Learning

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OverviewBenefitsMechanisms of ActionDosageStackSide Effects

Summary: Picamilon is a nootropic that enhances cognitive function and increases mental energy while reducing stress and anxiety. Its unique blend of energizing and relaxing impacts makes picamilon an outstanding supplement for learners during examination periods or anyone in stressful circumstances who could benefit from faster, clearer thinking.

Overview

What is Picamilon?

Picamilon is a distinctive nootropic that enhances cognitive function and increases mental energy while reducing stress and anxiety emotions. Its unique blend of energizing and relaxing impacts makes picamilon an outstanding supplement for learners facing examinations or for anyone in stressful circumstances who wants to think rapidly and clearly.

Picamilon’s unique traits make it a truly distinctive supplement. It boosts brain function like all nootropics, enhancing memory, concentration, motivation, the span of attention, and overall productivity. However, its energizing impacts are only half the image; it also calms, relaxes, and generates a tranquilizing effect that decreases stress and anxiety emotions considerably.

This combination of energizing and calming effects, along with its low price, prepared accessibility, and absence of severe side effects, makes picamilon an increasingly common option for anyone who wishes to handle stress and anxiety while maximizing their cognitive skills.

Picamilon was first created in Russia somewhere between the years 1969 and 1971 as part of the Institute’s studies into possibly performance-enhancing substances.

Today, picamilon is a prescription drug in Russia and is used to treat a range of conditions and disorders ranging from depression to migraine, neuroinfections, senile psychosis, certain kinds of glaucoma, and even acute intoxication with alcohol.


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Benefits and Effects

  1. Improves Learning and Memory
  2. Supports Concentration, Focus, and Mental Stamina
  3. Mood Stabilization
  4. Relaxes Without Causing Drowsiness
  5. Reduces Blood Pressure
  6. Improves Sleep Quality

Supporting research:

Improves Learning and Memory

The wide variety of impacts of Picamilon includes both cognitive enhancement and mood management. It has been shown to promote faster and more comfortable learning pace as well as enhancing both memory retention and recall speed.

Supports Concentration, Focus, and Mental Stamina

By stimulating better blood flow and circulation in the brain, picamilon has critical beneficial impacts on a broad range of cognitive functions, including improving the capacity to concentrate on thinking and improving general mental energy or endurance.

Mood Stabilization

It has been shown that Picamilon has substantial anti-anxiety impacts, significantly decreasing stress effect. It can also assist relieve depression.

Relaxes Without Causing Drowsiness

Users report that taking picamilon outcomes in a pleasant sensation of relaxation without mental fog or grogginess that is usually associated with sedatives or tranquilizers. Most individuals say it provides them a feeling of “calm energy.”

Reduces Blood Pressure

While not positive in all instances, the capacity of picamilon to decrease blood pressure can be a significant advantage to those with hypertension that is enhanced by stress and anxiety.

Improves Sleep Quality

While a single supplement seems contradictory to increase energy and create rest better, many picamilon consumers claim it does just that. Since it is not a tranquilizer, sedative, or muscle relaxer, this impact could be due to the stress reduction and anti-anxiety characteristics of picamilon insignificant portion.


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Mechanisms of Action

Picamilon is a mixture of niacin and GABA or gamma-aminobutyric acid, two prevalent but essential nutrients. Separately each plays a critical role in brain health but linked to produce unique advantages in a compound that they respond synergistically.

Picamilon’s real strength is the capacity of the niacin element to cross the blood-brain barrier, a semi-permeable capillary filter intended to safeguard the brain and to bring with it the connected GABA element. As a result, GABA, a powerful neurotransmitter that can not cross the blood-brain barrier alone, is transferred into the central nervous system for use across the brain and body.

The real mechanism of action picamilon operates through is both fast and direct. It is a water-soluble compound that is easily absorbed and within an hour of ingestion reaches peak bioavailability.

Picamilon is hydrolyzed or chemically divided back into distinct parts of niacin or nicotinic acid and GABA after crossing the blood-brain barrier. The role of niacin acts as a vasodilator, increasing blood flow in the brain and enhancing oxygen and other nutrients absorption. At the same moment, this vital inhibitory neurotransmitter, which operates by decreasing neuronal excitability, raises the brain concentrations of the GABA element.

The cognitive enhancement impacts of Picamilon can be primarily ascribed to the enhanced effectiveness created by the improved circulation of the brain blood and oxygen absorption. The enhanced blood flow in the brain also enhances the delivery and uptake of glucose and other nutrients, which can boost alertness, concentrate, motivation, and brain energy as a whole. It is also thought to have an essential antioxidant impact that helps break down and remove toxins in the brain.

Picamilon’s relaxing and calming impacts are produced by the enhanced concentrations of GABA, a powerful neurotransmitter that operates by inhibiting neuronal firing, decreasing stress and anxiety emotions by generating a slightly sedative impact.


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Dosage

How To Take Picamilon?

Although picamilon is usually deemed well tolerated and has no severe side effects, it is a potent complement and should be used responsibly. It is wise, as with all supplements, to begin with, the smallest effective dosage possible and gradually boost as required.

Recommendations for daily dosage differ significantly, depending on the special effects you hope to experience in no small measure. Typical is a cumulative dosage of 50 to 400 mg per day, with most customers finding efficacy between 100 and 200 mg divided over two to three doses. However, it may be best for those mainly interested in cognitive enhancements of picamilon and lower dosages of overall mood stabilization, while those looking for significant rises in energy levels may want to create up to higher dosages.

Picamilon operates comparatively fast and is relatively durable. Users say that impacts are usually visible within one hour of intake and last for 4 to 6 hours. It is water-soluble and can be taken on an empty stomach in either capsule or powder form.

While some users prefer cycling picamilon with other nootropics with an anti-anxiety element, there is no negative impact of proof taking it daily.


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Stack

Picamilon can be taken alone daily, cycled with other supplements or combined with other nootropics in many ways.

The behavioral improvement characteristics of picamilon will be potentiated in a pile with racetam-class nootropics such as piracetam or pramiracetam. However, depending on which racetam supplement you are combining with picamilon, you may also experience, or both, increased energy or relaxation effects.

Combined with ampakine racetam supplements like aniracetam and oxiracetam, both of which have stimulant characteristics, the energy-boosting and mood-modulating impacts of picamilon will be increased.

Some users claim that combining picamilon with other supplements such as kava can boost their energy-producing characteristics while using it in conjunction with relaxing supplements such as valerian will strengthen their calming aspects.


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Side Effects

Picamilon is usually regarded as safe and well tolerated, but there have been reports of some side effects. The most severe prospective side effect is low blood pressure, so if you understand that you are susceptible to hypotension or have reason to worry about low blood pressure, you should consult a medical practitioner before taking picamilon.  

Allergies and rashes of the skin have been recorded as side effects, but are not prevalent. Such side effects typically include headaches, lightheadedness or dizziness, and nausea. Red skin flushing is also sometimes revealed as a standard and harmless side effect of niacin.


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Conclusion

Picamilon is a natural nootropic, and with excellent reason: it can both energize and relax, it is secure and well-tolerated, it has very few reported side effects, it combines well with other supplements, and it is inexpensive and easily accessible. Picamilon provides advantages that are difficult to beat for anyone who wishes or needs to handle their moods and retain ideal cognitive function under pressure.


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Further and Related Readings

Picamilon in Dietary Supplements (FDA Post on Picamilon):

Picamilon is a substance that does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) defines a dietary ingredient as a vitamin; mineral; herb or other botanical; amino acid; dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of the preceding substances. In contrast, picamilon is a unique chemical entity synthesized from the dietary ingredients niacin and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Picamilon is absorbed into the body, crosses the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in the brain as a separate chemical entity. Because picamilon does not fit any of the categories of dietary ingredients under the Act, any products marketed as dietary supplements that declare picamilon as a dietary ingredient are misbranded.

The FDA has provided expert testimony to the Oregon Attorney General’s office stating that picamilon is not a dietary ingredient.

Picamilon is used as a prescription drug in Russia for a variety of neurological conditions. It is not approved as a drug in the U.S.

Picamilon is also known as:

  • pikatropin
  • pikamilon
  • nicotinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid
  • nicotinyl-GAB
  • Recent FDA Action on Dietary Supplements Labeled as Containing Picamilon
  • December 2015

On November 30, 2015, the FDA issued warning letters to five companies whose products marketed as dietary supplements claim to contain picamilon. These products are misbranded because picamilon does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.

Under existing law, including the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act passed by Congress in 1994, the FDA can take action to remove products from the market, but the agency must first establish that such products are adulterated (e.g., that the product is unsafe) or misbranded (e.g., that the labeling is false or misleading).

The companies have 15 business days from the date of receipt of the letter to communicate to the agency the specific steps they will take to bring their products into compliance with the law.

The agency will continue to update this page in the event additional actions are taken related to picamilon.


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Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Summary: PRL-8-53 (chemical name Methyl 3-(2-(benzyl(methyl)amino)benzoate) is a synthetic nootropic compound that was discovered in 1972 and patented in 1975 by then Dr. Nikolaus Hansl, a neuropharmacologist at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska.

Overview

What is PRL-8-52?

PRL-8-53 is a synthetic nootropic compound that was discovered in 1972 and patented in 1975 preliminary animal tests showed that the compound was both secure and nootropic, boosting the learning of prevention in rodents without adverse effects. However, a 1978 research on human volunteers triggered sincere interest in PRL-8-53, showing that a single dose of the compound could enhance word retention ratings by more than 200%.

Comments by author and longevity expert Durk Pearson, who was cited in’ High Frontiers’ as follows, fuelled interest in the compound: “PRL-8-53 is a great memory enhancer. Usually, just looking at them for a second, you can memorize about seven or eight numbers. On average, PRL-8-53 is said to increase memory span of approximately 21 to 22 digits. “Hansel’s single human study on PRL-8-53, soon after patenting the compound, highly promotes the potential of the drug as a nootropic.

The research evaluated word retention between the ages of 24 and 86 in a group of 30 healthy volunteers. While participants with good baseline word retention scores showed little improvement after taking PLR-8-53, participants with low initial scores or over 30 showed significant improvement after a 5 mg dose of PLR-8-53, often more than doubling their recall rate.

In the human study, no adverse effects were observed. Anecdotal evidence seems to support claims for safety and nootropic capacities of PRL-8-53, but due to restricted testing, it is still regarded as an experimental drug.

PRL-8-53 is presently an unplanned drug and is legally available for purchase in the United States.

Benefits and Effects

Improves MEmory

The elderly participants showed necessary improvements in memory after taking a single 5 mg dose in the only human research on PRL-8-53. A double-blind study using word memorization as a measure, testing the capacity of the respondents to recall a list of 12 one-syllable phrases, first to create a baseline and then again after PRL-8-53 or placebo has been ingested. The participants were screened for their capacity to remember the phrases 24 hours after hearing them, and then one week later again.

Results of the research show that respondents with higher baseline scores showed the least improvement after PRL-8-53 was ingested, while subjects with imperfect first memory or over 30 years of the era showed significant improvement in recall. Hansl described the impact on elderly respondents in an article on the exam as follows: “This group was 30 years of era or older. Rote memory, as could be anticipated, did not come to this group as readily as it did to younger learners. After 24 hours on placebo, the average retention was just under three words out of a possible 12.

After a week, the average retention was two words. However, the same topics maintained an average of 5.85 phrases after 24 hours and 5.25 words after a week when learning after drug administration.

Again, there were statistically essential increases. The enhancement expressed in percentage of placebo results was 108 percent for the 24-hour test and 152 percent for the one-week recall. “Many individual nootropic users who have attempted PRL-8-53 confirm their memory boosting impacts, sometimes comparing it to a more strong variant of other nootropics such as nefiracetam and Noopept.

Mechanism of Action

How Does PRL-8-53 Work?

The precise mechanisms of action of HOW IT WORKS PRL-8-53 are not well understood, but the production and reaction of the brain to several key neurotransmitters is thought to be regulated. Hansl stated in his reports on human and animal studies that PRL-8-53 potentiates dopamine, partly restricts serotonin production and enhances the reaction of the brain to acetylcholine. While Hansl’s research report on the human research of 1978 indicates these activities, the mechanism of action is not delineated.

The fact that older participants saw the most nootropic advantage from taking the drug promotes the notion that modulation of dopamine plays a significant part in the consequences of PLR-853. Upregulating the ordinary age-related reduction in the manufacturing of dopamine associated with cognitive decrease could have a beneficial effect on both learning and memory.

In an article in 1979 entitled “Learning and Memory Improvement Through Chemistry: Dream or Offering Reality?”Hansl said,” PRL-8-53 has been shown to increase the peripheral and central reactions to noradrenaline in the animal model. Therefore, assuming that a comparable feature may be present in humans seems reasonable.

Translated into behavioral effects, it implies that this drug potentially is capable of facilitating the conversion of short-term to long-term memory, resulting in increased storage of information code. “According to Hansl, in the same article,” PRL-8-53 has been shown to improve the response to acetylcholine, the answer being quantitatively similar over a considerable dose range, excluding the likelihood of acetylcholine. In short, we now have a possibly effective drug that will increase a particular chemical system in the brain, the cholinergic system, thereby enhancing our capacity to recall data from a pre-existing data pool.

