This page contains all website entries whether pages, posts, updates, or blog entries that are tagged under Learning.

Verified by Dr. Sundru M. Devi
M.D. Microbiology, PhD Biotechnology, Mar 1, 2019

Sunifiram is an experimental, potent and powerful nootropic that enhances memory, expands learning capacity, and uplifts mood. A recent addition to the racetam family that seems more than promising. Sunifiram dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.


What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam. Although there has not been much evidence about its efficacy, it has been proven to be beneficial for the (many) individuals using it. With research and trials ongoing and growing, its use will increase along as well. Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) has been one of the best nootropics that powerfully influence cognition. It enhances mood, lowers stress, and increases energy and focus.

It is an invention from the year 2000. And although it is very new to the market, it is proving to be effective and useful to individuals both in long and short terms. It is an effective nootropic that improves learning and memory, and furthermore enhances cognitive function. It is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amnesia, like most racetams. There are no reports of any severe side effects from its use, making it effective, useful, and safe.

Although it belongs to the racetam class, Sunifiram has a different structure. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as a piperazine alkaloid rather than racetam. It delivers many of the same memory and learning enhancements as piracetam but is much more potent.

Sunifiram is also an ampakine. It increases the efficacy and activity of neurotransmitter glutamine. This leads to significant changes such as mood and energy improvement along with other cognition benefits.

Sunifiram (developmental codename DM-235) is an experimental drug which has antiamnesic effects in animal studies and with significantly higher potency than piracetam. Sunifiram is a molecular simplification of unifiram (DM-232). As of 2016, sunifiram had not been subjected to toxicology testing, nor to any human clinical trials, and is not approved for use anywhere in the world. Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Sunifiram Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression
  2. Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy
  3. Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation
  4. Enhances Focus and Motivation
  5. Enhances Visual Perception
  6. Increases Libido

Supporting research:

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression

As an antidepressant and anxiety reliever, Sunifiram produces its effects as a mirror image of an ampakine. It reacts with glutamatergic AMPA receptors. That also allows it to act as a mild stimulant.

Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy

Sunifiram is known to increase energy and enhance mood. This is likely due to its antidepressant-like effect.

Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation

Sunifiram is a potent and powerful nootropic. It enhances memory formation and retention as well as expanding the learning capacity. It is in use in case of diseases that cause memory loss or amnesia. Its use is not yet regulated by the FDA, but still widely in use by many individuals for its nootropic benefits. [R] [R]

Appears to promote long term potentiation in the hippocampus with oral ingestion, which should result in an improvement in memory in animals that have otherwise impaired memory. 


Enhances Focus and Motivation

Sunifiram enhances focus and concentration. It is known to improve motivation and enable a person to complete mentally-demanding tasks at ease and comfort. The focus heightening and motivation is due to the increase in the release and utilization of acetylcholine; which has a direct impact on cognitive abilities.

Enhances Visual Perception

Sunifiram keeps you out of stress and negative thinking. It makes you have a confident, better outlook on life. It allows you to look at the future positive and ambitiously. Such useful effects are helpful for people at any and every stage of life.

Increases Libido

Increase in the sex drive is often in anecdotal reports. However, there is no clinical evidence on this specific claim and only anecdotal ones support it.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Sunifiram Work?

Sunifiram is a piracetam derivative. But it often comes as a surprise that it has a different chemical structure from the other racetams. It is basically a piperazine alkaloid which can act as an ampakine that will increase the activity of glutamine receptors and increase the stimulation effects. Or it can serve as a cholinergic that stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine.

Sunifiram Structure

AMPAkine Action

Although no such evidence is still available about its use and its action in humans due to the lack of the trials, the primary factor that drives it to work would be the ampakine factor which allows it to provide the stimulation effects by acting at the glutamate receptors. Ampakines are mild stimulants. They can increase alertness and energy. They do not cause restlessness which like other antidepressants or anxiolytics. The increase the energy levels and the activity factor is also one of the significant roles Sunifiram plays. Due to its effect on the glutamate receptors, it leads to functions such as spatial navigation and the formation and storage of memory, which are crucial for many neurological conditions.

Cholinergic Action

Sunifiram acts as a cholinergic as well. Due to this effect, it leads to the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Acetylcholine increases brain function and cognition abilities. The primary functions are memory enhancement, learning speed and capacity which grow and expand very notably. You can also count on the fluid intelligence or ability to solve unique problems with this supplement. Sunifiram is an essential nootropic to students as well as athletes to increase their performance and achieve better results.

Sunifiram appears to act on the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, which enhances signalling and activates some intracellular proteins (CAMKII and PKCα) which then positively regulate the AMPA receptors. These mechanisms are highly similar to that seen with nefiracetam. Examine.com

The mechanism of action of sunifiram is unknown. Sunifiram, as well as unifiram, were assayed at a wide panel of sites, including the most important receptors, ion channels, and transporters, but showed no affinity for any of the sites. They specifically did not bind to the glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, acetylcholine, or opioid receptors at concentrations of up to 1 μM. In addition, the drugs were tested on recombinant AMPA receptors and showed no potentiation of the receptors, indicating that they do not act as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators. However, they were able to prevent the amnesia induced by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX in the passive avoidance test, suggesting that indirect/downstream AMPA receptor activation may be involved in their memory-enhancing effects. Sunifiram, as well as other nootropics such as piracetam, levetiracetam, and aniracetam are able to antagonize inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital), diazepam, and certain other drugs in human erythrocytes in vitro (Ki = 26.0 uM for sunifiram), and this action has been found to correlate with their potency in reversing scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. However, this action has been regarded as very unlikely to represent the main mechanism of action of sunifiram. – Wikipedia


How To Take Sunifiram?

Sunifiram works effectively at a dosage of 5 to 10 mg –  at a maximum of three times per day. This is the safe dose which is often taken sublingual for maximum efficacy and absorption.

It is advised that one starts with the smallest doses to prevent side effects and toxicity. Although it is not in documentation, tolerance can grow with excessive usage, so it is better to take it occasionally instead of daily basis.

only 4-8 mg 2-3 times a day is needed with this ultra potent nootropic. When you’re talking about the Bugatti of the nootropics world, less is more. A little goes all the way!


For Boosting Cognitive Function

By pairing sunifiram with one or more of the racetams like piracetamoxiracetam, or Noopept, we can achieve this increase which has been the most common and most favorite Sunifiram combo. A choline source like Alpha GPC is an important part of this combo due to the increased choline depletion by the former nootropics.

For Mood Enhancement

Combining Aniracetam with sunifiram is a good option for mood enhancement. You can combine L-theanine, which increases production of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA with sunifiram. Sulbutiamine, which is a potent enhancer of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic functions can be a good combination as well. Choline source should always be present in those combos to prevent getting a headache.

Side Effects

What Are Sunifiram Side Effects?

Due to being fairly new and not as widely popular as the rest of the racetams, no severe side effects of sunifiram have surfaced yet. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still ongoing, and it is yet to get FDA approval. Use with caution.

User Experience


On a Reddit user wrote down a thorough experience of sunifiram:

For years I have been a hardcore coffee drinker and other than that I had not used any other substances to enhance my cognition in any way. A few months ago I started a doctor-supervised weight loss program that included the use of 30 mg of Phentermine daily as an appetite suppressant.

Unfortunately, Phentermine is an amphetamine that gave me an extreme energy rush that was affecting my focus and concentration. I could not sit and study because I was getting easily distracted by anything. This was starting to affect my performance in my current classes and at work so I tried using 200 mg of L-Theanine and reduce my caffeine intake with moderately positive effects.

After losing about 100 lbs, I am ready to stop the Phentermine and continue my healthy eating habits for a long-term weight loss maintenance. This Phentermine is addictive so my doctor is reducing the dose gradually to minimize the withdrawal effects. However, I started feeling slightly depressed and foggy. This is when I decided to go on my own and experiment with Noots to see if they would help.

My doctor is not familiar with any nootropics nor did he think anything like that would be appropriate since the effects of phentermine withdrawal would pass in a few weeks.

I did some research about nootropics that would help me with this situation and decided to go shopping. I was low on cash but had a credit on Amazon so the only strong nootropic that I found was Sunifiram. Despite the warnings that there are no sufficient studies on the long-term effects, I decided to assume all risks and give it a try.

The Experience

I started five days ago with 10mg of Sunifiram administered sublingually. Approximately 10-15 minutes after the first dose I felt what others have called “sunny”. It is hard to explain but it was somewhat overwhelming and the effect did not last long.

