This page contains all website entries whether pages, posts, updates, or blog entries that are tagged Neuroprotection or Neuroprotective Nootropics.

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Summary: Centrophenoxine is an effective nootropic that boosts memory. It can reverse age-related cognitive degeneration amd improve mood and brain function.


What is Centrophenoxine?

Centrophenoxine is one of the oldest nootropics studied, also known as Lucidril and Meclofenoxate.

This drug was initially created in 1959 and was commonly used to treat age-related brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s and dementia. Healthy people also use it to improve memory and cognitive function and improve general brain health.

Centrophenoxine is a mixture of two chemicals: dimethyl-aminoethanol (DMAE), a natural substance found in certain foods (fish, seafood) and the brain in tiny quantities. It is a source of choline and has impacts that stimulate the brain.

Parachlorphenoxyacetic acid (pCPA), a synthetic version of plant growth hormones called auxins, is the primary active ingredient of this drug. DMAE is not well crossing the blood-brain barrier. It can, however, pass through the blood-brain barrier within Centrophenoxine and enter the brain efficiently once placed in the body, a part of Centrophenoxine breaks down into DMAE and PCPA in the liver.

DMAE is then transformed to choline, and the remaining Centrophenoxine circulates throughout the body

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Benefits and Effects

What are the Benefits of Centrophenoxine?

  1. Neuroprotective
  2. Learning and Memory
  3. Mood
  4. Stress
  5. Reverses Brain-Deficits causes by Aging
  6. Enhance Cancer Treatment


Centrophenoxine protects nerve cells from oxidative harm caused by exposure to toxins or strokes. This drug decreased the damage induced by free radicals in rats with different kinds of brain injury and enhanced the resulting memory, cognitive function, and motion deficits.

This drug increases the activity of critical antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain, which can account for its positive consequences.

In 50 elderly patients with dementia (DB-RCT), it also enhanced memory.

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Learning and Memory

Centrophenoxine also enhanced ancient mice’s learning and memory.

Mood and Stress

Centrophenoxine in rats subjected to stress considerably decreased anxiety. It also enhance humans ‘ mood.

In a research of 80 healthy topics, three months of taking a drug containing DMAE, increased energy, and improved well-being. Therefore, the active DMAE element of Centrophenoxine can enhance mood.

Reverses Brain-Deficits causes by Aging

It also reverses the brain aging impacts by decreasing free radicals and buildup of lipofuscin in the rat brain (hippocampus), both of which are associated with neurodegenerative disease.

Enhance Cancer Treatment

This medication enhances the action of particular cancer drugs that cause cancer cell DNA damage.

Centrophenoxine is a mixture of PCPA (para-chlorphenoxyacetic) and DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol) synthesized version that has been altered to improve absorption and enhance its capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier. It is a compound that is metabolized in the liver and fat-soluble.

Although Centrophenoxine has been the topic of centuries of studies, it is still not fully grasped its exact mechanisms of action.

Once Centrophenoxine crosses the blood-brain barrier, it eventually raises the quantity of acetylcholine in the synaptic vesicles, either by transforming it into an intermediate phospholipid that is then used to create acetylcholine or by breaking it down into choline that is transformed into acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter most closely connected with memory and overall cognitive.

The capacity of Centrophenoxine to raise concentrations of acetylcholine is the primary means of acting as a nootropic substance.

Centrophenoxine, however, also enhances cognition in other ways, such as improving the accessibility of oxygen and glucose to the brain and reducing levels of cellular waste and cognition-affected toxins.

Centrophenoxine is both anti-aging and nootropic. It is a potent antioxidant capable of flushing cell toxins and helping to repair toxin-related damage.

It is known to decrease levels of lipid peroxidation waste products or oxidative degradation of fats in cell membranes.

Cellular damage caused by lipid peroxidation is connected with aging and is involved in many diseases and disorders, including infections and complications. Lipofuscin buildup is usually discovered in liver, kidney, heart, and retina cells as well as nerve and ganglion cells.