Dosage

How to Take PRL-8-53?

The only human study on PRL-8-53 was based on a single 5 mg dose intake. No information is available on the efficacy or prospective toxicity of any other human dosage.

Stack

Because of the restricted knowledge of the mechanism of action of PRL-8-53, it may be advisable not to stack it with other nootropics.

Side Effects

What are the side effects of PRL-8-53?

No adverse effects were observed in the human study from a single 5 mg dose of PRL-8-53. Animal studies indicate that the compound has a high therapy threshold, but the proof is very restricted as there have been no extensive toxicity trials.
Keep in mind that this is exceptionally experimental chemistry for studies, so caution is recommended.

Conclusion

PRL-8-53 is a fascinating synthetic nootropic, if mainly unexplored, which many think will eventually prove to be an invaluable smart drug.

Although it gave rise to high concern when it was launched 40 years ago, after a few animal tests and a single human study, research into its opportunities came to a halt; little has been learned about it since the review that sparked such compelling interest in its potential as a memory enhancer.

There does not seem to be any continuing research on the compound at this moment, but nootropic lovers continue to be curious about its opportunities and are regarded one of the most excellent short-term memory boosters on the market.

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Summary: Centrophenoxine is an effective nootropic that boosts memory. It can reverse age-related cognitive degeneration amd improve mood and brain function.

Overview

What is Centrophenoxine?

Centrophenoxine is one of the oldest nootropics studied, also known as Lucidril and Meclofenoxate.

This drug was initially created in 1959 and was commonly used to treat age-related brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s and dementia. Healthy people also use it to improve memory and cognitive function and improve general brain health.

Centrophenoxine is a mixture of two chemicals: dimethyl-aminoethanol (DMAE), a natural substance found in certain foods (fish, seafood) and the brain in tiny quantities. It is a source of choline and has impacts that stimulate the brain.

Parachlorphenoxyacetic acid (pCPA), a synthetic version of plant growth hormones called auxins, is the primary active ingredient of this drug. DMAE is not well crossing the blood-brain barrier. It can, however, pass through the blood-brain barrier within Centrophenoxine and enter the brain efficiently once placed in the body, a part of Centrophenoxine breaks down into DMAE and PCPA in the liver.

DMAE is then transformed to choline, and the remaining Centrophenoxine circulates throughout the body


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Benefits and Effects

What are the Benefits of Centrophenoxine?

  1. Neuroprotective
  2. Learning and Memory
  3. Mood
  4. Stress
  5. Reverses Brain-Deficits causes by Aging
  6. Enhance Cancer Treatment

Neuroprotective

Centrophenoxine protects nerve cells from oxidative harm caused by exposure to toxins or strokes. This drug decreased the damage induced by free radicals in rats with different kinds of brain injury and enhanced the resulting memory, cognitive function, and motion deficits.

This drug increases the activity of critical antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain, which can account for its positive consequences.

In 50 elderly patients with dementia (DB-RCT), it also enhanced memory.


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Learning and Memory

Centrophenoxine also enhanced ancient mice’s learning and memory.

Mood and Stress

Centrophenoxine in rats subjected to stress considerably decreased anxiety. It also enhance humans ‘ mood.

In a research of 80 healthy topics, three months of taking a drug containing DMAE, increased energy, and improved well-being. Therefore, the active DMAE element of Centrophenoxine can enhance mood.

Reverses Brain-Deficits causes by Aging

It also reverses the brain aging impacts by decreasing free radicals and buildup of lipofuscin in the rat brain (hippocampus), both of which are associated with neurodegenerative disease.

Enhance Cancer Treatment

This medication enhances the action of particular cancer drugs that cause cancer cell DNA damage.

Centrophenoxine is a mixture of PCPA (para-chlorphenoxyacetic) and DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol) synthesized version that has been altered to improve absorption and enhance its capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier. It is a compound that is metabolized in the liver and fat-soluble.

Although Centrophenoxine has been the topic of centuries of studies, it is still not fully grasped its exact mechanisms of action.

Once Centrophenoxine crosses the blood-brain barrier, it eventually raises the quantity of acetylcholine in the synaptic vesicles, either by transforming it into an intermediate phospholipid that is then used to create acetylcholine or by breaking it down into choline that is transformed into acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter most closely connected with memory and overall cognitive.

The capacity of Centrophenoxine to raise concentrations of acetylcholine is the primary means of acting as a nootropic substance.

Centrophenoxine, however, also enhances cognition in other ways, such as improving the accessibility of oxygen and glucose to the brain and reducing levels of cellular waste and cognition-affected toxins.

Centrophenoxine is both anti-aging and nootropic. It is a potent antioxidant capable of flushing cell toxins and helping to repair toxin-related damage.

It is known to decrease levels of lipid peroxidation waste products or oxidative degradation of fats in cell membranes.

Cellular damage caused by lipid peroxidation is connected with aging and is involved in many diseases and disorders, including infections and complications. Lipofuscin buildup is usually discovered in liver, kidney, heart, and retina cells as well as nerve and ganglion cells.

Due to the strong association between lipofuscin buildup and many age-related illnesses, the capacity of Centrophenoxine to decrease or eliminate this buildup makes it an invaluable anti-aging tool.


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Dosage

How to Take Centrophenoxine?

Recommended dosages of centrophenoxine range from 250 to 3000 mg daily in two doses and are deemed safe and efficient for most healthy adults.

Although higher doses may be needed to maximize their anti-aging impacts, it is advisable to consult a medical professional before exceeding the suggested daily dosage.

It is best, to begin with, the smallest effective dose possible, as with all supplements, and gradually boost as required.

It is best taken with food due to being fat-soluble.


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Side Effects

What Are the Side Effects of Centrophenoxine?

At recommended dosage ranges, Centrophenoxine is secure and nontoxic and is very well tolerated.

However, some customers encountered mild and minor side effects, including nausea, headache, gastrointestinal problems, and sleeplessness.

In most instances, the side effects were correlated with high doses, and decreasing the daily cumulative dosage eliminated unwanted side effects.


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User experience

Reddit

So, as far as I’m worried, I first attempted Centrophenoxine about two months ago. As I’ve written for other compounds, Centrophenoxine won’t make you a genius or scientist at all. It will take you to a defined upper potential stage.

There are a lot of studies available on the Centrophenoxine web here and there. It should clear lipofuscin from your brain, but under these conditions, none of us will verify whether or not I do so. Centrophenoxine does work very well, anyway. You need to discover the correct dosage for yourself; I found it works fantastic when taken with racetams, particularly aniracetam just because it seems to potentiate each other’s impact. Look together uniquely to increase the mood. I propose a 2:1 ratio of racetam-centro. Centrophenoxine is not a type of high-dose compound to be taken… I don’t think it’s more than 1000 mg a day.

Sometimes remember to create a stop. It’s important because the brain gets used to the large number of neurotransmitters very rapidly.


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What is Pramiracetam?Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsFAQs

Summary: after a study showing an outstanding success rate of 96% in reversing amnesia, surpassing the original and most popular racetam (Piracetam) – Pramiracetam started drawing more and more attention until eventually getting to stand out amongst racetams the way it does today. Additionally, it boosts cognition and improves memory, increases concentration, learning capacity, and supports engaging in, and maintaining prolonged focus sessions.

Pramiracetam Video TTS

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Introduction

What is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is one of the best-selling nootropics today due to being the highest in potency out of all racetam nootropics.

It has a distinctive mechanism of action that allows for efficient utilization of brain capabilities, thereby improving memory recall, learning capacity, concentration, and focus. Serves as an excellent supplement on its own and furthermore, a powerful potentiator to other nootropics, intensifying as well as prolonging effects. It is quickly rising towards a well-deserving reputation for its profound effects.

A synthetic derivative of piracetam, Pramiracetam is an invention of Parke-Davis from the 1970s. It is a highly effective nootropic, up to 30 times more potent than piracetam. It is marketed in Europe under brand names Neupramir, Pramistar, and Remen; often as a prescription for individuals with dyslexia, ADHD, dementia, and memory impairment due to neurodegenerative conditions. It was a patent in the US in 1979 but without the support nor the approval of the US FDA.

Regardless, it is popularly used off-label as a different approach to cognitive challenges and memory impairments. Its also undergoing further trials as a potential treatment for a variety of nervous system disorders.

Pramiracetam is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. It is marketed by Menarini under the brand name Pramistar as a treatment for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative and vascular dementias in Italy and some Eastern European countries.

Wikipedia


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Benefits?

  1. Enhances Overall Cognitive Function
  2. Enhances Memory Formation
  3. Reduces Symptoms of Depression & Relieves Anxiety
  4. Increases Learning Capacity
  5. Promotes Thought & Sense of Clarity
  6. Increases Social Fluency & Sociability
  7. Enhances Sensory Perception
  8. Helps in Memory Restoration and Recall

Supporting research:

Enhances Overall Cognitive Function

Pramiracetam optimizes brain performance and produces noticeable cognitive enhancement, especially regarding memory, in both formation of as well as consolidation. Due to the euphoric-like focus, it induces along with a sense of “emotional blunting,” users report the feel of it being comparable to Ritalin.

Pramiracetam Enhances Memory

Due to stimulating the hippocampus, the section of the cerebellum that’s accountable toward the formation of new memories, pramiracetam is raising in acknowledgment as a sharp memory enhancer. Users report significant improvement in memory formation and speed of recall; a claim confirmed by animal studies. (R)

Additionally, extensive studies find that it significantly improves long-term memory, and able to reverse amnesia to surprising levels. The findings of that study led to the synthesizing and production the drug.  (R) (R)

Pramiracetam Reduces Depression and Anxiety

Pramiracetam reports show it improves cognitive deficits associating with traumatic brain injuries. Studies demonstrate and confirm its neuroprotective effects. Studies show that its overall impact on lowering symptoms of depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. Nevertheless, it was beneficial for both. (R)

Increases Learning Capacity

Users allegedly report pramiracetam makes learning faster, more efficient, as well as more pleasant. Such finding can be explained, at least in part, by pramiracetam facilitation of higher neuroplasticity and support of long-term memory. The latter seems to be more accurate as per the following study: (R)

Pramiracetam Increases Sense of Clarity

Anecdotal reports from the nootropic community tell that pramiracetam provides them with a strong sense of mental awareness, clarity, with a deeper understanding of life; similar to many of those reporting the same effects from piracetam.

Pramiracetam Promotes Social Fluency

Furthermore, a lot of people taking pramiracetam report enjoying socializing whereas before, they avoided social settings for lack of interest. This could be due to the cognitive boost or the emotional blunting effect, which is likely to reduce social anxieties (R).

Enhances Sensory Perception

Another report backed by a clinical study shows that pramiracetam indeed enhances sensory perception and heightens observation. That is including amplified and more vibrant sound and more precise, richer visual perception with distinct color contrast. (R)

Pramiracetam Aids Memory Restoration

In clinical experiments, pramiracetam has been noted to be an efficient remedy approach for memory impairment and other cognitive difficulties caused by brain injuries(R). It is also one of the various nootropics that are carried out to examine in the US as a potential treatment for memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease amongst other neurological disorders. There is a study that shows it to be capable of reversing chemically produced amnesia in healthy volunteers of 18-65 years of age(R).

Pramiracetam

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Pramiracetam Work?

Similar to several nootropics, pramiracetam affects the release of neurotransmitters, brain chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. Though pramiracetam performs it indirectly, in different fashion than that of other racetams, and it excites the brain in different methods as well. Pramiracetam is fat-soluble which means the bloodstream absorbs it via fatty acids. It reaches peak concentrations and highest bioavailability, usually within 30 minutes, and has a somewhat long half-life of 4 to 6 hours.

Racetams work by directly stimulating neurotransmitter receptor sites, thus increasing production and release of specific neurotransmitters. However;  pramiracetam doesn’t directly produce alterations in neurochemical levels, neither does it seem to possess an affinity for any vital neurotransmitter.

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter thoroughly engaging in cognitive processes including learning pace, thought recall, and attention. By inciting choline uptake, it indirectly modulates the release of acetylcholine and triggers increased activity within the hippocampus. Due to this part of the brain being crucial to revival function, the generalized stimulation that pramiracetam formulates can enhance both the creation of new memories and the retention of reference or long-term memories.

Cerebral Blood Flow

The improving action in the hippocampus also improves cerebral blood flow, which enhances attentiveness and boosts cognitive capabilities. Besides, Pramiracetam has additional mechanisms of action. Neuroscientists hypothesize that in addition to influencing the brain, pramiracetam serves outer sections that rely upon the adrenal glands. (R)

Concerning Membrane Fluidity

Animal studies imply that pramiracetam may additionally improve or repair brain membrane fluidity, which promotes cell signaling (R). Pramiracetam does not seem to alter either alertness or emotional states actively. This advantage is understandable by pramiracetam low impact on the generation and release neurotransmitters that possess the most notable results on tranquility, stress, and anxiety levels such as serotonin, GABA, and dopamine.