The following day I took the same dose and got the same but short effect. I did have a mild headache after waking up but nothing unbearable. I started to get the full effect on Day 3. Suddenly I was able to focus on whatever I wanted and the ideas flowed easily. I had struggled to finish a paper for days but this time I finished it in less than an hour.

Today is Day 5 of using Sunifiram and I have to say it has been a positive experience so far. I wish I could explain better my experience but I have not used anything with comparable results. It is not an extreme rush of energy nor a sedative effect. I just feel a sense of clarity that I had not felt before.

I don't want to take the risk of using Sunifiram for long-term cognition enhancement given the unknown effects of continued use, so I will stop taking it as soon as I finish this class. Once I have some cash to spend, I might look into other alternatives like PiracetamNoopept or something similar.


Sunifiram was my first experience with a “smart drug”. During the first two days the effects were mild and nearly unnoticeable. After the third day I felt a positive improvement in my mood and focus. Since there are no sufficient studies on the long term use of this substance, I will discontinue its use and seek other Nootropics with better background research.


Sunifiram is one of the nootropics having huge and fast-growing demand, so its not easily accessible. Its potency, efficacy, and effectiveness have been superb. Although it does not have a lot of trials under its belt, it is nevertheless one which has been encouraging and promoted as a safe and effective nootropic.

Not for everyday use, but it can be a good companion to have in your stack. Increasing energy, cognitive abilities, and physical performance are the prime features of this product which make it one worth trying out.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is an experimental, potent racetam. It shares most of racetams benefits and effects. The dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

What is Sunifiram Legal Status? Is Sunifiram legal?

In the US, Sunifiram is unscheduled, and not FDA approved.

How To Take Sunifiram?

Being an ‘experimental’ drug, and a very potent one, its important to take very low doses (5 mg, 10 mg tops) and do your research to find news and updates on the matter. You can find the post I cited from Nootropics City under Conclusion which has more information regarding that.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

I have found a few different vendors, none of which I tried, rather, only listing for research purpose. Nootropics City, Nootropics Retail, as well as NewMind – all offer Sunifiram in powder as well as capsules.

What is Sunifiram Dosage?

Unless you are quite experienced in racetams, I wouldn’t recommend anything over 5 mg as a starting point. People reported side effects after deciding to increase the dose for more results.

What is Sunifiram half-life?

Sunifiram has a half-life of 1-2 hours

Is sunifiram stimulating like Adderall?

Not really at all. Adderall (amphetamine) causes release of dopamine and norepinephrine to increase focus and cause physical and mental stimulation. Sunifiram is a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA channels (increases the activity when a glutamate molecule is bound, but not when nothing is bound), which are a subtype of glutamate receptors. The effect of this is to increase memory formation via long term potentiation, which occurs when NMDA and AMPA (both subtypes of glutamate receptors) channels are both activated in the same neuron. When this happens more glutamate receptors are put into the neuron to make it more likely to fire in the future. Sunifiram increases AMPA firing so increases the odds of a long term potentiation event happening, and therefore memory formation. It does not act as a CNS stimulant like adderall though, and those two drugs really serve different purposes.

Further Readings

  1. Coluracetam 
  2. Fasoracetam
  3. Phenylpiracetam
  4. Pramiracetam
  5. Alpha-GPC
  6. Citicoline (CDP)
  7. Choline
  8. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ
  9. Nootropics 101

PRL-8-53 (chemical name Methyl 3-(2-(benzyl(methyl)amino)benzoate) is a synthetic nootropic compound that was discovered in 1972 and patented in 1975 by then Dr. Nikolaus Hansl, a neuropharmacologist at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska.


What is PRL-8-53?

PRL-8-53 is a synthetic nootropic compound that was discovered in 1972 and patented in 1975 preliminary animal tests showed that the compound was both secure and nootropic, boosting the learning of prevention in rodents without adverse effects. However, a 1978 research on human volunteers triggered sincere interest in PRL-8-53, showing that a single dose of the compound could enhance word retention ratings by more than 200%.

Comments by author and longevity expert Durk Pearson, who was cited in' High Frontiers' as follows, fuelled interest in the compound: “PRL-8-53 is a great memory enhancer. Usually, just looking at them for a second, you can memorize about seven or eight numbers. On average, PRL-8-53 is said to increase memory span of approximately 21 to 22 digits. “Hansel's single human study on PRL-8-53, soon after patenting the compound, highly promotes the potential of the drug as a nootropic.

The research evaluated word retention between the ages of 24 and 86 in a group of 30 healthy volunteers. While participants with good baseline word retention scores showed little improvement after taking PLR-8-53, participants with low initial scores or over 30 showed significant improvement after a 5 mg dose of PLR-8-53, often more than doubling their recall rate.

In the human study, no adverse effects were observed. Anecdotal evidence seems to support claims for safety and nootropic capacities of PRL-8-53, but due to restricted testing, it is still regarded as an experimental drug.

PRL-8-53 is presently an unplanned drug and is legally available for purchase in the United States.

Benefits and Effects

What Are PRL-8-53 Benefits?

The elderly participants showed necessary improvements in memory after taking a single 5 mg dose in the only human research on PRL-8-53. A double-blind study using word memorization as a measure, testing the capacity of the respondents to recall a list of 12 one-syllable phrases, first to create a baseline and then again after PRL-8-53 or placebo has been ingested. The participants were screened for their capacity to remember the phrases 24 hours after hearing them, and then one week later again.

Results of the research show that respondents with higher baseline scores showed the least improvement after PRL-8-53 was ingested, while subjects with imperfect first memory or over 30 years of the era showed significant improvement in recall. Hansl described the impact on elderly respondents in an article on the exam as follows: “This group was 30 years of era or older. Rote memory, as could be anticipated, did not come to this group as readily as it did to younger learners. After 24 hours on placebo, the average retention was just under three words out of a possible 12.

After a week, the average retention was two words. However, the same topics maintained an average of 5.85 phrases after 24 hours and 5.25 words after a week when learning after drug administration.

Again, there were statistically essential increases. The enhancement expressed in percentage of placebo results was 108 percent for the 24-hour test and 152 percent for the one-week recall. “Many individual nootropic users who have attempted PRL-8-53 confirm their memory boosting impacts, sometimes comparing it to a more strong variant of other nootropics such as nefiracetam and Noopept.

Mechanism of Action

How Does PRL-8-53 Work?

The precise mechanisms of action of PRL-8-53 are not well understood, but the production and reaction of the brain to several key neurotransmitters is thought to be regulated.

In an article in 1979 entitled “Learning and Memory Improvement Through Chemistry: Dream or Offering Reality?”Hansl said,” PRL-8-53 has been shown to increase the peripheral and central reactions to noradrenaline in the animal model. Therefore, assuming that a comparable feature may be present in humans seems reasonable.

Translated into behavioral effects, it implies that this drug potentially is capable of facilitating the conversion of short-term to long-term memory, resulting in increased storage of information code. “According to Hansl, in the same article,” PRL-8-53 has been shown to improve the response to acetylcholine, the answer being quantitatively similar over a considerable dose range, excluding the likelihood of acetylcholine. In short, we now have a possibly effective drug that will increase a particular chemical system in the brain, the cholinergic system, thereby enhancing our capacity to recall data from a pre-existing data pool.


How To Take PRL-8-53?

The only human study on PRL-8-53 was based on a single 5 mg dose intake. No information is available on the efficacy or prospective toxicity of any other human dosage.

Side Effects

What Are PRL-8-53 Side Effects?

No adverse effects were observed in the human study from a single 5 mg dose of PRL-8-53. Animal studies indicate that the compound has a high therapy threshold, but the proof is very restricted as there have been no extensive toxicity trials.

Keep in mind that this is exceptionally experimental chemistry for studies, so caution is recommended.


PRL-8-53 is a fascinating synthetic nootropic, if mainly unexplored, which many think will eventually prove to be an invaluable smart drug.

Although it gave rise to high concern when it was launched 40 years ago, after a few animal tests and a single human study, research into its opportunities came to a halt; little has been learned about it since the review that sparked such compelling interest in its potential as a memory enhancer.

There does not seem to be any continuing research on the compound at this moment, but nootropic lovers continue to be curious about its opportunities and are regarded one of the most excellent short-term memory boosters on the market.

Pramiracetam drew a lot of attention after a study showing an outstanding success rate of 96% in reversing amnesia, surpassing Piracetam. It boosts cognition and improves memory, increases concentration, learning capacity, and supports engaging in – and maintaining – prolonged focus.


What is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is one of the best-selling nootropics today due to being the highest in potency out of all racetam nootropics.

