
So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.) But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn’t expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.
Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.
Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is Piracetam Legal in the US?
It’s legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.
What’s the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?
Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”
Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”
What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?
Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked’ in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.
What is the correct way to take Piracetam?
“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”
Why does piracetam take so long to act?
Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down’s syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.
Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?
The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:
1. Enhance some form of cognition. 2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.
For the first Qualifier:
Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.
Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focus, memory, and learning.
Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]