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Dosage

How to Take Pramiracetam?

Recommended Pramiracetam dosage is 1200 mg per day, split into two 600 mg or three 400 mg doses throughout the day.

This is the lowest effective dose. On an individual level, it should be adjusted as required to accomplishing the desired effect.

Currently, the evidence using pramiracetam in humans uses either 400mg thrice daily or 600mg twice daily; both of these dosing regimens totals 1,200mg of pramiracetam daily.

It is unsure if pramiracetam should be taken with meals, and it is not clear if 1,200mg is the optimal dosage or not. This does, however, does appear effective.

Examine


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Side Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Side Effects?

Studies testing Pramiracetam doses found it to be safe and not causing any side effects at doses of 400 mg and up to 1,600 mg (R).

Furthermore, a study concerning Alzheimer’s disease shows it’s safe even at doses as high as 4,000 mg. (R)

Headache may occur due to low acetylcholine levels in the brain. Therefore, it is wise to pair racetams drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha GPC). Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, they will furthermore work synergistically together firing cognitive function. (R)


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Conclusion

Pramiracetam is a powerful nootropic that is relatively new to many of the nootropics community. Yet is rapidly attaining a well-deserved recognition. Due to having more complications in synthesizing, it costs more than most other racetams. Users often complain about that, however, the distinct potency proposes that lower doses are required to achieve the results. Users also have mixed reactions to the Ritalin-like emotional blunting outcome of the supplement. For some, it creates refreshing objectivity and easing of social anxiety, while others find it makes them feel somewhat disengaged. Pramiracetam is generally unique nootropic, notably enhancing memory creation and recollection, learning pace, and overall mental clarity. Its usually a worthy addition to nootropic stacks. Often existing there as an agent for prolonging their effects. Pramiracetam is safe, effective, fast-acting, and reasonably long-lasting.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Where to buy Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is available on many vendors if you simply do a quick Google search. If I had to pick one of the many choices, I would recommend Nootropics Depot because I have personally used almost every racetam they offer, and I trust their product quality.

Can you snort Pramiracetam?

Although it is reportedly possible, it’s not recommended due to the large powder amount required as well as the associated pain. Unlike certain substances that yield results with small amount, snorting Pramiracetam wouldn’t be worth the effort.

How long does Pramiracetam last?

Pramiracetam reaches its peak concentration in about 30 minutes after ingestion and has an average half-life of 5 hours.

What does Pramiracetam do?

Pramiracetam enhances memory formation and memory recall, increases learning ability, reduces social anxiety, and could potentially treat amnesia as well as prevent neurodegeneration.

When to take Pramiracetam?

Ideally, the best timing to take Pramiracetam would be once after breakfast, and another dose after lunch, keeping a 5-hour time interval between the two dosages.

How to take Pramiracetam?

Although it is recommended to take Pramiracetam after food for optimal absorption, it can still be taken without food. So if absorption is your concern, it does not matter much. It depends on your personal preference.

How long does Pramiracetam last?

On average, Pramiracetam effect lasts somewhere between 4 to 6 hours.

Why is Pramiracetam so expensive?

Regardless of all the forum talks of Pramiracetam being so expensive, and whether this used to be true in the past or not; the actual price of Pramiracetam powder from Nootropics Depot is $9.99 for 5g, and $26.99 for 15g.

How much choline to take with Pramiracetam?

Personally, I would take and recommend 300 mg of Alpha-GPC with each Pramiracetam dose. If you prefer Citicoline instead (as the choline source) then the recommended dosage would be 250 mg

For more Frequently Asked Questions, check out the following pages:

  1. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ List
  2. Racetams 101: Guide & FAQs

Further and Related Readings

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Sunifiram
  3. Oxiracetam
  4. Fasoracetam
  5. Coluracetam
  6. Citicoline (CDP-choline)
  7. Noopept

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Introduction Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceConclusion


Summary: Sunifiram is an experimental, potent and powerful nootropic that enhances memory, expands learning capacity, and uplifts mood. A recent addition to the racetam family that seems more than promising. Sunifiram dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

Sunifiram Video TTS

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Introduction

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam. Although there has not been much evidence about its efficacy, it has been proven to be beneficial for the (many) individuals using it. With research and trials ongoing and growing, its use will increase along as well. Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) has been one of the best nootropics that powerfully influence cognition. It enhances mood, lowers stress, and increases energy and focus.

Sunifiram dosage
Sunifiram Structure

It is an invention from the year 2000. And although it is very new to the market, it is proving to be effective and useful to individuals both in long and short terms. It is an effective nootropic that improves learning and memory, and furthermore enhances cognitive function. It is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amnesia, like most racetams. There are no reports of any severe side effects from its use, making it effective, useful, and safe.

Although it belongs to the racetam class, Sunifiram has a different structure. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as a piperazine alkaloid rather than racetam. It delivers many of the same memory and learning enhancements as piracetam but is much more potent.

Sunifiram is also an ampakine. It increases the efficacy and activity of neurotransmitter glutamine. This leads to significant changes such as mood and energy improvement along with other cognition benefits.

Sunifiram (developmental codename DM-235) is an experimental drug which has antiamnesic effects in animal studies and with significantly higher potency than piracetam. Sunifiram is a molecular simplification of unifiram (DM-232). As of 2016, sunifiram had not been subjected to toxicology testing, nor to any human clinical trials, and is not approved for use anywhere in the world. Wikipedia


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Sunifiram Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  2. Improves Symptoms of Depression
  3. Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy
  4. Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation
  5. Enhances Focus and Motivation
  6. Enhances Visual Perception
  7. Increases Libido

Supporting research:

Sunifiram Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression

As an antidepressant and anxiety reliever, Sunifiram produces its effects as a mirror image of an ampakine. It reacts with glutamatergic AMPA receptors. That also allows it to act as a mild stimulant.

Sunifiram Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy

Sunifiram is known to increase energy and enhance mood. This is likely due to its antidepressant-like effect.

Sunifiram Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation

Sunifiram is a potent and powerful nootropic. It enhances memory formation and retention as well as expanding the learning capacity. It is in use in case of diseases that cause memory loss or amnesia. Its use is not yet regulated by the FDA, but still widely in use by many individuals for its nootropic benefits. [R] [R]

Appears to promote long term potentiation in the hippocampus with oral ingestion, which should result in an improvement in memory in animals that have otherwise impaired memory.

Examine.com

Sunifiram Enhances Focus and Motivation

Sunifiram enhances focus and concentration. It is known to improve motivation and enable a person to complete mentally-demanding tasks at ease and comfort. The focus heightening and motivation is due to the increase in the release and utilization of acetylcholine; which has a direct impact on cognitive abilities.

Sunifiram Enhances Visual Perception

Sunifiram keeps you out of stress and negative thinking. It makes you have a confident, better outlook on life. It allows you to look at the future positive and ambitiously. Such useful effects are helpful for people at any and every stage of life.

Sunifiram Increases Libido

Increase in the sex drive is often in anecdotal reports. However, there is no clinical evidence on this specific claim and only anecdotal ones support it.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Sunifiram Work?

Sunifiram is a piracetam derivative. But it often comes as a surprise that it has a different chemical structure from the other racetams. It is basically a piperazine alkaloid which can act as an ampakine that will increase the activity of glutamine receptors and increase the stimulation effects. Or it can serve as a cholinergic that stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine.

AMPAkine Action

Although no such evidence is still available about its use and its action in humans due to the lack of the trials, the primary factor that drives it to work would be the ampakine factor which allows it to provide the stimulation effects by acting at the glutamate receptors. Ampakines are mild stimulants. They can increase alertness and energy. They do not cause restlessness which like other antidepressants or anxiolytics. The increase the energy levels and the activity factor is also one of the significant roles Sunifiram plays. Due to its effect on the glutamate receptors, it leads to functions such as spatial navigation and the formation and storage of memory, which are crucial for many neurological conditions.

Cholinergic Action

Sunifiram acts as a cholinergic as well. Due to this effect, it leads to the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Acetylcholine increases brain function and cognition abilities. The primary functions are memory enhancement, learning speed and capacity which grow and expand very notably. You can also count on the fluid intelligence or ability to solve unique problems with this supplement. Sunifiram is an essential nootropic to students as well as athletes to increase their performance and achieve better results.

Sunifiram appears to act on the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, which enhances signalling and activates some intracellular proteins (CAMKII and PKCα) which then positively regulate the AMPA receptors. These mechanisms are highly similar to that seen with nefiracetam. Examine.com

The mechanism of action of sunifiram is unknown. Sunifiram, as well as unifiram, were assayed at a wide panel of sites, including the most important receptors, ion channels, and transporters, but showed no affinity for any of the sites. They specifically did not bind to the glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, acetylcholine, or opioid receptors at concentrations of up to 1 μM. In addition, the drugs were tested on recombinant AMPA receptors and showed no potentiation of the receptors, indicating that they do not act as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators. However, they were able to prevent the amnesia induced by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX in the passive avoidance test, suggesting that indirect/downstream AMPA receptor activation may be involved in their memory-enhancing effects. Sunifiram, as well as other nootropics such as piracetam, levetiracetam, and aniracetam are able to antagonize inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital), diazepam, and certain other drugs in human erythrocytes in vitro (Ki = 26.0 uM for sunifiram), and this action has been found to correlate with their potency in reversing scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. However, this action has been regarded as very unlikely to represent the main mechanism of action of sunifiram.

Wikipedia


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Dosage

How to Take Sunifiram?

Sunifiram works effectively at a dosage of 5 to 10 mg –  at a maximum of three times per day. This is the safe dose which is often taken sublingual for maximum efficacy and absorption.

It is advised that one starts with the smallest doses to prevent side effects and toxicity. Although it is not in documentation, tolerance can grow with excessive usage, so it is better to take it occasionally instead of daily basis.

Suggested dose:

only 4-8 mg 2-3 times a day is needed with this ultra potent nootropic. When you’re talking about the Bugatti of the nootropics world, less is more. A little goes all the way!

Possible side effects:

it is possible to experience headaches from choline depletion with excessive use. This can be combated by consuming sources of choline. In rare cases individuals have experienced nausea.

– Nootropics City

Sunifiram Stack

For Boosting Cognitive Function

By pairing sunifiram with one or more of the racetams like piracetam, oxiracetam, or Noopept, we can achieve this increase which has been the most common and most favorite Sunifiram combo. A choline source like Alpha GPC is an important part of this combo due to the increased choline depletion by the former nootropics.

For Mood Enhancement

Combining Aniracetam with sunifiram is a good option for mood enhancement. You can combine L-theanine, which increases production of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA with sunifiram. Sulbutiamine, which is a potent enhancer of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic functions can be a good combination as well. Choline source should always be present in those combos to prevent getting a headache.


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Side Effects

What Are Sunifiram Side Effects?

Due to being fairly new and not as widely popular as the rest of the racetams, no severe side effects of sunifiram have surfaced yet. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still ongoing, and it is yet to get FDA approval. Use with caution.


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User Experience

On a Reddit user wrote down a thorough experience of sunifiram:

For years I have been a hardcore coffee drinker and other than that I had not used any other substances to enhance my cognition in any way. A few months ago I started a doctor-supervised weight loss program that included the use of 30 mg of Phentermine daily as an appetite suppressant.

Unfortunately, Phentermine is an amphetamine that gave me an extreme energy rush that was affecting my focus and concentration. I could not sit and study because I was getting easily distracted by anything. This was starting to affect my performance in my current classes and at work so I tried using 200 mg of L-Theanine and reduce my caffeine intake with moderately positive effects.

After losing about 100 lbs, I am ready to stop the Phentermine and continue my healthy eating habits for a long-term weight loss maintenance. This Phentermine is addictive so my doctor is reducing the dose gradually to minimize the withdrawal effects. However, I started feeling slightly depressed and foggy. This is when I decided to go on my own and experiment with Noots to see if they would help.

My doctor is not familiar with any nootropics nor did he think anything like that would be appropriate since the effects of phentermine withdrawal would pass in a few weeks.

I did some research about nootropics that would help me with this situation and decided to go shopping. I was low on cash but had a credit on Amazon so the only strong nootropic that I found was Sunifiram. Despite the warnings that there are no sufficient studies on the long-term effects, I decided to assume all risks and give it a try.

The Experience

I started five days ago with 10mg of Sunifiram administered sublingually. Approximately 10-15 minutes after the first dose I felt what others have called “sunny”. It is hard to explain but it was somewhat overwhelming and the effect did not last long.

The following day I took the same dose and got the same but short effect. I did have a mild headache after waking up but nothing unbearable. I started to get the full effect on Day 3. Suddenly I was able to focus on whatever I wanted and the ideas flowed easily. I had struggled to finish a paper for days but this time I finished it in less than an hour.

Today is Day 5 of using Sunifiram and I have to say it has been a positive experience so far. I wish I could explain better my experience but I have not used anything with comparable results. It is not an extreme rush of energy nor a sedative effect. I just feel a sense of clarity that I had not felt before.