It has a distinctive mechanism of action that allows for efficient utilization of brain capabilities, thereby improving memory recall, learning capacity, concentration, and focus. Serves as an excellent supplement on its own and furthermore, a powerful potentiator to other nootropics, intensifying as well as prolonging effects. It is quickly rising towards a well-deserving reputation for its profound effects.

A synthetic derivative of piracetam, Pramiracetam is an invention of Parke-Davis from the 1970s. It is a highly effective nootropic, up to 30 times more potent than piracetam. It is marketed in Europe under brand names Neupramir, Pramistar, and Remen; often as a prescription for individuals with dyslexia, ADHD, dementia, and memory impairment due to neurodegenerative conditions. It was a patent in the US in 1979 but without the support nor the approval of the US FDA.

Regardless, it is popularly used off-label as a different approach to cognitive challenges and memory impairments. Its also undergoing further trials as a potential treatment for a variety of nervous system disorders.

Pramiracetam is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. It is marketed by Menarini under the brand name Pramistar as a treatment for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative and vascular dementias in Italy and some Eastern European countries. – Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Benefits?

  1. Enhances Overall Cognitive Function
  2. Enhances and Supports Memory
  3. Reduces Depression and Anxiety
  4. Increases Learning Capacity
  5. Increases Sense of Clarity
  6. Promotes Social Fluency
  7. Enhances Sensory Perception
  8. Aids Memory Restoration

Supporting research:

Enhances Overall Cognitive Function

Pramiracetam optimizes brain performance and produces noticeable cognitive enhancement, especially regarding memory, in both formation of as well as consolidation. Due to the euphoric-like focus, it induces along with a sense of “emotional blunting,” users report the feel of it being comparable to Ritalin.

Enhances and Supports Memory

Due to stimulating the hippocampus, the section of the cerebellum that's accountable toward the formation of new memories, pramiracetam is raising in acknowledgment as a sharp memory enhancer. Users report significant improvement in memory formation and speed of recall; a claim confirmed by animal studies. (R)

Additionally, extensive studies find that it significantly improves long-term memory, and able to reverse amnesia to surprising levels. The findings of that study led to the synthesizing and production the drug.  (R) (R)

Reduces Depression and Anxiety

Pramiracetam reports show it improves cognitive deficits associating with traumatic brain injuries. Studies demonstrate and confirm its neuroprotective effects. Studies show that its overall impact on lowering symptoms of depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. Nevertheless, it was beneficial for both. (R)

Increases Learning Capacity

Users allegedly report pramiracetam makes learning faster, more efficient, as well as more pleasant. Such finding can be explained, at least in part, by pramiracetam facilitation of higher neuroplasticity and support of long-term memory. The latter seems to be more accurate as per the following study: (R)

Increases Sense of Clarity

Anecdotal reports from the nootropic community tell that pramiracetam provides them with a strong sense of mental awareness, clarity, with a deeper understanding of life; similar to many of those reporting the same effects from piracetam.

Promotes Social Fluency

Furthermore, a lot of people taking pramiracetam report enjoying socializing whereas before, they avoided social settings for lack of interest. This could be due to the cognitive boost or the emotional blunting effect, which is likely to reduce social anxieties. (R)

Enhances Sensory Perception

Another report backed by a clinical study shows that pramiracetam indeed enhances sensory perception and heightens observation. That is including amplified and more vibrant sound and more precise, richer visual perception with distinct color contrast. (R)

Aids Memory Restoration

In clinical experiments, pramiracetam has been noted to be an efficient remedy approach for memory impairment and other cognitive difficulties caused by brain injuries(R). It is also one of the various nootropics that are carried out to examine in the US as a potential treatment for memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease amongst other neurological disorders. There is a study that shows it to be capable of reversing chemically produced amnesia in healthy volunteers of 18-65 years of age. (R)

Mechanism of Action

How Does Pramiracetam Work?

Similar to several nootropics, pramiracetam affects the release of neurotransmitters, brain chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. Though pramiracetam performs it indirectly, in different fashion than that of other racetams, and it excites the brain in different methods as well. Pramiracetam is fat-soluble which means the bloodstream absorbs it via fatty acids. It reaches peak concentrations and highest bioavailability, usually within 30 minutes, and has a somewhat long half-life of 4 to 6 hours.

Racetams work by directly stimulating neurotransmitter receptor sites, thus increasing production and release of specific neurotransmitters. However;  pramiracetam doesn't directly produce alterations in neurochemical levels, neither does it seem to possess an affinity for any vital neurotransmitter.

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter thoroughly engaging in cognitive processes including learning pace, thought recall, and attention. By inciting choline uptake, it indirectly modulates the release of acetylcholine and triggers increased activity within the hippocampus. Due to this part of the brain being crucial to revival function, the generalized stimulation that pramiracetam formulates can enhance both the creation of new memories and the retention of reference or long-term memories.

Cerebral Blood Flow

The improving action in the hippocampus also improves cerebral blood flow, which enhances attentiveness and boosts cognitive capabilities. Besides, Pramiracetam has additional mechanisms of action. Neuroscientists hypothesize that in addition to influencing the brain, pramiracetam serves outer sections that rely upon the adrenal glands. (R)

Concerning Membrane Fluidity

Animal studies imply that pramiracetam may additionally improve or repair brain membrane fluidity, which promotes cell signaling (R). Pramiracetam does not seem to alter either alertness or emotional states actively. This advantage is understandable by pramiracetam low impact on the generation and release neurotransmitters that possess the most notable results on tranquility, stress, and anxiety levels such as serotonin, GABA, and dopamine.


How To Take Pramiracetam?

Recommended Pramiracetam dosage is 1200 mg per day, split into two 600 mg or three 400 mg doses throughout the day.

This is the lowest effective dose. On an individual level, it should be adjusted as required to accomplishing the desired effect.

Currently, the evidence using pramiracetam in humans uses either 400mg thrice daily or 600mg twice daily; both of these dosing regimens totals 1,200mg of pramiracetam daily.

It is unsure if pramiracetam should be taken with meals, and it is not clear if 1,200mg is the optimal dosage or not. This does, however, does appear effective. – Examine

Side Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Side Effects?

Studies testing Pramiracetam doses found it to be safe and not causing any side effects at doses of 400 mg and up to 1,600 mg (R).

Furthermore, a study concerning Alzheimer's disease shows it's safe even at doses as high as 4,000 mg. (R)

Headache may occur due to low acetylcholine levels in the brain. Therefore, it is wise to pair racetams drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha-GPC).

Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, they will furthermore work synergistically together firing cognitive function. [R]


Pramiracetam is a powerful nootropic that is relatively new to many of the nootropics community.

Yet is rapidly attaining a well-deserved recognition. Due to having more complications in synthesizing, it costs more than most other racetams.

Users often complain about that, however, the distinct potency proposes that lower doses are required to achieve the results.

Users also have mixed reactions to the Ritalin-like emotional blunting outcome of the supplement. For some, it creates refreshing objectivity and easing of social anxiety, while others find it makes them feel somewhat disengaged.

Pramiracetam is generally unique nootropic, notably enhancing memory creation and recollection, learning pace, and overall mental clarity. It's usually a worthy addition to nootropic stacks.

Often existing there as an agent for prolonging their effects. Pramiracetam is safe, effective, fast-acting, and reasonably long-lasting.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where to Buy Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is available on many vendors if you simply do a quick Google search. If I had to pick one of the many choices, I would recommend Nootropics Depot because I have personally used almost every racetam they offer, and I trust their product quality.

Where Can I Buy Pramiracetam in Dubai?

You can buy Pramiracetam 300mg Capsules as well as many other nootropics in Dubai from Nootropix.

Can You Snort Pramiracetam?

Although it is reportedly possible, it’s not recommended due to the large powder amount required as well as the associated pain. Unlike certain substances that yield results with small amount, snorting Pramiracetam wouldn’t be worth the effort.

How Long Does Pramiracetam Last?

Pramiracetam reaches its peak concentration in about 30 minutes after ingestion and has an average half-life of 5 hours.

What Does Pramiracetam Do?

Pramiracetam enhances memory formation and memory recall, increases learning ability, reduces social anxiety, and could potentially treat amnesia as well as prevent neurodegeneration.

When to Take Pramiracetam?

Ideally, the best timing to take Pramiracetam would be once after breakfast, and another dose after lunch, keeping a 5-hour time interval between the two dosages.

How to Take Pramiracetam?

Although it is recommended to take Pramiracetam after food for optimal absorption, it can still be taken without food. So if absorption is your concern, it does not matter much. It depends on your personal preference.v

How Long Does Pramiracetam Last?

On average, Pramiracetam effect lasts somewhere between 4 to 6 hours.

How Much Choline to Take with Pramiracetam?