Due to the strong association between lipofuscin buildup and many age-related illnesses, the capacity of Centrophenoxine to decrease or eliminate this buildup makes it an invaluable anti-aging tool.

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How to Take Centrophenoxine?

Recommended dosages of centrophenoxine range from 250 to 3000 mg daily in two doses and are deemed safe and efficient for most healthy adults.

Although higher doses may be needed to maximize their anti-aging impacts, it is advisable to consult a medical professional before exceeding the suggested daily dosage.

It is best, to begin with, the smallest effective dose possible, as with all supplements, and gradually boost as required.

It is best taken with food due to being fat-soluble.

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Side Effects

What Are the Side Effects of Centrophenoxine?

At recommended dosage ranges, Centrophenoxine is secure and nontoxic and is very well tolerated.

However, some customers encountered mild and minor side effects, including nausea, headache, gastrointestinal problems, and sleeplessness.

In most instances, the side effects were correlated with high doses, and decreasing the daily cumulative dosage eliminated unwanted side effects.

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User experience


So, as far as I’m worried, I first attempted Centrophenoxine about two months ago. As I’ve written for other compounds, Centrophenoxine won’t make you a genius or scientist at all. It will take you to a defined upper potential stage.

There are a lot of studies available on the Centrophenoxine web here and there. It should clear lipofuscin from your brain, but under these conditions, none of us will verify whether or not I do so. Centrophenoxine does work very well, anyway. You need to discover the correct dosage for yourself; I found it works fantastic when taken with racetams, particularly aniracetam just because it seems to potentiate each other’s impact. Look together uniquely to increase the mood. I propose a 2:1 ratio of racetam-centro. Centrophenoxine is not a type of high-dose compound to be taken… I don’t think it’s more than 1000 mg a day.

Sometimes remember to create a stop. It’s important because the brain gets used to the large number of neurotransmitters very rapidly.

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OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsStackFAQ

Summary: Huperzine A is a natural neuroprotectant based on plants that can improve memory and increase general cognition. Huperzine A was first recognized in the 1980s as an alkaloid compound extracted from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata, but Chinese herbal medicine has been using plant extracts for centuries.


What is Huperzine A?

Although it is typically used in the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, the nootropic potential of huperzine A is making it more popular among learners and otherwise healthy people who want to think more obviously, learn faster, and remember more correctly. Huperzine A’s advantages and effects offer benefits for both the brain and body.

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Benefits and Effects

  1. Neuroprotectantion
  2. Antioxidation
  3. Improving Memory
  4. Protects Against Glutamate Toxicity
  5. Relieves Symptoms of Depression


Huperzine A’s capacity to safeguard the brain from oxidative damage, one of the most prevalent issues connected with aging, is one of the most significant advantages. Oxidative damage is at the core of most age-related diseases and is thought to play an essential part in the growth of Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. Oxidative damage begins with an abnormality that occurs when oxygen molecules are divided into individual atoms, a normal process that occurs continuously. Ideally, each particle should be encircled by pairs of electrons orbiting the atom in layers, but as we grow older, the method becomes less reliable, and a growing proportion of fresh particles are created without a complete electron complement. The imbalanced atoms, called free radicals, scavenge surrounding cells in search of electrons suitable for balancing their layer of particles.

They generate a chain of possibly harmful chemical reactions when free radicals attack neighboring cells and eventually destabilize the cells they “borrow” electrons from. The existence of antioxidants or molecules that can “donate” an electron to a free radical without becoming themselves volatile can offset this impact. The method can effectively be useful if free radicals and antioxidants are present in equilibrium, but if free radical activity exceeds antioxidant activity, the outcome is oxidative stress that damages lipids, proteins, and DNA.

Over time, this harm can result in several debilitating and even lethal age-related illnesses, including diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, artery atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

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Huperzine A is a powerful antioxidant that has been shown to have a positive effect on oxidative balance and is regarded as a secure, efficient, and well-tolerated adjunct therapy for Alzheimer’s disease.

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Improving Memory

Memory Enhancer Huperzine A can enhance memory by enhancing the level of acetylcholine in the brain, an important neurotransmitter vital to all elements of cognition.