I don’t want to take the risk of using Sunifiram for long-term cognition enhancement given the unknown effects of continued use, so I will stop taking it as soon as I finish this class. Once I have some cash to spend, I might look into other alternatives like Piracetam, Noopept or something similar.

TL;DR:

Sunifiram was my first experience with a “smart drug”. During the first two days the effects were mild and nearly unnoticeable. After the third day I felt a positive improvement in my mood and focus. Since there are no sufficient studies on the long term use of this substance, I will discontinue its use and seek other Nootropics with better background research.

u/
Sykotiko


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Conclusion

Sunifiram is one of the nootropics having huge and fast-growing demand, so its not easily accessible. Its potency, efficacy, and effectiveness have been superb. Although it does not have a lot of trials under its belt, it is nevertheless one which has been encouraging and promoted as a safe and effective nootropic.

Not for everyday use, but it can be a good companion to have in your stack. Increasing energy, cognitive abilities, and physical performance are the prime features of this product which make it one worth trying out.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

Although I haven’t tried Sunifiram nor have I purchased from this vendor myself, I am listing them here for those coming to this page to find vendors. So far the ones I found and seem reputable are:

  1. Nootropics City for Sunifiram Capsules
  2. Nootropics Retail for Sunifiram Powder

Within the UAE, you can order sunifiram from our store.

Interesting Finds

While researching a bit more on Sunifiram, I came across an article on Nootropics City titled ‘Why was Sunifiram Taken Off the Market,’ and dates back to 2004. I thought it would be an interesting read to someone looking for all and any information about Sunifiram. It says:

“In 2000, Sunifiram was introduced to the market. It is well known as DM-235. While clinical trials are done before releasing any drug on the market, as a brand name or a generic one, it is not the only parameter that measures that it will react to general people in the same way. Hence, some drugs are taken off the shelves. Now, why was Sunifiram was taken off the market when some people were responding well towards it. What is the safety information that one should know related to this drug?

The real reason for Sunifiram to be off the market is that there were few safe studies conducted on it. This made it difficult for many physicians to prescribe it to their patients. It is now seen as a recreational drug and a stimulant. Some stimulants like this may be legit but dangerous. It is always best to keep in touch with the ones that have a proven track record, not only in clinical results but in public domain also.

It was introduced as a nootropic to help patients recover mental alertness. The effect of the composition is stronger, and it certainly raises safety issues. Some of its negative properties have made it to remain on the shelves for a little longer. Even healthcare professionals advise its limited usage considering there are other nootropics also on the market that have positive effects.

With its composition, the drug is capable of releasing AMPA receptors that are in the brain. The tolerance level of some patients may have triggered its negative reviews. In fact, some reports also suggested that the drug had toxic effects on consumption. Even small milligram dosages seemed to be bad for the rest of the system. It is also responsible for increased heartbeats in patients who have increased the dosage.

Some of the effects cannot be reversed, and this makes it important to take it off the shelves. It is a very strong drug. Even though it is legal, one must take a medical opinion before consuming it. The Internet offers several slices of information about this drug and its replacements.

What makes it so forceful as a memory booster?

It is an ampakine that immediately brings on the ‘horsepower’ to the brain. The brain has AMPA receptors. When they are activated with the help of an ampakine like Sunifiram, it increases the energy. When people have stress on performance in certain jobs, they have been known to consume it. It ensures that there is no other external distraction that can interfere with the mind’s working. People who have short-term memories also have consumed this drug. Since it is strong in its content, it tends to make ‘colors brighter’, ‘sounds clearer’ and general ambience becomes well defined. This could be a dangerous trend.

Studies

  1. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram improves cognitive deficits via CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activation in olfactory bulbectomized mice.
  2. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram enhances hippocampal synaptic efficacy via glycine-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is an experimental, potent racetam. It shares most of racetams benefits and effects. The dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

What is Sunifiram Legal Status? Is Sunifiram legal?

In the US, Sunifiram is unscheduled, and not FDA approved.

How To Take Sunifiram?

Being an ‘experimental’ drug, and a very potent one, its important to take very low doses (5 mg, 10 mg tops) and do your research to find news and updates on the matter. You can find the post I cited from Nootropics City under Conclusion which has more information regarding that.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

I have found a few different vendors, none of which I tried, rather, only listing for research purpose. Nootropics City, Nootropics Retail, as well as NewMind – all offer Sunifiram in powder as well as capsules.

What is Sunifiram Dosage?

Unless you are quite experienced in racetams, I wouldn’t recommend anything over 5 mg as a starting point. People reported side effects after deciding to increase the dose for more results.

Where to Buy Sunifiram Powder?

Nootropics Retail,

Where to find Sunifiram capsules?

Nootropics City

What is Sunifiram half-life?

Sunifiram has a half-life of 1-2 hours

Is sunifiram stimulating like Adderall?

Not really at all. Adderall (amphetamine) causes release of dopamine and norepinephrine to increase focus and cause physical and mental stimulation.
Sunifaram is a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA channels (increases the activity when a glutamate molecule is bound, but not when nothing is bound), which are a subtype of glutamate receptors. The effect of this is to increase memory formation via long term potentiation, which occurs when NMDA and AMPA (both subtypes of glutamate receptors) channels are both activated in the same neuron. When this happens more glutamate receptors are put into the neuron to make it more likely to fire in the future. Sunifaram increases AMPA firing so increases the odds of a long term pontentiation event happening, and therefore memory formation. It does not act as a CNS stimulant like adderall though, and those two drugs really serve different purposes.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Coluracetam, Fasoracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Pramiracetam
  2. Alpha-GPC, Citicoline (CDP), Choline
  3. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ, Nootropics 101

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Coluracetam is a new member to the racetam family of nootropics. Early scientific trials confirm that it is beneficial in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder as well as with Generalized Anxiety, in addition to its a bunch of nootropic value it offers.

Coluracetam TTS on Youtube

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Introduction

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a drug that falls in the racetam family. The way it works and its structure are different from other racetams. Despite it being in the racetam family, this drug has gained a widespread reputation on its uniqueness in memory boosting and reduction of anxiety and depression. It is popular in the nootropic community to raise optic properties.

However, additional studies are needed to realize the mechanism that supports these benefits. It was initially synthesized in 2005 by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in Japan as a probable cure for Alzheimer’s disease. BrainCells, Inc. later licensed it for more study after it did not make to reach its clinical endpoint.

Brain Cells began to conduct experiments on its effects. Most of these tests were on rats due to lack of enough participants to undertake the clinical trial. From the clinical analysis carried out, coluracetam showed to improve memory retention and relieve anxiety.


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Coluracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory and Learning
  2. Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression
  3. Reduces Anxiety
  4. Promotes Neurogenesis
  5. Helps with Schizophrenia
  6. Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam Improves Memory and Learning

Coluracetam benefits proves to work in enforcing cognitive and memory function in rats and similar effects on humans. Brain Cells Inc. conducted a study which reveals an improvement of mind in rats after receiving AF64A for eight days. The development continued to last even beyond treatment. Alzheimer’s disease leads to lower levels of acetylcholine. By growing acetylcholine in the hippocampus, coluracetam will increase symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease such as learning disorders and poor memory. [R] [R]

Coluracetam Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression

In a study of 101 individuals with depression, who did not achieve result treatment with antidepressants, it had a constructive impact on the apparent improvement in the quality of life at 80 mg 3 times a day. However, this is the only study on humans. The capacity it holds to minimize glutamate noxiousness may be liable for its positive impacts in the depression treatment. [R]

Coluracetam Reduces Anxiety

In a rat study, dosing 21 days of coluracetam shows a 20% improvement in anxiety, which was higher than the 12% effect valium impact in a single dose in the same study. [R]

Promotes Neurogenesis

Some studies mention that  it helps with neurogenesis. The primary mechanism is still not clear, but it relates to the administration of it for several weeks, which increase in acetylcholine in the hippocampus area.

“Patents state that it promotes nerve cell growth (neurogenesis). The mechanism is unknown, yet is thought to be related to the increase in hippocampal acetylcholine when coluracetam is dosed daily for a few weeks.” [R]

Helps with Schizophrenia

Coluracetam increases the activity of ChAT in rats with nerve cell damage. This increase suggests it may benefit patients with schizophrenia through this same enzyme. More research directly on people with schizophrenia is undergoing. [R] [R]

Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam has shown its optic strengths such as improved color recognition, vision, and vividness. Specifically, it promotes nerve growth for the degenerative retinal disease. Numerous studies mention better color vision and sharpening of the eyesight, but no scientific research has confirmed these effects. [R]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Coluracetam Work?

It works through the process of high-affinity choline uptake. That’s its mechanism of action. The brain chemical responsible for storing cognitive abilities and memories is acetylcholine.

Coluracetam review
Coluracetam Skeletal Structure

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine within our brain. Studies on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove vital for improving learning, memory, and cognition.

It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine in the brain. Many studies done on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove very important for improving learning, memory formation, and typically cognitive abilities. It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.


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Dosage

How to Take Coluracetam?

Typically, the recommended starting dose is 20mg due to that being the manufactured one. There are claims that researchers testing coluracetam dosage of 240 mg per day are finding no side effects. However, the source link to that claim is broken. [R] [R]

My Personal Experience

The maximum I’ve taken is 60mg in single dose. It caused me a slight headache and yield no special outcome.

Advise: Take it with a choline source. It can be in supplement form (Alpha-GPC. Citicoline), or from foods in your own diet.

Pairing coluracetam with a choline source will both, increase its effect, and prevent an associating headache.


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Side Effects

What Are Coluracetam Side Effects?

There isn’t enough evidence regarding the side effects of coluracetam. The human brain and body are well receiving this nootropic drug. Taking coluracetam does not have many side effects, but when they appear, they are similar to other recitals. Some of the concerns are nausea and irritability which are rare.


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User Experiences

Here’s a couple of randomly selected reddit users experiences of Coluracetam:

“Definitely my favorite nootropic besides phenibut. The anxiolytic effects are great, also a very nice mood enhancer. And I noticed it significantly improved my vision, my short and long term memory, and even improved my verbal fluency.
I suffer from depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizo effective disorder. 20 to 100 mg Coluracetam seems comparable to Zoloft in terms of helping anxiety. It also helps me keep calm during my delusion induced panic attacks. I highly recommend it. In overall satisfaction for Coluracetam I rate it 9/10. I ordered my Coluracetam from Nootropics Depot.” u/sunflesh [
link]

“I know that coluracetam is pretty controversial to begin with, but I went into my use of it hopeful because I’ve heard of lots of crazy benefits some people were getting out of it. Sadly, when I tried it I experienced nothing except for a phenomenally bad mood. I’ve never been so angry in my life, and it’s not because I’m disappointed, it just put me into this hyper aggressive pessimist mood. I had been microdosing LSD for about 2 weeks prior to trying coluracetam and it seemed to completely reverse the effects of microdosing and actually put me into a worse mood overall than before I started microdosing. I had high hopes for this product, and maybe I’ll try it again because it could just be circumstantial, but for now I don’t plan on using it for a long time.” [link]

This one is a bit more extensive, but quite informative. A self-trial by another reddit user:

“History with Nootropics: in 2015 I began my journey working on my bachelors in Psychology. During my second semester I came across Nootropics Depot while searching for a reasonably priced Bacopa, and that’s when I found Noopept. Sublingually I usually took around 20mg or less nightly with decent results. This went on for around 3 months and my test taking abilities definitely grew more fluent. My expectations may have been too high though as I found it just wasn’t giving my the edge I was looking for. I moved to Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pram/Phenyl, and I just wasn’t getting marginal results in my focus, productivity, or recall.

Recent Finding: I gave Nootropics a break for years until about a week ago when I read up on Fasoracetam and Coluracetam. Package arrived yesterday and i took 15mg of both sublingually. Within 30min my head was clear and the flow of my work almost effortless. I work as an Inventory Auditor, so i’m constantly counting, doing long math, and finding patterns. Today was the breeziest day at work, I was honestly on my A game. I found a flaw in previous audits and had my work done about a quarter of the time ahead of schedule. I understand these may be placebo feelings and coincidence occurrences, that is why i am making this post. I will update bi weekly with logic test results. At the end of each month i will post links to graphs of progression in answer response times if any.

Update 2/23/19
Tomorrow will be the first logic test results update but i just wanted to pop in and relay a few things. I have noticed a tad of unclear thought with the faso, I dosed only colur this morning just to see any marked difference and the colur definitely clears and focuses my mind more. For the sake of this trial i did make sure to dose faso later in the day and will give it around a month to see if the foggy feeling leaves. Also, a strange but incredibly noticeable thing as happened. I cant tell which of the two may be causing it, but in dark situations or driving at night i have realized my eyes have been adjusting almost immediately and to a higher degree than normal. I can see relatively everything, not like a cat lol but its definitely a lot clearer than normal.

Update #1:
Logical reasoning testing. Took 2 different tests one 10 questions the other 18 questions. Neither having the same questions, and varying difficulties. The first test took 3min, got 7 out of 10 correct. 2nd took me 12min getting 8 out of 18 correct. About average logical reasoning. At the end of the next test taking session (2 weeks from today) results will be added to the post along with statistics. Also, choline supplementation is being introduced tomorrow morning due to moderate headaches.