Personally, I would take and recommend 300 mg of Alpha-GPC with each Pramiracetam dose. If you prefer Citicoline instead (as the choline source) then the recommended dosage would be 250 mg.

For more Frequently Asked Questions, check out the following pages:

  1. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ List
  2. Racetams 101: Guide & FAQs

Further Readings

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Sunifiram
  3. Oxiracetam
  4. Fasoracetam
  5. Coluracetam
  6. Citicoline (CDP-choline)
  7. Noopept

Piracetam is a designer nootropic that enhances cognitive brain function. It's the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.https://youtu.be/3A2yTpzFirU


What is Piracetam?

Piracetam (also known as Nootropil) is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It's been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.

Nootropics such as AniracetamPhenylpiracetam, FasoracetamSunifiram and Pramiracetam are all derivatives of this compound.

“Synthetic molecule designed to enhance brain function. Piracetam is the basic ‘racetam' molecule of a family of related compounds” Examine

Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. 

It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. 

Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.

“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.” Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Piracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Enhances Cognitive Function
  3. Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
  4. Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
  5. Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
  6. Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
  7. Helps with Schizophrenia

Supporting research:

Improves Memory

Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. 

In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. 

However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. 

Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result. [1] [2]

Enhances Cognitive Function

There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. 

Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. 

While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. 

Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits. [3] [4] [5]

Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration

Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. 

In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. 

Prevention is of often the best medicine there is. [6] [7]

Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought

There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. 

In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. 

Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. [8]

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression

In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. 

It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. 

However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. 

Use with caution. 

With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social [9] [10] – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)

Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics

Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. 

In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. 

Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time. [11] [12]

Helps with Schizophrenia

Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. 

Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus. [13] [14]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Piracetam Work?

Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. 

Piracetam' mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. 

Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. 

Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.

“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).

Piracetam Nootropic
Piracetam Skeletal Structure

The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.

Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. 

It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine

Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. 

Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. 

Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. 

Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.


How to Take Piracetam?

Typically, the Piracetam dosage for adults is between between 1,200 to 4,800 mg per day.

The most effective and agreed upon Piracetam dose is 1,600 mg. It can be taken once per day, or up to three times per day, totaling a maximum of 4,800 mg per day.

If new to Piracetam and taking it for the first time, start with 1,600 mg and wait and observe your reaction to it. 

Few hours later, you can choose whether you want to take another dose, or if one is enough for your needs.

For optimal results pair it with 300mg of Alpha GPCCDP-choline, or your choline source of choice.

Side Effects

What Are Piracetam Side Effects?

Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. [15]

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them.

Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-GPC, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.

Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. [16]

User Experience


A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:

So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i've never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions.

I've lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i'ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety.

With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me.

Now I focus on what is important and I don't care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I've started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions.

I've also noted i'm more honest and don't feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour.

I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i've been an asshole my whole life) Even so I'm still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they're only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself.

Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don't have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.

Reddit II

So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.)

But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn't expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.


Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.

Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Piracetam Legal in the US?

It’s legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.

What's the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”

Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”

What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?

Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked’ in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.

What is the correct way to take Piracetam?

“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”

Why does piracetam take so long to act?

Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down’s syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.

Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?

The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:

1. Enhance some form of cognition.
2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

For the first Qualifier:

Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.

Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focusmemory, and learning.

Second Qualifier:

Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]

Where can I buy Piracetam and Nootropil in Dubai, UAE?

Nootropix offers 30 & 60ct jars of Piracetam capsules in Dubai, and the UAE.

All products are lab-tested and verified for both product purity and identity. If you buy Piracetam capsules from our shop, expect it to ship within 24 hours for orders placed within Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and the UAE.

Picamilon is a nootropic that enhances cognitive function and increases mental energy while reducing stress and anxiety. Its unique blend of energizing and relaxing impacts makes picamilon an outstanding supplement for learners during examination periods or anyone in stressful circumstances who could benefit from faster, clearer thinking.


What is Picamilon?

Picamilon is a distinctive nootropic that enhances cognitive function and increases mental energy while reducing stress and anxiety emotions. Its unique blend of energizing and relaxing impacts makes picamilon an outstanding supplement for learners facing examinations or for anyone in stressful circumstances who wants to think rapidly and clearly.

Picamilon's unique traits make it a truly distinctive supplement. It boosts brain function like all nootropics, enhancing memory, concentration, motivation, the span of attention, and overall productivity. However, its energizing impacts are only half the image; it also calms, relaxes, and generates a tranquilizing effect that decreases stress and anxiety emotions considerably.

This combination of energizing and calming effects, along with its low price, prepared accessibility, and absence of severe side effects, makes picamilon an increasingly common option for anyone who wishes to handle stress and anxiety while maximizing their cognitive skills.

Picamilon was first created in Russia somewhere between the years 1969 and 1971 as part of the Institute's studies into possibly performance-enhancing substances.

Today, picamilon is a prescription drug in Russia and is used to treat a range of conditions and disorders ranging from depression to migraine, neuroinfections, senile psychosis, certain kinds of glaucoma, and even acute intoxication with alcohol.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Picamilon Benefits?

  1. Improves Learning and Memory
  2. Supports Concentration, Focus, and Mental Stamina
  3. Mood Stabilization
  4. Relaxes Without Causing Drowsiness
  5. Reduces Blood Pressure
  6. Improves Sleep Quality

Supporting research:

Improves Learning and Memory

The wide variety of impacts of Picamilon includes both cognitive enhancement and mood management. It has been shown to promote faster and more comfortable learning pace as well as enhancing both memory retention and recall speed.

Supports Concentration, Focus, and Mental Stamina

By stimulating better blood flow and circulation in the brain, picamilon has critical beneficial impacts on a broad range of cognitive functions, including improving the capacity to concentrate on thinking and improving general mental energy or endurance.

Mood Stabilization

It has been shown that Picamilon has substantial anti-anxiety impacts, significantly decreasing stress effect. It can also assist relieve depression.

Relaxes Without Causing Drowsiness

Users report that taking picamilon outcomes in a pleasant sensation of relaxation without mental fog or grogginess that is usually associated with sedatives or tranquilizers. Most individuals say it provides them a feeling of “calm energy.”

Reduces Blood Pressure

While not positive in all instances, the capacity of picamilon to decrease blood pressure can be a significant advantage to those with hypertension that is enhanced by stress and anxiety.

Improves Sleep Quality

While a single supplement seems contradictory to increase energy and create rest better, many picamilon consumers claim it does just that. Since it is not a tranquilizer, sedative, or muscle relaxer, this impact could be due to the stress reduction and anti-anxiety characteristics of picamilon insignificant portion.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Picamilon Work?

Picamilon is a mixture of niacin and GABA or gamma-aminobutyric acid, two prevalent but essential nutrients. Separately each plays a critical role in brain health but linked to produce unique advantages in a compound that they respond synergistically.

Picamilon’s real strength is the capacity of the niacin element to cross the blood-brain barrier, a semi-permeable capillary filter intended to safeguard the brain and to bring with it the connected GABA element. As a result, GABA, a powerful neurotransmitter that can not cross the blood-brain barrier alone, is transferred into the central nervous system for use across the brain and body.

The real mechanism of action picamilon operates through is both fast and direct. It is a water-soluble compound that is easily absorbed and within an hour of ingestion reaches peak bioavailability.

Picamilon is hydrolyzed or chemically divided back into distinct parts of niacin or nicotinic acid and GABA after crossing the blood-brain barrier. The role of niacin acts as a vasodilator, increasing blood flow in the brain and enhancing oxygen and other nutrients absorption. At the same moment, this vital inhibitory neurotransmitter, which operates by decreasing neuronal excitability, raises the brain concentrations of the GABA element.

The cognitive enhancement impacts of Picamilon can be primarily ascribed to the enhanced effectiveness created by the improved circulation of the brain blood and oxygen absorption. The enhanced blood flow in the brain also enhances the delivery and uptake of glucose and other nutrients, which can boost alertness, concentrate, motivation, and brain energy as a whole. It is also thought to have an essential antioxidant impact that helps break down and remove toxins in the brain.

Picamilon's relaxing and calming impacts are produced by the enhanced concentrations of GABA, a powerful neurotransmitter that operates by inhibiting neuronal firing, decreasing stress and anxiety emotions by generating a slightly sedative impact.


How To Take Picamilon?

Although picamilon is usually deemed well tolerated and has no severe side effects, it is a potent complement and should be used responsibly. It is wise, as with all supplements, to begin with, the smallest effective dosage possible and gradually boost as required.