While this advantage plays a significant role in the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease, clinical studies suggest that huperzine A can also enhance memory and learning capacity in healthy youth.

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Protects Against Glutamate Toxicity

Glutamate is an active, exciting neurotransmitter responsible for sending signals between nerve cells. When present at normal levels, it plays a significant part in learning and memory, but when concentrations are too large, it can become poisonous and can result in cell damage and even death.

Chronic glutamate toxicity induced by over-sensitive receptors is a typical characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, causing anxiety, restlessness, enhanced pain sensitivity, and reduced focusing or concentration capability.

This syndrome is particularly dangerous for older people, as age seems to increase the sensitivity of the receptor and make neurons more susceptible to glutamate toxicity. It has been shown that Huperzine A acts as an antagonist to glutamate receptors in the brain, preventing neurons from being overactivated by glutamate[8].

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Relieves Symptoms of Depression

A 2016 review of three clinical trials indicate that Huperzine A supplementation may be efficient in alleviating the symptoms of cognitive impairment of significant depressive disorders.

A total of 238 individuals aged 16 to 60 participated in studies that compared the efficacy of antidepressant therapy with Huperzine supplemented antidepressant treatment. While the addition of Huperzine A did not appear to treat depressive illnesses, the group that took both antidepressants and Huperzine A showed considerably higher improvement in both mental functioning and quality of life.

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Mechanism of Action

Huperzine A is a water-soluble alkaloid that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes quickly across all brain areas. It appears within 5–10 minutes in the blood in humans, and maximum concentration is reached in about an hour. Its half-life is roughly 10 hours and mostly eliminated within 24 hours through urine.

Huperzine A inhibits the formation in the brain of the G4 isoform of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that degrades and decreases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine concentrations. This intervention efficiently elevates levels of acetylcholine, which is profoundly connected with all aspects of cognition and shown to be a crucial role in new memory formation. High concentrations of acetylcholine also enhance brain signaling and increase cortical circuit response time, while at the same time reducing exciting feedback that may impede memory recovery.

Studies indicate that huperzine A has a potency equal to or even higher than prescription inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. It has also been shown that huperzine A acts as a potent antioxidant, neutralizing and in some instances preventing or even reversing oxidative damage induced by free radicals in the brain.

This antioxidant capacity is regarded as essential to the importance of huperzine A in treating Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders as an adjunct therapy.

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Glutamate Toxicity

Huperzine A is also known to assist safeguard the brain from the toxicity of glutamate by blocking certain glutamate receptor kinds. This intervention prevents the overactivation of brain cells and helps to normalize glutamate concentrations, stopping the toxicity of acute glutamate typically associated with dementia and other neurological disorders connected with age.

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How to Take Huperzine A?

There is no medically known guideline for Huperzine A dosage, but it has been securely administered as follows in clinical study studies: 50–200 mcg twice daily for the therapy of Alzheimer’s illness, 100 mcg twice daily for improved memory in teenagers, and 30 mcg twice daily for the treatment of senile or pre-senile dementia. It can be taken with food or without.

Cycling can be helpful because of its long half-life of over 10 hours. A supplementation cycle of 2–4 weeks followed by a supplementation break is typical, although no ideal cycle duration was recognized.

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While huperzine A is going to have an impact alone, accumulating it with the correct parts can produce even better outcomes.

Huperzine A may boost the quantity of acetylcholine in the brain in conjunction with a choline source such as Alpha GPC, further improving the impact of huperzine A.

Many people in their diets lack adequate choline, so supplementation can be useful.

Also, a racetam is an excellent option for Huperzine A stacking. It is believed that racetams activate glutamate receptors situated close receptors of acetylcholine. This activity sensitizes the receptors of acetylcholine to enable them more probably. Stimulating the receptors with a racetam and raising the quantity of Huperzine A acetylcholine enhances both drugs ‘ nootropic impact.

Also, Huperzine A is often coupled with Noopept, a potent nootropic synthetic.