Update #2:
i’ve noticed that my arithmetic based thought processes have grown extremely fluent. Long math has become increasingly easier while done mentally. I’ve always attempted to do most math in my head than ended up writing down the problems but since about a week and a half ago, writing the problems down is pointless. I began dosing Alpha GPC around 2 weeks ago instead of bitartrate due to the low bioavailability of the latter. Choline source is a must with the amount of racetams I supplement (colur, faso, ani).

Most recent update:
Alrighty guys and gals it has now successfully been over a month spent testing these racetams. Memory and short/long term recall is definitely better than it was before this trial. The tests may not be giving marginal results, but I can vouch for a stronger attention span. I find myself noticing details and patterns, more observant of daily obstacles. My LR tests I took today resulted in a 4/7 on both, with both taking 3.5 minutes. Im seeing that my ability to not need to read the questions more than once to retain it and find the answers. Faso has had marked effects on my baseline depression, with more motivation for a few hours after dose. Colur has been reminiscent of past noopept experiences. I’ve also narrowed down the increase in serotonin levels to the aniracetam.


Find the full thread with more information and discussions here [link]


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Conclusion

Coluracetam doesn’t have extensive amount of research, the studies available do show a great potential for its use.

It is one of the more new-gone-mainstream racetams, alongside Fasoracetam. However, recently, the FDA has approved an “enhanced” form of Fasoracetam for the treatment of ADHD.

The relating information on that announcement can be found on the blog post here.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a nootropic agent of the racetam family. It was initially developed and tested by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation for Alzheimer’s disease. Coluracetam increases the production of acetylcholine, and also speeds up its flow in brain synapses. The product was first registered in 2005 and phase 2A trials were completed back in 2010.

What is Coluracetam half-life?

The half-life of Coluracetam is about 3 hours.

What is coluracetam and how does it compare with other racetams?

“It’s not a hardcore focus drug like Modafinil, nor does it give me a bunch of energy and pep like caffeine or Piracetam. What it really does is just add a subtle and underlying positivity to my mood. There’s a noticeable difference on it and off it, especially in this dreadfully, gloomy part of the world.

A Youtube commenter suggested stacking Coluracetam with L-Theanine, which I tried and it’s actually a pretty good stack, especially in combination with some delicious Bulletproof Coffee. The creative mindset that L-Theanine puts me in, is nicely complimented by the optimism that Coluracetam stimulates, this has actually become my go to stack since I ran out of Piracetam. Speaking of coffee, anecdotally Coluracetam has this really cool effect of reversing caffeine tolerance. I unfortunately did not experience this, at least not noticeably. Another really consistent way to reverse caffeine tolerance is just to stop consuming caffeine for about 10 days and your caffeine tolerance will almost completely go away, and after consuming just a single cup of coffee you will again feel like a Greek god consuming ambrosia in the fields of Elysium. Coluracetam did not have the same effect for me.

It’s has a rocky, clumpy consistency that reminds me of cocaine – the tiny rocks feel like boulders under my tongue. You may need to break it up before consumption. I’ve been taking it sublingually, because it’s so damn expensive that I don’t want to waste a single granule of it. It’s taste is not pleasant and it kind of lingers on your palette, I don’t recommend taking it before a meal. It doesn’t taste great but it’s not as bad as some drugs I’ve tried.

Scienceguy suggested it potentiates Oxiracetam, I’ve taken it now a couple of time with Caballo which has Oxiracetam but I’m not sure if I’ve experienced this yet…

One day I was operating on about 4 hours of sleep, so somewhat sleep deprived and kept slipping back into an unfocused funk. I took Coluracetam around 1PM and 4PM and there was a disappointing absence of effect.

I wish I could rate Coluracetam higher, but I’m deducting 2 stars because it’s just not a great value, there’s plenty of Nootropics that gram for gram, cost a 3rd or 4th of Coluracetam and have just as helpful effect on mood, focus and memory. For mere economics, I wouldn’t reorder it.”

Jonathan Roseland

Additional Nootropics FAQs can be found here [link]

Further and Related Readings

Coluracetam – Wikipedia

Coluracetam – Scientific Review – Examine

Other Racetam Nootropics

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Piracetam
  3. Pramiracetam
  4. Oxiracetam
  5. Fasoracetam
  6. Phenylpiracetam
  7. Sunifiram

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What is Oxiracetam?Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide Effects

Summary: Effective, efficient and recommended, Oxiracetam is one of the most valuable racetam class nootropics. Its ability to boost productivity and problem-solving has made it a favorite – and a best seller.

Oxiracetam review
Oxiracetam Skeletal Structure
Oxiracetam Video TTS

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Introduction

What is Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is a cognitive function booster that has many different benefits and uses. It heightens focus and concentration as well as enhancing memory and learning. It furthermore intensifies sensual, observational, and logical thinking. Oxiracetam stimulate the brain, thereby producing mental stamina and boosting energy. It allows for achieving better skill-use which make it a useful nootropic at any point in life.

Oxiracetam is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam, a discovery from the 1970’s. Research suggests that it is five times as effective as its racetam relatives. With properties like those of Phenylpiracetam, it has proven its effectiveness. Additionally, it doesn’t bring the adverse effects that usually come with stimulants.

It benefits memory, attention and learning. Furthermore, it is a potential treatment for amnesia. Research show that it has potential to treat dementia as well, but the FDA has yet to approve it (surprise surprise!). So it’s not in the big-pharma market. Its not regulated by the Canadian, Australian, or UK authorities. It is safe and effective, and its use for neurodegeneration is growing bigger with time. It is safe, potent and useful for many medical conditions, beside its nootropic effect.

Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug of the racetam family and very mild stimulant. Several studies suggest that the substance is safe even when high doses are consumed for a long period of time. However, the mechanism of action of the racetam drug family is still a matter of research. – Wikipedia


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Oxiracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Improves Logical Thinking
  3. Improves Focus and Learning
  4. Enhances Prolonged Concentration
  5. Boosts Physical and Mental Energy

Supporting Research:

Oxiracetam Improves Memory

Oxiracetam is effective on memory and and is in use by students looking for a memory boost. Users report positive experiences about its effectiveness in that regard (R).

Improves Logical Thinking

Many anecdotal reports state that it increases and improves logical thought. Some also say that Oxiracetam improves their analytical and reasoning skills.

Improves Focus and Learning

All racetams are effective in increasing focus and learning abilities. Trails on humans and animals both show that Oxiracetam enhances focus and learning. (R)

Enhances Prolonged Concentration

Oxiracetam has a positive effect on concentration allowing a person to stick to a subject without distraction. So it is a smart option during finals – where self-discipline is very important (R).

Boosts Physical and Mental Energy

Oxiracetam is a mild stimulant that increases both physical and mental activity. But it is unique in that it doesn’t bring amphetamine-like side effects.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Oxiracetam Work?

Precise mechanism of actions are unclear, but its related to neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Which is crucial in many neurological disorders and diseases.

It alters the release of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and glutamate from these receptors. These chemicals impact memory, learning, logical and cognitive functions. Although all racetams show similar effects, Oxi can last longer than the rest.

By increasing the neuronal linking in the hippocampus, the drug has impacts on the lipid metabolism. It leads to the production of D-Aspartic acid which is crucial for neural signaling. Oxiracetam has mild central nervous system stimulant effects as it is an ampakine act at the glutamatergic AMPA receptors. However, it has no severe side effects like insomnia, weight loss, gain or any other that is often associating anxiolytics and antidepressants.

As far as chemistry is concerned, Oxiracetam is a water-soluble compound. Its absorption occurs mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that it reaches the maximum levels within 1-3 hours of intake. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and has long half-life of 8-10 hours, therefore is stable.


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Dosage

How To Take Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam average dose is 1,200-2,400mg taken in 2 or 3 even doses throughout the day.

An example would be:

  • 2x 800mg per day or
  • 3x 400mg per day

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Side Effects

What Are Oxiracetam Side Effects?

At a 1,600mg dose per day, it does not have any significant side-effects when compared to placebo. As with all racetams, headache is a possibility. It is preventable by adding a choline source such as Alpha GPC.


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Conclusion

Oxiracetam passes all the obstacles that come in the way of a drug to be in the market for the public. It is safe and has no adverse effect reported. Furthermore, its a potential treatment for neurological disorders. It has been a useful (and life-saving) nootropic for people suffering mental illness. Although still pending FDA approval, it confirmed its effectiveness in many studies and clinical trials.

Due to increasing focus and concentration, Oxiracetam became a popular choice for students. And one that is often recommended by those using it.


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Frequently Asked Questions

How long does one need to take oxiracetam to start feeling effects?

Personally, I’d feel it right on the time I take it. I mean after a while of course, but effects are notaiceable about 45 mins later. Nothing like “2 weeks until effects start taking actions” whatsoever.

As far as chemistry is concerned, Oxiracetam is a water-soluble compound. Its absorption occurs mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that it reaches the maximum levels within 1-3 hours of intake. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and has long half-life of 8-10 hours, therefore is stable.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Sunifiram, Fasoracetam, Coluracetam
  2. Choline, Alpha-GPC, CDP-choline
  3. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

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What is Alpha-GPC?Alpha-GPC BenefitsMechanism of ActionDosageUser ExperiencesFAQs


Summary: Alpha-GPC is a natural choline compound. It works on its own as a powerful memory booster. In combination with other nootropics, it works as a potentiator boosting cognitive capabilities. It’s also used as a milt stimulant to boost energy and power output when exercising. Furthermore, it promotes cell regeneration and acts as a neuroprotective agent, against cognitive decline.

Alpha-GPC TTS Video on Youtube

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Introduction

What is Alpha-GPC?

Alpha-GPC is a cholinergic compound naturally present in the body in small amounts and commercially manufactured as an extract of purified soy lecithin. [1]

Although there are dietary resources of Alpha-GPC such as dairy products, organ meats, and wheat germ, concentrations achieved by dietary intake are lower than those obtainable by a supplement. It works rapidly and reliably by delivering necessary choline to the brain. [2]

It provides valuable nootropic qualities, including memory enhancement and protection against brain aging, attributing to longevity. Clinical trials covering thousands of participants confirm Alpha-GPC is a remarkable remedy for memory loss that accompanies Alzheimer’s disease [3], vascular dementia [4], and stroke. [5]

Moreover, it provides neuroprotective, anti-aging benefits. Studies further suggest it is useful in the treatment of generalized anxiety. [6] [7]

Another benefit is its ability to enhance cells membrane health and promote rapid recovery following physical activity. Studies indicate that it also acts as a dopaminergic, encouraging the release of dopamine, meaning it works as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, in addition to being an overall mood enhancer. [8] [9]

Potent Potentiator

However, many consider the real strengths of Alpha-GPC is the potentiating feature when in combination with other nootropics. The choline that it provides the brain with significantly magnify the cognitive enhancing effects of other nootropics, especially the racetams.

I’ve always liked both Alpha-GPC and Citicoline and appreciated their profound effect, until one day I added Aniracetam 750mg and it was as if I had just took a racetam for the first time. The effects of both nootropics synergize together so well, a year later both of them are on the front line among my nootropic stack.

Alpha-GPC vs Other Choline Sources

According to examine and based on a handful of different studies, Alpha-GPC appears to be the best currently known cholinergic in increasing plasma and brain choline levels, as it has better transportation into the brain than does choline (somewhat similar to CDP-choline) but since it is a greater percentage choline by weight (relative to CDP-choline) taking X dose of either drug gives more choline when using Alpha-GPC


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Alpha-GPC Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory Formation and Recall
  2. Neuroprotection and Development of New Brain Cells
  3. Increases Energy and Speeds up Recovery
  4. Increases Attention and Enhances Mood
alpha-gpc benefits

Supporting Research:

Improves Memory Formation and Recall

This effect is mainly due to the increase of choline it makes available for conversion to acetylcholine, which is profoundly correlating with cognitive functions and the ability to create and revive memories. Studies confirm it an effective treatment for memory impairment caused by age-related diseases, including Alzheimer’s and several forms of dementia. It has further proven to be capable of recovering memory in volunteers following brief chemically-induced amnesia. [10, 11, 12]

Neuroprotection and Development of New Brain Cells

It protects and maintains overall brain health by promoting the development of new brain cells and enhancing the body’s capability to repair damaged cell membranes. This attribute is a significant longevity advantage. [13]

Increases Energy and Speeds up Recovery

Because it stimulates the production of human growth hormone (HGH), Alpha-GPC is valuable for individuals looking to perform better, increase lean muscle mass, feel peak energy during workouts and recover quickly afterward. A pilot study shows that 600 mg of Alpha-GPC taken 90 minutes before bench pressing increases power output by 14%. [14, 15, 16]

Increases Attention and Enhances Mood

Users report that using Alpha-GPC provides distinguished mental clarity while improving mood. This elevating effect is explained partially by the additional choline it presents, which increases attentiveness and promotes effortless clear-thinking. It’s also a link to its production of human growth hormone, which provides energizing, longevity effects. [17]

In combination with other nootropics, it offers adequate choline to achieve optimal cognitive enhancement effects, and it prevents the minor headaches often associating with racetams.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Alpha-GPC Work?