Recommendations for daily dosage differ significantly, depending on the special effects you hope to experience in no small measure. Typical is a cumulative dosage of 50 to 400 mg per day, with most customers finding efficacy between 100 and 200 mg divided over two to three doses. However, it may be best for those mainly interested in cognitive enhancements of picamilon and lower dosages of overall mood stabilization, while those looking for significant rises in energy levels may want to create up to higher dosages.

Picamilon operates comparatively fast and is relatively durable. Users say that impacts are usually visible within one hour of intake and last for 4 to 6 hours. It is water-soluble and can be taken on an empty stomach in either capsule or powder form.

While some users prefer cycling picamilon with other nootropics with an anti-anxiety element, there is no negative impact of proof taking it daily.

Side Effects

What Are Picamilon Side Effects?

Picamilon is usually regarded as safe and well tolerated, but there have been reports of some side effects. The most severe prospective side effect is low blood pressure, so if you understand that you are susceptible to hypotension or have reason to worry about low blood pressure, you should consult a medical practitioner before taking picamilon.  

Allergies and rashes of the skin have been recorded as side effects, but are not prevalent. Such side effects typically include headaches, lightheadedness or dizziness, and nausea. Red skin flushing is also sometimes revealed as a standard and harmless side effect of niacin.


Picamilon can be taken alone daily, cycled with other supplements or combined with other nootropics in many ways.

The behavioral improvement characteristics of picamilon will be potentiated in a pile with racetam-class nootropics such as piracetam or pramiracetam. However, depending on which racetam supplement you are combining with picamilon, you may also experience, or both, increased energy or relaxation effects.

Combined with ampakine racetam supplements like aniracetam and oxiracetam, both of which have stimulant characteristics, the energy-boosting and mood-modulating impacts of picamilon will be increased.

Some users claim that combining picamilon with other supplements such as kava can boost their energy-producing characteristics while using it in conjunction with relaxing supplements such as valerian will strengthen their calming aspects.


Picamilon is a natural nootropic, and with excellent reason: it can both energize and relax, it is secure and well-tolerated, it has very few reported side effects, it combines well with other supplements, and it is inexpensive and easily accessible. Picamilon provides advantages that are difficult to beat for anyone who wishes or needs to handle their moods and retain ideal cognitive function under pressure.

Verified by Dr. Sundru M. Devi
M.D. Microbiology, PhD Biotechnology, January 28, 2020

Oxiracetam is a cognitive function boosting nootropic. It heightens focus and concentration as well as enhances memory and learning. Oxiracetam stimulates the brain, producing mental stamina and boosting energy.


What is Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is a cognitive function and has many advantages and health benefits. It uplifts concentration and focus just as improving memory and learning. It moreover strengthens sensual, observational, and coherent reasoning. Oxiracetam animate the cerebrum, in this manner creating mental stamina and boosting vitality. It considers accomplishing better ability use which makes it a helpful nootropic anytime throughout everyday life.

Oxiracetam is an engineered derivative of Piracetam, a revelation from the 1970's. Research recommends that it is five times as successful as its racetam family members. With properties like those of Phenylpiracetam, it has demonstrated its viability. Furthermore, it doesn't bring the unfavorable impacts that normally accompany stimulants.

It benefits memory, consideration and learning. Moreover, it is a potential treatment for amnesia. Research shows that it can possibly regard dementia too, however the FDA presently can't seem to support it. So it's not in the enormous pharma market. It's not controlled by the Canadian, Australian, or UK specialists. It is protected and viable, and its utilization for neurodegeneration is becoming greater with time. It is protected, strong and helpful for some medical conditions, next to its nootropic impact.

Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug of the racetam family and a very mild stimulant. Several studies suggest that the substance is safe, even when high doses are consumed for a long period. However, the mechanism of action of the racetam drug family is still a matter of research. – Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Oxiracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Enhances Logical Thinking
  3. Boosts Focus and Learning Ability
  4. Enhances Prolonged Concentration
  5. Boosts Physical and Mental Energy

Supporting research:

Improves Memory

Oxiracetam is effective on memory and is in use by students looking for a memory boost. Users report positive experiences about its effectiveness in that regard. [R]

Enhances Logical Thinking

Many anecdotal reports state that it increases and improves logical thought. Some also say that Oxiracetam improves their analytical and reasoning skills.

Boosts Focus and Learning Ability

All racetams are effective in increasing focus and learning abilities. Trails on humans and animals both show that Oxiracetam enhances focus and learning. [R]

Enhances Prolonged Concentration

Oxiracetam has a positive effect on concentration, allowing a person to stick to a subject without distraction. So it is a smart option during finals – where self-discipline is very important. [R]

Boosts Physical and Mental Energy

Oxiracetam is a mild stimulant that increases both physical and mental activity. But it is unique in that it doesn't bring amphetamine-like side effects.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Oxiracetam Work?

Precise mechanism of actions are unclear, but it's related to neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Which is crucial in many neurological disorders and diseases.

It adjusts the release of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and glutamate from these receptors. These synthetic chemicals affect memory, learning, coherent and intellectual functions. Although all racetams show comparative impacts, Oxi can last longer than the rest. 

By expanding the neuronal connecting in the hippocampus, the medication has impacts on the lipid digestion. It prompts the creation of D-Aspartic acid, which is essential for neural signaling. Oxiracetam has mild central nervous system energizer impacts as it is an ampakine demonstration at the glutamatergic AMPA receptors. However, it has no extreme reactions like a sleeping disorder, weight reduction, gain or some other frequent partner anxiolytics and antidepressants.

Most definitely, Oxiracetam is a water-solvent compound. Its ingestion happens essentially from the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetic parameters show that it arrives at the greatest levels inside 1-3 hours of intake. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and has a long half-existence of 8-10 hours, therefore is steady.


How To Take Oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam typical, effective dose is 1,200-2,400mg taken in 2 or 3 even doses throughout the day. For example:

  • 2x 800mg per day or
  • 3x 400mg per day

Side Effects

What Are Oxiracetam Side Effects?

At a 1,600mg dose per day, it does not have any significant side-effects when compared to placebo. As with all racetams, headache is a possibility. It is preventable by adding a choline source such as Alpha GPC.

User Experience


Oxiracetam passes all the obstacles that come in the method for a medication to be in the market for general society. It is sheltered and has no unfavorable impact in detail.

Moreover, it's a potential treatment for neurological disorders. It has been a valuable (and life-saving) nootropic for individuals enduring psychological sickness. Although pending FDA endorsement is required, it affirmed its adequacy in numerous examinations and clinical trials. Because of expanding concentration and focus, Oxiracetam turned into a well-known decision for students. Also, one that is frequently suggested by those utilizing it.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long does one need to take oxiracetam to start feeling effects?

Personally, I’d feel it right on the time I take it. I mean after a while of course, but effects are notaiceable about 45 mins later. Nothing like “2 weeks until effects start taking actions” whatsoever.

As far as chemistry is concerned, Oxiracetam is a water-soluble compound. Its absorption occurs mainly from the gastrointestinal tract. The pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that it reaches the maximum levels within 1-3 hours of intake. It can cross the blood-brain barrier and has long half-life of 8-10 hours, therefore is stable.

Where can I buy Oxiracetam in Dubai?

You can buy Oxiracetam 750mg Capsules as well as many other Nootropics in Dubai from the shop page.

Further Readings

  1. Sunifiram 
  2. Fasoracetam 
  3. Coluracetam
  4. Choline 
  5. Alpha-GPC
  6. CDP-choline
  7. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ
MindLab Pro is a pre-formulated, all natural nootropic supplement. A blend of 11 natural and potent ingredients in 1 pill. It offers a great convenience while delivering measurable and obvious increases in physical and mental performance.


What is MindLab Pro?

I have come across Mind Lab Pro after the rebranding and introduction, and was immediately drawn to its overall presentation. I care about companies images just as much as I care about the product itself. After immersing myself into reading every word on the extensive ingredient list and description of each, I thought to myself, and I owe it to myself to give it a shot. The price was reasonable for the content, and I ordered my first bottle. Fast forward about a year later, I still have it standing amongst the first on my shelf. Except now I also have my mom and two sisters, as well as a friend or two, all enjoying supplementing and using it on a daily basis. We all got easily attracted to the product because of its moderate dosage, and commitment to natural ingredients. I don’t mind other nootropics but I know people who wouldn’t come near anything synthetic, so Mind Lab Pro seemed appealing to them. Each serving (2 pills) contains the following 11 “enhanced potency form” mindlab pro nootropic formula

What is in MindLab Pro?

The Formula

With such an impressive list of ingredients formulating together into one (or two) pills, it’s no surprise why Mind Lab Pro made quite a name for itself and maintaining a loyal, returning customers.

Benefits and Effects

What Are MindLab Pro Benefits?

Unlike any other nootropic on the website, it’s a little bit more challenging to list down the benefits and effects of using Mind Lab Pro because it consists of 11 different ingredients, each of which serves many benefits. However, you can click on each component and see the list of its benefits and effects. I’ve used it short term and long term and have seen results in both ways. What I like the most about Mind Lab Pro is the fact that it has citicoline, which means I can perfectly pair it with a racetam without having to get an additional choline source (currently I take Alpha GPC when taking racetams). As well as the fact that it also has Lion’s Mane Mushroom which I think is one of the most profound nootropics I have come across. So when I wake up in the morning and wanting to head out to work fast and arrive fresh and mentally prepared, (also because I’m almost always late), I would only take 2 pills instead of reaching out to 11 different containers and taking 1 by 1 – I am one who really goes the extra mile for convenience.

Side Effects

What Are MindLab Pro Side Effects?

Again, from personal experience, and at least six people that I know from friends and family, none of us have encountered any side effects that were leading back to Mind Lab Pro. I’ve recommended that they take it with a fat source for better absorption and to avoid any stomachache, but I almost always take it first thing in the morning and never had any adverse effects.

Personal Experience

Honestly, if anyone asks me for a recommendation when first starting on nootropics, I would recommend Mind Lab Pro. And I am not even an affiliate nor sponsored by them whatsoever (although I should be…)  – it is a genuine suggestion. It has many good ingredients and at moderate dosages. Beginners can easily understand the mix and expand their knowledge further intro nootropics if they wanted to. Moreover, I also really enjoy the (if not mistaken) buy two get 3rd free & buy three get 4th free. It makes a good value for money and always comes in handy for last minute packing, late and rushing situations, and can even be carried out in your bag on day to day basis unlike when you’re using a stack of different products. I don’t think I can't even fit all the containers I have from various companies in my car trunk.

Where to Buy Mind Lab Pro?

If you are in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, or anywhere in the UAE, you can get Mind Lab Pro from Nootropix. And in most cases it is in stock and delivers within a day or two.

Other Natural Nootropics

If you're into all natural nootropics, check you the following:
  1. Bacopa Monnieri
  2. Lion's Mane Mushroom
  3. Ashwagandha, as well as: Natural Herbs page.

Related Topics

Back to homepage.

L-Theanine & Caffeine combination is one of the safer and most popular nootropic stacks out there. Most of the time, it is what people start with when experimenting with nootropics due to its simple understanding, profound effect, and vast availability of data.


The typical combination ratio is 100mg caffeine to 200mg L-theanine.


A central nervous system stimulant. It is also the world's most widely consumed drug. Humanity is a mass of junkies, but that's off-topic. On the other hand;


An amino acid found in certain plant species, and mostly known for being one of the compounds of green tea. You can read more about L-theanine as a nootropic here.


Taking more than one nootropic at a time (2 or more) because they synergize well together, increasing and complementing one another's effects.


The creation of something that is greater than the simple sum of its parts – (nice definition, I had to throw it in there).


When we hear of caffeine, the first thoughts that pop in our heads (and to many, the only) are something along the lines of stimulants, energy, wakefulness. Most people tend to overlook the actual benefits of caffeine. Not necessarily the 6 pumps vanilla sugar-filled chocolate drizzle frappuccino. What I refer to here is caffeine in its pure form, the chemical, central nervous system stimulant.

Some examples of the less known health benefits of caffeine:

  1. Caffeine boosts memory and especially memory consolidation, as shown in a Japanese study at Johns Hopkins University.
  2. Caffeine stimulates hair growth (in blading men and women). [1]

It also reduces mouth and throat cancer risk by 50%, reduces the risk of stroke by as much as 22%, and even decreases the risk of type diabetes. The list goes on and on but we are more focusing on the nootropic, cognition-related benefits. Some of which are the following:

  1.  Boosts overall memory, as well as formation and especially memory consolidation. [2]
  2. It fights erectile dysfunction and increases semen volume [3] [4]
  3. Improves reaction time and logical reasoning, especially in sleep-deprived individuals. [5]
  4. Boosts energy as well as athletic performance, and weight training. [6]

That, of course, doesn't mean it doesn't have a negative side to it though.


L-theanine, on the other hand, is much less known comparing to caffeine. But it is very well known to those within the nootropic community.

Although it is existing in green tea, the concentration is too low to produce notable nootropic effects. Therefore, nootropically speaking, a higher concentration of l-theanine is required than that found in green tea for example. Which is what led to the production and widespread l-theanine supplement in capsule form.

L-theanine benefits include promoting relaxation and contributing to better sleep quality. Moreover:

  1. It boosts GABA, serotonin and dopamine levels in the brain, as well as lowers excitatory chemicals. Thereby, L-theanine reduces stress and anxiety.
  2. Enhances attention, focus, and learning ability.
  3. Improves sleep quality

The Synergy Effect

Now, speaking logically, what do you think would happen if you take both caffeine and theanine together, at the same time (caffeine l-theanine stack)?

It would give you the best of both worlds:

The stimulation, alertness, and wakefulness, without the associating crash, jitters, or anxiety that often come along with or after caffeine consumption.

Due to L-theanine calming and relaxing effects, this combination is one of the most popular nootropic stacks. It is simple, and both cimound have a vast amount of studies on them. So not a lot of digging is required to pull information on them.

Combining the two together results in this, or a very similar experience. Might even be better (or worse if you're the unlucky one):

“You can concentrate on your work more thoroughly, be more creative, and achieve more success with the absence of headaches, crashes, and anxiety. The combination gives you the power to perform better than taking either alone.” [7]


Although newer formulations have been surfacing around, the widely known caffeine & l-theanine dosage is a 1:2 ratio. In most cases, that being:

  • 100mg Caffeine
  • 200mg L-Theanine

User Experience

My Personal Experience

I don't respond very well to coffee. I love it but its the unforbidden love to me because too much caffeine intake increases my hyperactivity. But when it comes to caffeine/theanine combo, it seems to take care of that and lead me to a hyper-focus state. Especially given that I'm ADHD, I can get very engaged into something and lose track and sense and even existence of time all together.

However, although I have caffeine/theanine from ND, I don't really find myself using it frequently. And that is mainly due to the fact that I drink a cup of bulletproof coffee first thing after waking up. Even though the caffeine concentration is lower in my morning coffee than the common 100mg, I drink my cup followed by a 200mg L-theanine. I found that this works the best for me, allowing me to reap the benefits of both, the synergy of the two compounds, as well as enjoy my bulletproof coffee and practice intermittent fasting (in my personal dictionary, this could also mean starvation and weight loss, but let's stay on topic here).

Where to Buy?

If you are in Dubai, you can purchase Caffeine + L-Theanine Capsules as well as L-Theanine 200mg Capsules from Nootropix.

Further Readings

If you would like to read more into the combination and synergy of the two compounds, you may enjoy the following studies and articles:

  1. The effects of l-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood‘ by the Psychology Division of Northumbria University
  2. L-Theanine and caffeine improve target-specific attention to visual stimuli by decreasing mind wandering: a human functional magnetic resonance imaging study‘ by the Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University
  3. Effects of l-theanine on attention and reaction time response‘ by University of Shiga Prefecture, Human Culture Department, Japan
  4. Choline: All About The Essential Vitamin-Like Compound
  5. Phenibut: An In-Depth Review of a Powerful Nootropic Agent
  6. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ List

Top ↑

Verified by Dr. Sundru M. Devi
M.D. Microbiology, PhD Biotechnology, Mar 1, 2019

A new member to the racetam family, Coluracetam is a nootropic believed to be beneficial in enhancing memory, learning, improving vision, and supporting the treatment of anxiety and depression.


What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a drug that falls in the racetam family. The way it works and its structure are different from other racetams. Despite it being in the racetam family, this drug has gained a widespread reputation on its uniqueness in memory boosting and reduction of anxiety and depression. It is popular in the nootropic community to raise optic properties.

However, additional studies are needed to realize the mechanism that supports these benefits. It was initially synthesized in 2005 by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in Japan as a probable cure for Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Cells, Inc. later licensed it for more study after it did not make to reach its clinical endpoint.

Brain Cells began to conduct experiments on its effects. Most of these tests were on rats due to lack of enough participants to undertake the clinical trial. From the clinical analysis carried out, coluracetam showed to improve memory retention and relieve anxiety.

Although it is a new nootropic in comparison to classic racetams such as Piracetam, over the past few years, it gained popularity due to its practical use.