Alpha GPC benefits
Alpha-GPC structure

Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.

On Acetylcholine

It is a fundamental associate of many cognitive functions including memory formation, learning capacity, and attention. By stimulating the production of acetylcholine, it acts as a neuroprotectant; maintaining neuronal health and preventing potential damage. [Ref 1, 2, 3, 4]

On Dopamine

Oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can also be dopaminergic, by increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors. It also has involvement in increasing brain serotonin concentrations following oral administration. [22, 23, 24]


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Dosage

What is The Recommended Alpha-GPC Dosage?

Alpha-GPC digests and absorbs smoothly and is gentle on the stomach taken at the typical dose of 300mg. Although many nootropists tend to prefer a dose of 600mg, with a total daily intake ranging from 300 to 1200 mg, either at once or split into two doses. [25]

Personally I find 300mg is effective enough especially because I almost always take it as part of a stack. If not Aniracetam then its Piracetam, Phenylpiracetam or Noopept. On the few occasions where I took it on its own, I still felt very at ease and eager to produce, learn, move.

As with any other nootropic, start with the lowest effective dose and build up gradually as desired.

Storage

Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. Alpha-GPC with >99% purity will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month’s supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. It is important to note that hygroscopy is not degradation and leaves the substance still usable; however, the ability to accurately weigh a dose is no longer possible as the substance being weighed will be a mixture of powder and water. Liquefied or gelled alpha-GPC may also be indicative of poor storage and thus have an increased likelihood of actual degradation.

Wikipedia


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Side Effects

What Are Alpha-GPC Side Effects?

Some side effects rarely occur, such as headaches, fatigue, nervousness, nausea, diarrhea and gastrointestinal distress. It may rarely induce dizziness and low blood pressure in some individuals.

Personally never experienced any side effects from its use. But I’ve never taken more than 300mg in one dose, and never more than 600mg in a 24-hours frame.

Note: Alpha-GPC interacts adversely with scopolamine. Those using scopolamine are advised to avoid it.


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User Experiences

Here is 3 random alpha-gpc reddit community thoughts and experiences:

First reddit user experience:

This might be considered a bit on the excessive side, but I’ve been taking 300mg of GPC daily for ~2.5 years. I’ve found it to be one of the most effective ways to treat the severe anxiety that I’ve suffered throughout most of my life. Initially, I periodically experienced the insomnia you mentioned, but that passed within a month or so. Every once in a while, I’ll go several days without taking the stuff. During those short, sporadic periods of “cycling off”, I’ve noticed that I feel significantly more “dull” and lethargic than I otherwise do, but that might just be placebo in action. I understand that such a lengthy use of an under-researched substance might be a bit careless. I suppose the greatest concern would likely be down regulation of choline receptors and reduced choline production, but I doubt that any studies of the effects of long-term heavy choline supplementation currently exist to prove that one way or another. [find thread here]

Second user experience:

As the title says, Alpha GPC has next to eradicated my social anxiety. It’s incredible. Only downside is I’m having a hard time sleeping at night. Guess my question is, how long can I cycle this stuff safely. [find thread here]

Third user experience:

So I used to take Alpha GPC, as well as a ton of other nootropics for a few months but recently took a couple months off. Anyway, I’ve been trying to get back into them so I took only Alpha GPC this morning. I already feel more at ease with everything. I font have much depression but its crazy how great I feel already. I happened to just see this and put it all together. [find thread here]


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Conclusion

Alpha-GPC is a compound with decades of research, and its worldwide appreciation comes from the effects of memory enhancement. In addition to the dominant nootropic qualities, it’s also an excellent companion to racetams. Moreover, it stimulates the production of human growth hormone. This hormone production improves strength, reduces recovery time, and support the development of lean muscle mass. Therefore; it is an excellent nootropic for individuals who enjoy leading an active lifestyle.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Is Alpha-GPC Safe?

Personally never experienced any side effects from its use. But I’ve never taken more than 300mg in one dose, and never more than 600mg in a 24-hours frame. Additionally, according to a study by Food Chem Toxicol in 2011 said Alpha-GPC does not appear to possess mutagenic activity, as well that No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for humans was at least 150 mg/kg over 26 weeks based on extrapolation from dogs.

Is Alpha-GPC the Same as Choline?

Alpha-GPC is cholinergic (compounds that increase the levels of acetylcholine or choline in the brain). While Choline is actually a molecule mostly used for turning into acetylcholine, the learning neurotransmitter, as well as live health agent reducing fatty liver buildup.

Is Alpha-GPC Water Soluble?

Alpha-GPC is very water-soluble. It’s much more likely to be soluble in water than non-polar solvents such as fat. The reasons why I would say that are as follows: the molecule itself has two ionic sites, ionic organic compounds generally have at least some solubility in water. Two ionic sites significantly increases the likelihood of it being soluble in water. Furthermore, the molecule has many OH a Oxygen moieties. Molecules with a lot of oxygen containing moieties are also likely to be water soluble, due to the hydrogen bonding of water. A good example of this are monosaccharides, they are not ionic, yet dissolve readily in water because of the numerous oxygen containing functional groups on the molecule. Decent answer from a chemist reddit user: everyone_wins

Does Alpha-GPC Work?

Yes. Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.

Does Alpha-GPC Keep You Awake?

Although traditionally known as being non-stimulating, some persons do report cognitive stimulation with supplemental alpha-GPC.

Can Alpha-GPC Increase Dopamine?

Yes, some research studies suggests that oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can be dopaminergic, by both increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors

How Much Alpha-GPC To Take?

A standard dosage of alpha-GPC is 300-600 mg, according to the most common label doses. 300mg for general use, and 600 mg for increasing power output. This dose is in accordance with the study using alpha-GPC to enhance power output (600 mg) and the two studies noting an increase in growth hormone secretion, and is likely a good dose to take for athletes.

How Does Alpha-GPC Work?

Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.

How Much Alpha-GPC to Take with Piracetam?

Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Piracetam stack, the dose would be: Piracetam: 1,600 mg
and Alpha-GPC: 300 mg.

How Much Alpha-GPC to take with Aniracetam?

Same as with Piracetam, when taking an Aniracetam and Alpha-GPC stack, the ideal dosage would be: 750 mg of Aniracetam and 300 mg of Alpha-GPC.

How Much Alpha-GPC to Take with Noopept?

Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Noopept stack, the dosage would be 30mg of Noopept (or 15mg if you prefer 2 doses per day instead than one), and 300mg of Alpha-GPC.

When to Take Alpha-GPC?

Alpha-GPC can be taken any time, although preferably not late in the evening due to some reports that it stimulates some people. Other than that, you can take it any time with or without food because its water-soluble.

Where to Buy Alpha-GPC?

Alpha-GPC can be bought on many places. You local drugstore, pharmacies, department store where they have supplements. Its also available with many different vendors online and on Amazon.

Which is the Best Alpha-GPC brand?

Personally, I only used Nootropic Depot’s Alpha-GPC which I highly recommend. It can be found either on their website or on Amazon here.

Does Alpha-GPC Increase HGH?

Yes, Alpha-GPC increases growth hormone, but due to a rapid normalization of growth hormone concentrations within 2 hours it may not lead to practical benefits.

Is Alpha-GPC Natural?

Yes, Alpha-GPC is a natural compound.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Choline: The Essential Vitamin Nutrient
  2. N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC)
  3. Agmatine Sulfate
  4. Citicoline (CDP)

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What is Adrafinil?Adrafinil vs ModafinilBenefits & EffectsMechanism of Action DosageSide EffectsUser Experience FAQs


SummaryAdrafinil is the pro-drug of Modafinil, and a stimulating nootropic that fights fatigue, increases the brain’s capacity of processing information, boosts energy, as well as enhances subjective well-being. It metabolizes in the body into the widely popular Modafinil (Adrafinil vs Modafinil comparison below). It’s a useful supplement for pulling through long, mentally demanding tasks, learning new topics, or working in shifts as opposed to fixed schedule.

Adrafinil Video (TTS)

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Introduction

What is Adrafinil?

Adrafinil is a synthetic nootropic supplement that acts as a central nervous system stimulant. Previously known as Olmifon, and often mistaken with Modafinil, it is a stimulant that does not produce amphetamine-like effects.

It is a precursor to Modafinil. That means it leads to increased concentrations of modafinil in the body.  Adrafinil combats fatigue, boosts energy, improves attention, concentration and focus. It’s also known to enhance mood, motivation, and reaction time. Its potential cognitive benefits extends further to improving memory and increasing the brain’s capacity of learning, digesting, and processing information.

A 1970’s invention by French pharmaceutical company Lafon Laboratories, which manufactured, branded and marketed the invention in Europe under the name Olmifon. It spread throughout Europe and became widely prescribed by practitioners for narcolepsy and related sleep disorders that has symptoms of heavy and excessive daytime drowsiness. As well as widely used off-label for its nootropic and stimulating effects.

In 2011, production of Olmifon ended when the french regulating authorities reversed its legality.

Its unregulated in the US, Canada, and most other countries around the world. It’s found in drugstores and online on many vendors and is widely used for combating fatigue, enhancing energy, and boosting overall cognitive function

Adrafinil is a eugeroic that was formerly used in France to promote alertness, attention, wakefulness, mood, and other parameters, particularly in the elderly.

Wikipedia

Adrafinil vs Modafinil

Many people often compare adrafinil vs modafinil upon hearing of it. Usually because they try to get modafinil and find out its prescription medication, so they go for the non-[rescription, online-available alternative.

What popularizes it the most as a nootropic is the fact that its the closest legal, prescription-free to the “limitless” modafinil. But for those who knew and were familiar with it before this movie association know its profound effect and can differentiate between it and that of modafinil. In fact, many users actually report preferring adrafinil vs modafinil for certain, slightly different nootropic effects that each produces.

Although Adrafinil metabolizes into Modafinil after ingestion, it still requires a higher dosage to reach the level of effectiveness that one would feel from modafinil. For example, modafinil is mostly prescribed in dosages of 100 to 200 mg. Adrafinil often sells in the lowest dosage being 300mg. So in order to achieve the same concentration level of modafinil using adrafinil, one would have to be aware of this and measure the dosage following that pattern, as required.

Adrafinil vs modafinil
Adrafinil Skeletal Structure
modafinil vs adrafinil
Modafinil Skeletal Structure

Modafinil is often prescribed therapeutically in doses of 50mg being the lowest effective. For comparison, taking 300mg Adrafinil, which is the smallest manufacturing dose, would actually be more effective than the lowest effective dose of modafinil.

Although it cannot be an exact figure due to the fact that breakdown and metabolizing varies from each individual to another, a general and easy way of understanding and remembering the math of adrafinil vs modafinil in terms of dosages, or at least how I personally measure it when taking either one, is that that 100mg of Modafinil is more or less equals to 300mg Adrafinil.

Personal Thought

From my personal, own experience: the effect of Adrafinil 300mg  is much more felt in comparison to Modafinil 100mg.

During the period I was prescribed Modafinil, I would have to take 200mg in order to achieve what I would achieve from 300mg of Adrafinil. 


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Adrafinil Benefits?

  1. Increases Mental Clarity & Heightens Focus
  2. Promotes Wakefulness & Boosts Energy
  3. Improves Learning Capacity & Memory Formation

Supporting research:

Increases Mental Clarity & Heightens Focus

Although it is initially developed for its wakefulness-promoting qualities, Adrafinil continues showing significant cognitive benefits as well. For individuals suffering daytime exhaustion due to night work or sleep difficulties, adrafinil increases the physical and mental energy required for an active life. It also improves mental clarity and heightens focus.

Promotes Wakefulness & Boosts Energy

Adrafinil is an overall beneficial stimulant, preventing daytime drowsiness and dramatically increasing energy and attentiveness without the hyperactivity and jitteriness associated with stimulants. Users report a profound sense of well-being, stress reduction, and overall enrichment experiences. Those outcomes are primarily due to Adrafinil’s impact on dopamine.

Improves Learning Capacity & Memory Formation

In addition to promoting wakefulness and increasing energy, adrafinil holds many nootropic benefits such as improved learning capacity, better memory creation, as well as recollection. Reports indicate that it sharpens focus and increases the ability to maintain it, along with providing mental clarity, and easing mentally demanding work, especially that which extends over a prolonged period.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Adrafinil Work?

Adrafinil acts on the adrenergic system, the part of the nervous system that releases adrenaline. Typically considered in charge of the “fight or flight” response, a rapid release of adrenaline boosts energy and increases alertness. While not all of adrafinil’s actions are entirely understood, it is assumed to replicate the positive effect of adrenaline release by supporting adrenergic neurotransmitters.

Adrafinil
Adrafinil Structure

The Breakdown

Adrafinil is a synthetic prodrug, which means that its an inactive compound that metabolizes into an active form inside the body. The process of metabolizing it produces the drug, modafinil, which is an FDA-approved treatment for necropsy and similar sleep disorders. The pharmacological effects of adrafinil are practically identical to those of Modafinil.