Phenylpiracetam – as the name indicates, is a derivative of piracetam, with the phenyl addition. Which is why it shares so many properties with piracetam. However, it seems to be much more powerful. It is anywhere between 30 to 60 times more potent, and therefore effective, in its action.

Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil, Carphedon) is a scarcely studied piracetam derivative. It's notable for its stimulatory subjective effects. It appears on the list of banned substances for Olympic sports. In-vitro experiments suggest phenylpiracetam binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In animal models phenylpiracetam seems to increase NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density, which may suggest it has potential as a cognitive enhancer.[204] Similarly, in animal experiments phenylpiracetam seems to exert anti-depressant effects. [111] No studies have been done to show phenylpiracetam improves cognitive performance in otherwise healthy individuals. Phenylpiracetam seems to be the most stimulatory piracetam derivative.

Reddit's Begginer Guide

Benefits and Effects

What Are Coluracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory and Learning
  2. Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression
  3. Reduces Anxiety
  4. Promotes Neurogenesis
  5. Helps with Schizophrenia
  6. Enhances Eyesight

Supporting research:

Improves Memory and Learning

Coluracetam benefits proves to work in enforcing cognitive and memory function in rats and similar effects on humans. Brain Cells Inc. conducted a study which reveals an improvement of mind in rats after receiving AF64A for eight days. The development continued to last even beyond treatment. Alzheimer’s disease leads to lower levels of acetylcholine. By growing acetylcholine in the hippocampus, coluracetam will increase symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease such as learning disorders and poor memory. [R] [R]

Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression

In a study of 101 individuals with depression, who did not achieve result treatment with antidepressants, it had a constructive impact on the apparent improvement in the quality of life at 80 mg 3 times a day. However, this is the only study on humans. The capacity it holds to minimize glutamate noxiousness may be liable for its positive impacts in the depression treatment. [R]

Reduces Anxiety

In a rat study, dosing 21 days of coluracetam shows a 20% improvement in anxiety, which was higher than the 12% effect valium impact in a single dose in the same study. [R]

Promotes Neurogenesis

Some studies mention that  it helps with neurogenesis. The primary mechanism is still not clear, but it relates to the administration of it for several weeks, which increase in acetylcholine in the hippocampus area.

“Patents state that it promotes nerve cell growth (neurogenesis). The mechanism is unknown, yet is thought to be related to the increase in hippocampal acetylcholine when coluracetam is dosed daily for a few weeks.” [R]

Helps With Schizophrenia

Coluracetam increases the activity of ChAT in rats with nerve cell damage. This increase suggests it may benefit patients with schizophrenia through this same enzyme. More research directly on people with schizophrenia is undergoing. [R] [R]

Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam has shown its optic strengths such as improved color recognition, vision, and vividness. Specifically, it promotes nerve growth for the degenerative retinal disease. Numerous studies mention better color vision and sharpening of the eyesight, but no scientific research has confirmed these effects. [R]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Coluracetam Work?

It works through the process of high-affinity choline uptake. That's its mechanism of action. The brain chemical responsible for storing cognitive abilities and memories is acetylcholine.

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine within our brain. Studies on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove vital for improving learning, memory, and cognition.

It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine in the brain.

Many studies done on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove very important for improving learning, memory formation, and typically cognitive abilities.

It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.

Coluracetam Skeletal Structure


How To Take Coluracetam?

Typically, the recommended starting dose is 20mg due to that being the manufactured one. There are claims that researchers testing coluracetam dosage of 240 mg per day are finding no side effects. However, the source link to that claim is broken. [R] [R]

My Personal Experience

The maximum I've taken is 60mg in single dose. It caused me a slight headache and yield no special outcome.

Advise: Take it with a choline source. It can be in supplement form (Alpha-GPCCiticoline), or from foods in your own diet.

Pairing coluracetam with a choline source will both, increase its effect, and prevent an associating headache.

Side Effects

What Are Coluracetam Side Effects?

There isn’t enough evidence regarding the side effects of coluracetam. The human brain and body are well receiving this nootropic drug. Taking coluracetam does not have many side effects, but when they appear, they are similar to other recitals. Some of the concerns are nausea and irritability which are rare.

User Experience


“Definitely my favorite nootropic besides phenibut. The anxiolytic effects are great, also a very nice mood enhancer. And I noticed it significantly improved my vision, my short and long term memory, and even improved my verbal fluency. I suffer from depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizo effective disorder. 20 to 100 mg Coluracetam seems comparable to Zoloft in terms of helping anxiety. It also helps me keep calm during my delusion induced panic attacks. I highly recommend it. In overall satisfaction for Coluracetam I rate it 9/10. I ordered my Coluracetam from Nootropics Depot.” u/sunflesh [link]

Reddit II

“I know that coluracetam is pretty controversial to begin with, but I went into my use of it hopeful because I've heard of lots of crazy benefits some people were getting out of it. Sadly, when I tried it I experienced nothing except for a phenomenally bad mood. I've never been so angry in my life, and it's not because I'm disappointed, it just put me into this hyper aggressive pessimist mood. I had been microdosing LSD for about 2 weeks prior to trying coluracetam and it seemed to completely reverse the effects of microdosing and actually put me into a worse mood overall than before I started microdosing. I had high hopes for this product, and maybe I'll try it again because it could just be circumstantial, but for now I don't plan on using it for a long time.” [link]

Reddit III

“History with Nootropics: in 2015 I began my journey working on my bachelors in Psychology. During my second semester I came across Nootropics Depot while searching for a reasonably priced Bacopa, and that's when I found Noopept. Sublingually I usually took around 20mg or less nightly with decent results. This went on for around 3 months and my test taking abilities definitely grew more fluent. My expectations may have been too high though as I found it just wasn't giving my the edge I was looking for. I moved to Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pram/Phenyl, and I just wasn't getting marginal results in my focus, productivity, or recall.

Recent Finding: I gave Nootropics a break for years until about a week ago when I read up on Fasoracetam and Coluracetam. Package arrived yesterday and i took 15mg of both sublingually. Within 30min my head was clear and the flow of my work almost effortless. I work as an Inventory Auditor, so i'm constantly counting, doing long math, and finding patterns. Today was the breeziest day at work, I was honestly on my A game. I found a flaw in previous audits and had my work done about a quarter of the time ahead of schedule. I understand these may be placebo feelings and coincidence occurrences, that is why i am making this post. I will update bi weekly with logic test results. At the end of each month i will post links to graphs of progression in answer response times if any.

Update: Tomorrow will be the first logic test results update but i just wanted to pop in and relay a few things. I have noticed a tad of unclear thought with the faso, I dosed only colur this morning just to see any marked difference and the colur definitely clears and focuses my mind more. For the sake of this trial i did make sure to dose faso later in the day and will give it around a month to see if the foggy feeling leaves. Also, a strange but incredibly noticeable thing as happened. I cant tell which of the two may be causing it, but in dark situations or driving at night i have realized my eyes have been adjusting almost immediately and to a higher degree than normal. I can see relatively everything, not like a cat lol but its definitely a lot clearer than normal.

Update #1: Logical reasoning testing. Took 2 different tests one 10 questions the other 18 questions. Neither having the same questions, and varying difficulties. The first test took 3min, got 7 out of 10 correct. 2nd took me 12min getting 8 out of 18 correct. About average logical reasoning. At the end of the next test taking session (2 weeks from today) results will be added to the post along with statistics. Also, choline supplementation is being introduced tomorrow morning due to moderate headaches.

Update #2: i've noticed that my arithmetic based thought processes have grown extremely fluent. Long math has become increasingly easier while done mentally. I've always attempted to do most math in my head than ended up writing down the problems but since about a week and a half ago, writing the problems down is pointless. I began dosing Alpha GPC around 2 weeks ago instead of bitartrate due to the low bioavailability of the latter. Choline source is a must with the amount of racetams I supplement (colur, faso, ani).

Most recent update: Alrighty guys and gals it has now successfully been over a month spent testing these racetams. Memory and short/long term recall is definitely better than it was before this trial. The tests may not be giving marginal results, but I can vouch for a stronger attention span. I find myself noticing details and patterns, more observant of daily obstacles. My LR tests I took today resulted in a 4/7 on both, with both taking 3.5 minutes. Im seeing that my ability to not need to read the questions more than once to retain it and find the answers. Faso has had marked effects on my baseline depression, with more motivation for a few hours after dose. Colur has been reminiscent of past noopept experiences. I've also narrowed down the increase in serotonin levels to the aniracetam.

Find the full thread with more information and discussions here [link]


Coluracetam doesn't have extensive amount of research, the studies available do show a great potential for its use.

It is one of the more new-gone-mainstream racetams, alongside Fasoracetam. However, recently, the FDA has approved an “enhanced” form of Fasoracetam for the treatment of ADHD.

The relating information on that announcement can be found on the blog post here.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a nootropic agent of the racetam family. It was initially developed and tested by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation for Alzheimer’s disease. Coluracetam increases the production of acetylcholine, and also speeds up its flow in brain synapses. The product was first registered in 2005 and phase 2A trials were completed back in 2010.

What is Coluracetam half-life?

The half-life of Coluracetam is about 3 hours.

What is coluracetam and how does it compare with other racetams?

It’s not a hardcore focus drug like Modafinil, nor does it give me a bunch of energy and pep like caffeine or Piracetam. What it really does is just add a subtle and underlying positivity to my mood.
There’s a noticeable difference on it and off it, especially in this dreadfully, gloomy part of the world.

A Youtube commenter suggested stacking Coluracetam with L-Theanine, which I tried and it’s actually a pretty good stack, especially in combination with some delicious Bulletproof Coffee. The creative mindset that L-Theanine puts me in, is nicely complimented by the optimism that Coluracetam stimulates, this has actually become my go to stack since I ran out of Piracetam.

Speaking of coffee, anecdotally Coluracetam has this really cool effect of reversing caffeine tolerance. I unfortunately did not experience this, at least not noticeably. Another really consistent way to reverse caffeine tolerance is just to stop consuming caffeine for about 10 days and your caffeine tolerance will almost completely go away, and after consuming just a single cup of coffee you will again feel like a Greek god consuming ambrosia in the fields of Elysium. Coluracetam did not have the same effect for me.

It’s has a rocky, clumpy consistency that reminds me of cocaine – the tiny rocks feel like boulders under my tongue. You may need to break it up before consumption. I’ve been taking it sublingually, because it’s so damn expensive that I don’t want to waste a single granule of it. It’s taste is not pleasant and it kind of lingers on your palette, I don’t recommend taking it before a meal. It doesn’t taste great but it’s not as bad as some drugs I’ve tried.

Scienceguy suggested it potentiates Oxiracetam, I’ve taken it now a couple of time with Caballo which has Oxiracetam but I’m not sure if I’ve experienced this yet…

One day I was operating on about 4 hours of sleep, so somewhat sleep deprived and kept slipping back into an unfocused funk. I took Coluracetam around 1PM and 4PM and there was a disappointing absence of effect.

I wish I could rate Coluracetam higher, but I’m deducting 2 stars because it’s just not a great value, there’s plenty of Nootropics that gram for gram, cost a 3rd or 4th of Coluracetam and have just as helpful effect on mood, focus and memory. For mere economics, I wouldn’t reorder it.”- Jonathan Roseland

Where can I buy Coluracetam in Dubai?

You can buy Coluracetam 20mg Capsules as well as other Nootropics in Dubai by visiting Nootropix website.

Additional Nootropics FAQs can be found here [link]

Further Readings

  1. Coluracetam – Wikipedia
  2. Coluracetam – Scientific Review – Examine

Related Nootropics

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Centrophenoxine is an effective nootropic that boosts memory. It can reverse age-related cognitive degeneration amd improve mood and brain function.


What is Centrophenoxine?

Centrophenoxine is one of the oldest nootropics studied, also known as Lucidril and Meclofenoxate.

This drug was initially created in 1959 and was commonly used to treat age-related brain disorders such as Alzheimer's and dementia. Healthy people also use it to improve memory and cognitive function and improve general brain health.

Centrophenoxine is a mixture of two chemicals: dimethyl-aminoethanol (DMAE), a natural substance found in certain foods (fish, seafood) and the brain in tiny quantities. It is a source of choline and has impacts that stimulate the brain.

Parachlorphenoxyacetic acid (pCPA), a synthetic version of plant growth hormones called auxins, is the primary active ingredient of this drug. DMAE is not well crossing the blood-brain barrier. It can, however, pass through the blood-brain barrier within Centrophenoxine and enter the brain efficiently once placed in the body, a part of Centrophenoxine breaks down into DMAE and PCPA in the liver.

DMAE is then transformed to choline, and the remaining Centrophenoxine circulates throughout the body

Benefits and Effects

What are the Benefits of Centrophenoxine?

  1. Neuroprotective
  2. Learning and Memory
  3. Mood
  4. Stress
  5. Reverses Brain-Deficits causes by Aging
  6. Enhance Cancer Treatment


Centrophenoxine protects nerve cells from oxidative harm caused by exposure to toxins or strokes. This drug decreased the damage induced by free radicals in rats with different kinds of brain injury and enhanced the resulting memory, cognitive function, and motion deficits.

This drug increases the activity of critical antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain, which can account for its positive consequences.

In 50 elderly patients with dementia (DB-RCT), it also enhanced memory.

Learning and Memory

Centrophenoxine also enhanced ancient mice's learning and memory.

Mood and Stress

Centrophenoxine in rats subjected to stress considerably decreased anxiety. It also enhance humans ‘ mood.

In a research of 80 healthy topics, three months of taking a drug containing DMAE, increased energy, and improved well-being. Therefore, the active DMAE element of Centrophenoxine can enhance mood.

Reverses Brain-Deficits causes by Aging

It also reverses the brain aging impacts by decreasing free radicals and buildup of lipofuscin in the rat brain (hippocampus), both of which are associated with neurodegenerative disease.

Enhance Cancer Treatment

This medication enhances the action of particular cancer drugs that cause cancer cell DNA damage.

Centrophenoxine is a mixture of PCPA (para-chlorphenoxyacetic) and DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol) synthesized version that has been altered to improve absorption and enhance its capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier. It is a compound that is metabolized in the liver and fat-soluble.

Although Centrophenoxine has been the topic of centuries of studies, it is still not fully grasped its exact mechanisms of action.

Once Centrophenoxine crosses the blood-brain barrier, it eventually raises the quantity of acetylcholine in the synaptic vesicles, either by transforming it into an intermediate phospholipid that is then used to create acetylcholine or by breaking it down into choline that is transformed into acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter most closely connected with memory and overall cognitive.

The capacity of Centrophenoxine to raise concentrations of acetylcholine is the primary means of acting as a nootropic substance.

Centrophenoxine, however, also enhances cognition in other ways, such as improving the accessibility of oxygen and glucose to the brain and reducing levels of cellular waste and cognition-affected toxins.

Centrophenoxine is both anti-aging and nootropic. It is a potent antioxidant capable of flushing cell toxins and helping to repair toxin-related damage.

It is known to decrease levels of lipid peroxidation waste products or oxidative degradation of fats in cell membranes.

Cellular damage caused by lipid peroxidation is connected with aging and is involved in many diseases and disorders, including infections and complications. Lipofuscin buildup is usually discovered in liver, kidney, heart, and retina cells as well as nerve and ganglion cells.

Due to the strong association between lipofuscin buildup and many age-related illnesses, the capacity of Centrophenoxine to decrease or eliminate this buildup makes it an invaluable anti-aging tool.


How to Take Centrophenoxine?

Recommended dosages of centrophenoxine range from 250 to 3000 mg daily in two doses and are deemed safe and efficient for most healthy adults.

Although higher doses may be needed to maximize their anti-aging impacts, it is advisable to consult a medical professional before exceeding the suggested daily dosage.

It is best, to begin with, the smallest effective dose possible, as with all supplements, and gradually boost as required.

It is best taken with food due to being fat-soluble.

Side Effects

What Are the Side Effects of Centrophenoxine?

At recommended dosage ranges, Centrophenoxine is secure and nontoxic and is very well tolerated.

However, some customers encountered mild and minor side effects, including nausea, headache, gastrointestinal problems, and sleeplessness.

In most instances, the side effects were correlated with high doses, and decreasing the daily cumulative dosage eliminated unwanted side effects.

User experience


So, as far as I'm worried, I first attempted Centrophenoxine about two months ago. As I've written for other compounds, Centrophenoxine won't make you a genius or scientist at all. It will take you to a defined upper potential stage.

There are a lot of studies available on the Centrophenoxine web here and there. It should clear lipofuscin from your brain, but under these conditions, none of us will verify whether or not I do so. Centrophenoxine does work very well, anyway. You need to discover the correct dosage for yourself; I found it works fantastic when taken with racetams, particularly aniracetam just because it seems to potentiate each other's impact. Look together uniquely to increase the mood. I propose a 2:1 ratio of racetam-centro. Centrophenoxine is not a type of high-dose compound to be taken… I don't think it's more than 1000 mg a day.

Sometimes remember to create a stop. It's important because the brain gets used to the large number of neurotransmitters very rapidly.

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.