Though the exact chemical mechanisms of it are unclear, researchers hypothesize that in its metabolized form it functions as an adrenergic receptor agonist. One of its first actions is the enhanced production and release of the neurotransmitter hypocretin, which in turn triggers the increased production of dopamine, histamine, and norepinephrine; all of which are directly related to alertness and energy, which considerably explains adrafinil’s stimulant qualities.

The remarkable mood and cognitive effects it produces result from different actions, such as the positive modulation of glutamate receptors, and inhibiting the breakdown of glutamate. Those actions lead to better neuronal communication, which improves memory and focus and creates better cognitive functions.

Serotonin Neurotransmitter

It also stimulates the release of serotonin, which enhances mood by reducing anxiety levels. It also inhibits the breakdown of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is mainly responsible when it comes to the brain’s pleasure and reward responses.


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Dosage

How To Take Adrafinil? (Recommended Dosage)

Typically, Adrafinil is manufactured and produced at the dosage of 300 mg. However, most nootropist would say, and prefer, a dose of 600mg taken once in the morning. While the highest, yet credible, dosage is 1,200 mg per day, taken as two doses. A morning dose of 600 mg and an afternoon “boost” of another 600mg.

At 300 to 600 mg, it is a safe and very effective, mildly stimulating nootropic. Its potent, therefore it’s advised to start with lower end and allow your body the time to adapt to it. Once you familiarize yourself with it, you can then gradually increase as you desire while keeping in mind not to go over the daily recommendation of 1,200 mg.

I’ve taken Adrafinil frequently over the past year or two, but never more than 600 mg per day. And even the times I took 600 mg were so few, I’m almost sure it was less than 4 times in total.

Due to its potency and wakefulness-promoting properties, it is advisable to take it in the morning or early afternoon only to avoid interfering with the sleep cycle, otherwise you wouldn’t be able to fall asleep easily at night. It is also advisable to take it on an empty stomach to allow for optimal absorption.

It kicks in around 45 minutes to an hour after ingestion.

For continuous and prolonged use, it is very advisable to use on a sequence (or cycle) of two weeks on, and one week off to detox and maintain tolerance as well as prevent potential dependency for certain people.

Adrafinil Dosage TLDR

  1. Adrafinil dosage recommendations vary greatly among different users.
  2. For beginners, start with 300 mg per day and see how your body reacts to it
  3. For a stronger dose, you may take 600 mg
  4. Maximum allowance per day is 1,200 mg taken in two doses of 600 mg

The daily dosage that is recommended is between 150 mg to 300 mg. It is a strong Nootropic, and people are usually advised to start off with a small dose and allow the body to adjust before working upwards.  It is not advisable to take this drug for long-term use. But then you should take it in cycles. For example, one week on, two weeks off and so on. This helps to prolong its effects without the bodybuilding too much of tolerance level. It is also very important to consult the doctor or qualified healthcare provider if planning to use it for an extended period of time. Without doing this, it may be disastrous for the liver as the supplement is known to elevate particular enzymes within the liver.

Nootropics City


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Side Effects

What Are Adrafinil Side Effects?

The most typical side effects of adrafinil are headaches, dizziness, nausea, and stomach discomfort. The most severe relates to liver function. Additionally, there is potential for increased risk of high blood pressure and heart problems when taking high doses.

Should you experience any side effects, stop using and seek professional medical advice.


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User Experiences

Adrafinil Reviews and Reddit User Experiences

Here is three random experiences from adrafinil reddit nootropic community on their thought of adrafinil:

I love adrafinil for a once-every-couple-of-weeks ‘I need to work 11 hours today’ usage. I can take 300mg at 6:30 or 7 in the morning, and still be alert and clear headed at the office when 7 or 8pm rolls by. But I try not to use it any more than once a week, because of the possible liver implications. – WhatAboutLightly

Adrafinil is very strange for me. I noticed somewhat sporadic efficacy. Additionally, for me, I was getting bad headaches. I called them “core headaches” as they seemed to originate from the very “core” of my brain. and not in the front like other areas. now I am still uncertain if this was because of adrafinil or phenylpiracetam. but once I started experiencing core headaches frequently even without taking any nootropic whatsoever, I quit adrafinil. It did go away after a while, but again I am not sure if this was just a rebalance or due to…other things I have been up to. Good write up though. I am not certain I can answer any of the questions since I haven’t gone back to adrafinil yet…thinking of trying modafinil if I can manage to procure it, and see if that has a cleaner, more mildly-stimulating/focusing effect like I was looking for.

My simple protocol for Adrafinil is to only take it if I sleep poorly. and know that I still need to perform the next day. For me that means that I take it infrequently, but it’s a lifesaver every time.


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Where to Buy

Where Can I Buy Adrafinil?

I can only recommend products I personally tried, and in the case of Adrafinil, I only bought and tried Nootropic Depot’s 300 mg Adrafinil capsules. Although I’ve seen it available in a few different websites, there was always something sketchy about the website, or negative reviews about the vendors adding some unknown fillers to the products.

And surprisingly, I actually found that I prefer Adrafinil over Modafinil greatly, even though I’ve always (on the occasions that I took it) maintained a dose of 300mg once per day only.

If you decide to purchase from another vendor, make sure you research, find out more information about them from Reddit’s nootropics forum, find reviews on google and whatnot, before making a transaction.


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Conclusion

Adrafinil’s mixture of mental and physical benefits make it valuable for individuals looking for more energy, stamina, and psychological acuity. Its a powerful nootropic with potent stimulant qualities. Used responsibly, it offers a unique and profound nootropic boost that one grows to appreciate.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Adrafinil used for?

Adrafinil (INN; brand name Olmifon) is a eugeroic that was formerly used in France to promote alertness, attention, wakefulness, mood, and other parameters, particularly in the elderly. It was also used off-label by individuals who wished to avoid fatigue, such as night workers or others who needed to stay awake and alert for long periods of time. Additionally, “adrafinil is known to a larger non scientific audience, where it is considered to be a nootropic agent.”

Adrafinil is a prodrug; it is primarily metabolized in vivo to modafinil, resulting in very similar pharmacological effects. Unlike modafinil, however, it takes time for the metabolite to accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream. Effects usually are apparent within 45–60 minutes when taken orally on an empty stomach.

Can adding Adrafinil to a daily Adderall regimen for ADHD help?

Speaking from experience, J. Robert says: I had been taking a moderate level dose of adderall and experiencing the typical side effects associated with it. I researched Modafinil and took trail doses after discussing with my psych. I have since lessened my dose of adderall to a minimum 15 mg prn and am primarily on Armodafinil(the adrafinil/modafinil successor) now hoping to remove the adderall component in the near future. My experience has been overall positive. I am more focused cognitively without the overall body stimulant side effects I was getting from the adda. The one negative for me is sleep difficulty if the dose is taken later than upon getting up in the AM. Trying a test dose while decreasing or eliminating the adderall might provide a better result for you cognitively. make sure you discuss with your psych

Which is better – Adrafinil or Modafinil?

Adrafanil is a “prodrug” – in other words, it must be metabolized in the liver to its active form, which is modafanil (the same drug that people can take directly by prescription). Unfortunately, this causes some problems. For one, it takes longer to start acting, given it is dependent on this transformation, and it may stay in the system longer, as well – may keep you awake. Two, there are frequent reports of liver enzyme elevation with this form of the drug (not seen with modafanil). Probably best not to use the adrafanil, and stick with the criminally expensive prescription form.

Can adding Adrafinil to a daily Adderall regimen for ADHD help?

No! Aside from the fact that they are both pretty potent stimulants, Adrafinil impacts the liver and is not for daily use. I am ADHD myself and I take Ritalin XR, and often I would take Adrafinil 300mg as well because I appreciate the effect and boost it gives me – but I would never take it on daily basis. You can use it on and off, play around with the dosage and timing, but not on daily basis especially when already on other stims. For continuous and prolonged use, it is very advisable to use on a sequence (or cycle) of two weeks on, and one week off to detox and maintain tolerance as well as prevent potential dependency for certain people. “The daily dosage that is recommended is between 150 mg to 300 mg. It is a strong Nootropic, and people are usually advised to start off with a small dose and allow the body to adjust before working upwards. It is not advisable to take this drug for long-term use. But then you should take it in cycles. For example, one week on, two weeks off and so on. This helps to prolong its effects without the bodybuilding too much of tolerance level. It is also very important to consult the doctor or qualified healthcare provider if planning to use it for an extended period of time. Without doing this, it may be disastrous for the liver as the supplement is known to elevate particular enzymes within the liver.”


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Further and Related Readings

  1. Modafinil, Phenylpiracetam, Oxiracetam
  2. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

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OverviewWhat is Aniracetam?Benefits and EffectsDosageFocus StackAnxiety StackSide EffectsUser Experiences


Summary: Aniracetam is a multipurpose nootropic that provides several benefits. It produces remarkable anxiolytic effects, thereby improving cognition and enhancing mood by ridding anxieties. It also sharpens focus, increases verbal fluency, information processing, as well as expands the brain’s capability of digesting and processing information. Furthermore it produces sense of clarity and well-being.

Aniracetam TTS on Youtube

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Overview

What is Aniracetam?

Aniracetam (systematically known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, and trade names Ampamet, Memodrin, and Pergamid ) is an invention from the 1970’s which has been since standing as one of the most popular racetams. It is more potent than Piracetam, the original racetam that led to the invention of the large family of racetams that exists today. However, Aniracetam and Piracetam work in different fashions, respectively. Aside from being a best-selling across racetams on many vendor websites, it’s also peaking among the most expensive ones. The majority of individuals using Aniracetam, myself included, report its anxiolytic and mood enhancing effects as remarkable, profound, and most noticeable.

The majority of individuals using Aniracetam report its anxiolytic and mood enhancing effects as remarkable, profound, and most noticeable.

Furthermore notable is the increase in social and verbal confidence as well as improvement of verbal fluency. Both advantages are likely to the anxiety-relieving characteristic of Aniracetam. In individuals with generalized and social anxieties, the effects are profound: relaxing and relieving anxiety levels to a significant degree due to feeling the overall mood enhancement and worrying less about random thoughts such as ones that are unchangeable. Freeing the accumulated anxiety leads to make space available for better, positive thoughts, thus leading to an open and welcoming approach to situations as well as human connections.

Aniracetam’ anti-anxiety and mood enhancing properties, strong cognitive improvements, and its minimal side effects, has made it one of the most popular nootropics. Besides improving mood and reducing anxiety, it also promotes creativity, verbal fluency, and memory.

Although immediate effects from taking Aniracetam are notable,  the most significant improvements are notable after a prolonged period of daily consumption.


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Aniracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves and Enhances Memory
  2. Provides Neuroprotection and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  3. Heightens Focus and Concentration
  4. Relieves Anxiety (Especially Social Anxiety)
  5. Relieves Depression Symptoms
  6. Improves Memory and Learning Capacity
  7. Supports Management of Alzheimer’s Disease
  8. Additional Benefits of Aniracetam

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Supporting Research:

Improves and Enhances Memory

In two different rodent studies, Aniracetam proved to improve behavioral performance, and even reverse memory loss. In the second study on rodents aniracetam improved amnesia-like memory loss that was a result of sleep deprivation. [1] [2]


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Provides Neuroprotection to the Brain

Aniracetam acts as a neuroprotectant for brain cells. It helps to protect the brain damage that occurs from external influences. Furthermore, it assists in reversing brain damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption. [3], [4], [5]


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Heightens Focus and Concentration

Aniracetam is remarkable in heightening concentration and focus. It exhibits effects such as increasing noradrenaline release in the brain, which is the reason for the stimulating effect of cognition boost as well as in concentration and focus. [6], [7]


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Relieves Anxiety and Stress

Aniracetam shows strengths in reducing anxiety. Studies show that it affect anxiety by increasing social interactions and improving performance in fear and stress tests. With an increase in serotonin and dopamine, individuals feel a noticeable reduction in anxiety. Thus, becoming a general anxiety relieving agent. Although there are studies that support and verify this process, it is also useful to read personal experiences from Reddit and Longevity communities, where many reports it being far better than Piracetam, Coluracetam, Phenylpiracetam and similar nootropics in the field of anxiety reduction. [8], [9]


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Relieves Depression Symptoms

It’s been proved to be useful as an antidepressant in rodent studies. In Japan, it has been used to treat stroke, depression, and anxiety. The release of dopamine and serotonin enhances mood and associating positive feelings. The impact of Aniracetam on AMPA receptors help with easing depression rising from cognitive degeneration conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. The effects of Aniracetam on depression are a result of the increase in acetylcholine and dopaminergic receptor stimulation. [10], [11]


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Improves Memory and Learning Capacity

One of the main advantages of using Aniracetam is the profound findings on memory improvement and expansion of learning capacity. It enhances the formation of memories as well as the consolidation. Aniracetam increases the blood flow in the brain’s frontal cortex. The primary function of the frontal cortex is assisting in holistic thinking and the ability to form and connect ideas and thoughts. A study on the cognitive function of rodents observes that it also helps in improving parts of the memory and learning to promote an increase in productivity and task completion, which also assists individuals with ADHD. [12], [13]


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Supports Alzheimer’s Disease Management

Aniracetam is helpful for elderly individuals. A study on patients with Alzheimer’s-related dementia found a significant improvement in comparison to another group receiving high doses of Piracetam. Over a year period, individuals receiving Aniracetam showed higher cognitive function abilities and an increase in overall emotional stability. Studies show the likelihood of Aniracetam as a preventative as well as a remedy for Alzheimer and disorders that result from central nervous system damage [14]


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Additional Benefits

Aniracetam is said to promote and improve REM stage sleep according to this study. [15]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Aniracetam Work?

Aniracetam is fat soluble which mean the compound breaks down at a slow pace thereby extending its effect. It has a half-life of 3 hours. Its pyrrolidinone structure makes it fall into the group of racetams. It’s one of the most common structures when it comes to this class of drugs. It has an additional methoxy group with an anisoyl ring at the para position. It is absorbed and metabolized in less than 30 minutes thereby rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier [16], [17]. Although not all of its mechanisms are understood, an extensive amount of research compiling on Aniracetam and they hint that it works by modulating the following:

aniracetam benefits
Aniracetam Skeletal Structure

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Glutamate Neurotransmission

Aniracetam is essential in improving information and memory retention because of its effectiveness in transmitting glutamate. This neurotransmitter is vital in the activation of neurons. The glutamate receptors connect strongly with storage of information and preservation of memory. Aniracetam has a long-term effect on improving neuroplasticity. [18], [19]


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Dopaminergic Neurotransmission

In rodents, the oral ingestion of 50 mg/kg has effects of minimizing the rates of dopamine in the striatum and decreasing dopamine rates in the striatum and hypothalamus. The levels of serotonin reduce in the hypothalamus but add in the striatum and cortex, where it decreases hypothalamus turnover and increases brainstem, striatum and cortex turnover. [20]


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Acetylcholine Neurotransmission

Aniracetam has effects of improving the cognitive functions by enhancing the action throughout. This is important in attention span, memory and learning speed. It works by associating to acetylcholine receptors, stopping receptor desensitization and endorsing the synaptic discharge of acetylcholine. [21]


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Dosage

How to Take Aniracetam?

Aniracetam has a short half-life of about 1 to 3 hours. Therefore, many users advice to take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day to prolong the effect. I only take one 750 mg dose in the morning and am satisfied with this regime.

Aniracetam powder form is also available, though not as in favor as the capsule form due to its strong, bitter taste.

The recommended as well as typical dosage is 750 to 1500 mg, subjective to the individual. Taking smaller doses of as little as 400 mg has been found to be effective. Hence, it is wise to start at the lowest effective dose and build up from there as desired.


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Stack

Best Stack for Increasing Focus

For work as well as learning, Aniracetam can produce remarkable benefits and effects when taken alongside other nootropics and supplements.

It goes without a saying that stacking Aniracetam with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-GPC is a must. Leaving the potentiating effect aside, what makes it a must is the fact that many racetams work by utilizing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. Once acetylcholine is utilized and starts getting to a low or depletion levels, the user would then feel a headache. And depending on what racetam did you take and at which dose, it can be a very nasty one.

Aside from that, it really works as a great potentiator. You will feel like both nootropics are working at a better level.

Another nootropic that I like to stack with Citicoline & Aniracetam is Lion’s Mane Mushroom.

Although many don’t feel an onset effect, I find that it works very well in that stack even if I am taking it on random basis. Often, I would only use this stack for the days where I have to go to work early and know that I will be there all day from 8 to 4. (or maybe 9 to 3 but you get my point).

On the same occasion, I would also take N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine 350mg. I found that it helps me tremendously in keeping myself working on an ongoing task rather than taking a 5 minutes break every 2 minutes. I am ADHD, and NALT has been one of the greatest discoveries for me in that regard. It also lets me focus better.

If I have time to have coffee before heading out, I would also add L-Theanine to the stack. The synergizing effect of caffeine and L-Theanine is one of my favorite (and now seems old school) combos.

Last but anything from being least, Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR). When I first started experimenting with it I found it very effective on me and was taking 500mg three times a day. Eventually though, I was developing a weird allergy-like symptoms as well as feeling light, needle-like numbing in random parts of my body.

I can’t blame it on ALCAR just like that but after a while of carefully observing, I noticed that it had almost disappeared since I lowered the dosage to 0 for a while, and then got back to taking 500mg per day only. Now when I think about it, I did not get those symptoms pretty much since that time. Interesting note to self.

So in a morning where I am going to be at work all day, which is a massive corporation that drains me sometimes, this would be my stack:

  1. Aniracetam 750mg
  2. Alpha-GPC 300mg
  3. Lion’s Mane Mushroom 500mg
  4. N Acetyl L-Tyrosine 350mg
  5. Acetyl L-Carnitine 500mg
  6. Caffeine 100mg
  7. L-Theanine 200mg (if I’m having coffee)

Of course the stack is ever changing, but when it comes to Aniracetam, I remember that stack being one I liked and found to be very effective on me. It made me focused at work, energized throughout the day (esp. on days where I also took Adrafinil), diminished my occasional social anxiety, and made me very productive at my job.

Every now and then, I would take a 15 to 20mg of Noopept and take it after lunch break (not that I have lunch during those breaks, I’m just drawing the timing picture here) to get a little boost and prolong the effects of…all the above.


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Stack for Anxiety and Stress Relief

Another Aniracetam Stack that I really like for either when you are running late (I say this mainly for the ADHD readers, I know the struggle very well…), or just not in the mood to go after 10 containers getting one pill from each, and rather like the convenience. I often use this one when I am on the go and its

It’s a very easy and convenient stack. Simply 3 pills and you are good to go. Sometimes I would take another serving of MindLab in the afternoon as needed. The maximum allowance is 2 servings (4 pills) every 24 hours. I think its the best nootropic formula in that situation.

Note to self: re-order MindLab Pro – you used the last remaining pill today.


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Side Effects

What Are Aniracetam Side Effects?

Side effects of supplementing are mild and only occur when consuming high doses. High doses can result in digestive discomfort and nervousness.

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is almost a rule to pair racetam drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha-GPC or CDP-choline). Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, but it will also work synergistically together firing cognitive function (21).


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User Experiences

Below are a few randomly selected Aniracetam user experiences from people within the Reddit nootropic community:

“My first aniracetam trial at only 250 mg made me feel a little out of it for a couple hours, and “loopy” would probably be the right word had I started out with three times that much. This may refer to what is often described as an anxiolytic effect.

On the other hand, once this passed I felt more clear than usual. Others have reported such a “biphasic” effect as well. There are a number of things you can do, one of which is obviously not to use it again. Others are to try a lower dose, especially to begin with, until you become more accustomed to how it affects you. When you take it matters too; if you get this biphasic effect then take that into account when timing your use. With some experience, you also may find stacking it with another supplement, for example, phenylpiracetam, helpful. In any case, I always start low when trying anything new just as a general safety practice and to avoid unpleasant surprises.”


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Reddit

Another reddit user also wrote:

“I’ve been experimenting with nootropic stacks for awhile now and I decided to foray into the racetams. Per Dave Asprey (Bulletproof Exec) I decided to start with aniracetam because of its comparative potency to other the racetams, as well as it’s anxiolytic effect. I bought 30g online (I googled and found Health Supplement Wholesalers, fair-priced) and immediately noticed several changes in various aspects of my day to day life.

First and foremost I have found myself much more resilient to stress than I would normally be. Things that would spin me up in the past are barely even noticeable, and it is exponentially easier to shrug off all but the largest of stressors as if they did not even occur. I have had an elevated mood also. Feelings of happiness and contentment come much more easily to me, and I will catch myself smiling without understanding why. It is a very pleasant change from my previous baseline. I have a much easier time focusing on tasks, and accomplishing goals. My mind feels not only ready, but excited to take on challenges and meet them.

Mental plasticity is a definite benefit of this product. One of my favorite aspects to this is there is no type of mental fog, but instead complete clarity. I feel very sharp and aware, noticing things about my surroundings that I would not have noticed before. It has even given me a new appreciation for music as the tranquility and clarity of mind have allowed me to listen and pick out parts of the music that I would never have noticed before. I highly recommend getting some to anyone seeking any or all of these benefits, as everyone I’ve shared it with has asked me where to buy it for themselves. Pretty excited I found this; I’m anxious to try the other racetams as well.”


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And a third experience:

“Certainly not placebo imo. I’ve tried numerous supplements and a couple other nootropics with the same hope that I would be able to make a significant difference, but without any luck. Aniracetam has been the only one to actually provide me with tangible results. But you guys are free to speculate and make your judgements.”


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Conclusion

Diverse effects of Aniracetam make it an outstanding nootropic. It promotes calmness and improves mood. Moreover, it enhances performance and reduces social anxiety. It is useful for performing artists, public speaking, and overall anxiety reduction. It has shown positive results on cognitive functions making learning quicker and more pleasant.

Furthermore, it heightens focus and concentration over prolonged periods, making it appealing to students and researchers. Aniracetam users report a boost in creativity and an improvement in visuals and self-awareness. It has proved to offer many advantages taken at recommended doses with infrequent adverse effects.

Aniracetam reviews are very encouraging and reddit experiences will make you want to buy yourself some right away.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Can I take Aniracetam every daiy?

No. While it is completely ok to take Aniracetam on regular basis, as well as daily basis. It does not mean you can or should take it every single day for the rest of your life. Moderation is key. And too much of a good thing isn’t necessarily good. I personally have taken it for periods of months continuously, anywhere between 2 to 4 months. Then I would stop it for a while, “cycle,” if you may. If you are taking it every day, do what I often do, which is stopping (cycling it off) once I run out, then prolong the period until I repurchase and refill.

Can you snort Aniracetam?

No. Aniracetam is fat-soluble. It’s meant to be administered orally. Unlike Noopept, for example, which people have reportedly snorted (taste is terrible and the cons outweigh the pros, not recommended). If you snort Aniracetam, due to the dosage, it wouldn’t really be absorbed much.

How does Aniracetam work?

Aniracetam is fat soluble which mean the compound breaks down at a slow pace thereby extending its effect. It has a half-life of 3 hours. Its pyrrolidinone structure makes it fall into the group of racetams. It’s one of the most common structures when it comes to this class of drugs. It has an additional methoxy group with an anisoyl ring at the para position. It is absorbed and metabolized in less than 30 minutes thereby rapidly crossing the blood-brain barrier.

How to take Aniracetam?

Aniracetam can be taken any time really. Although fat-soluble, it can still be well-absorbed with little and even no food. Therefore, you can take it any time. Personally, I like to take it in the morning after having my breakfast which is usually a cup of coffee. However, it is advised to avoid taking Aniracetam in the evening so it doesn’t stimulate you and keep you up and unable to fall asleep.

How long does it take for Aniracetam to kick in?

Aniracetam is considered to be fast-acting, and able to cross the blood-brain barrier in 30 minutes only.

How long does Aniracetam lasts?

Aniracetam has a short half-life of about 1 to 3 hours. Therefore, many users advice to take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day to prolong the effect.

How much Aniracetam can I take on daily basis?

The recommended starting point and the effective dose is 750mg, which is also the dosage I take in the morning. If you prefer to prolong the feeling throughout the day, you may take it in 2 to 3 doses throughout the day. For example, instead of one 750 mg in the morning, you can split that into 3 doses of 250 mg, and take it once in the morning, then in the early afternoon, and again in the early evening. I personally prefer a one-time larger dose, and later in the day, use another potentiator to re-up the feeling (usually that would be CoQ10 or Noopept 15mg)

What is Aniracetam used for?

Aniracetam is often used for memory enhancement, neuroprotection, focus, concentration, anxiety relief, depression, increasing learning capacity, as well as to support in the management of alzheimer’s disease.

Where to buy Aniracetam?

Many vendors online sell Aniracetam and I can only recommend something I have personally tried and still use to this day, which is Nootropics Depot’ Aniracetam. If in Dubai, check this page: Nootropics Dubai. Or simply email us.

How does the mechanism of piracetam differ from that of aniracetam?

Neither drug’s mechanism is fully understood, so you will not get a definitive answer to this question. However, I can tell you what difference is suggested by literature on this subject. Aniracetam is known to possess anxiolytic abilitys that piracetam does not. Receptor binding profiles (among other things) for aniracetam were investigated in vitro to see if there was any obvious explanation for this effect. It was determined that Aniracetam affects Dopamine D2 receptors, as well as Serotonin 2a receptors. The exact nature of its effect on these receptors is not understood; nobody has looked into it in more detail than the initial study. Piracetam’s mechanism of action has been investigated more thoroughly, however and direct interaction with these two receptors has indeed been ruled out. So we can be reasonably certain that Aniracetam differs in this respect from the prototypical compound from which it is derived (Piracetam), but not much more than that.

Where to buy Aniracetam in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, or the UAE?

Our sister company Nootropix is the sole provider of Aniracetam in Dubai or the UAE.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Racetams 101 (FAQ)Nootropics 101
  2. Piracetam, Sunifiram, Oxiracetam, Fasoracetam

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