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Memory Boosting Huperzine A Stack

Daily 20 mg Noopept 300 mg Alpha GPC As required/cycled 200 mcg Huperzine A 10 mg Vinpocetine

Side Effects

Huperzine A appears to be secure and well tolerated when taken in moderation, although there has been no study of long-term safety or safety during pregnancy. No toxicity incidence was recorded in Huperzine A research and tests. Side effects are rare and transitory when taken in quantities frequently used for supplementation and consist primarily of minor digestive upset.

Huperzine A can trigger nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea when taken in massive doses, slurred speech, twitching of muscles, drooling, incontinence, increased blood pressure, and slow heart rate.

Huperzine A may communicate with anticholinergic drugs such as atropine and scopolamine; it may also interact with antihistamines and antidepressant medicines. Individuals taking these medicines or having heart disease, hypertension, or taking anticholinergic medication for Alzheimer’s or glaucoma should talk to their doctor about huperzine A before taking it.

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Huperzine A is an antioxidant, neuroprotectant, and nootropic natural supplement. Decades of studies suggest that memory and general co-operation can be enhanced.

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Summary: CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabis extract. It is a potent anti-inflammatory that fights cancer, helps with IBS, schizophrenia, anxiety, and needless to say, promote quality of sleep.

what is cbd oil
Cannabidiol CBD Skeletal Structure

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What is CBD Cannabidiol?

CBD is one of the (more or less) 113 cannabinoids identified in help plants. Also, it accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. That is a lot. A lot of extensive research is ongoing about cannabidiol, most of which is on anxiety, cognition, movement disorders, and pain. [1]

CBD is one of over 60 compounds found in cannabis that belong to a class of ingredients called cannabinoids.

THC is one of the other 60 compounds, and it is what got mainstream attention, and everyone got to know it because its an ingredient in cannabis and produces the psychoactive effect.

Although CBD is also an ingredient in marijuana, it doesn’t seem to provide the same psychoactive effects the way THC does, yet still offers many benefits nevertheless.

CBD is a component of sativa. Moreover, it can be beneficial in many different ways with more and more research showing up every day along with an equal amount of marketing advertisements. It may be helpful on such a broad spectrum that is from anti inflammation to antioxidation to anxiolytic to antipsychotic. That’s the anti’s part. Furthermore, it is a potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, anxiety, and even schizophrenia. [2]

What is CBD Oil?

Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is oil that is extracted from the annual herbaceous flowering plant cannabis. The oil taken from the plant’s secretions is used as a food supplement and as a medicine (we retail it as a food supplement). It was discovered in 1940 and the plant has over 400 additional compounds, which have been used throughout the world for millennia.

CBD is a product that helps to communicate with the body to complete its natural maintenance and regenerative functions. Activating these CB1 & CB2 receptors in your body will give it balance, helping the natural signals of these bodily systems flow.

Legal Status

With the United Nations: Cannabidiol is not scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances or any other UN drug treaty. In 2018, the World Health Organization recommended that CBD remains unscheduled. [R]

I think that by itself explains the explosion of online vendors and the increase in the sale of CBD oil as well as CBD isolate.

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Benefits and Effects

What Are the CBD Benefits?

  1. CBD Reduces Anxiety and Depression
  2. CBD Treats Seizures, Epilepsy & Neurological Disorders
  3. CBD Benefits Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  4. Relieves Pain and Inflammation
  5. CBD Benefits Schizophrenia
  6. Anti-Cancer Properties
  7. Additional Benefits

CBD Reduces Anxiety and Depression

A 2011 study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test on healthy control patients and treatment-naive patients with a social anxiety disorder. A total of 24 never-treated patients with a social anxiety disorder were given either CBD or placebo 1.5 hours before the test. Researchers found that pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alertness in anticipation of their speech. The placebo group presented stress, anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort. [3]

CBD has also shown antidepressant-like effects in several animal studies. [4]

Social Anxiety Disorder

Early research shows that taking cannabidiol at a dosage of 300 mg daily didn’t improve anxiety in people with social anxiety disorder. However, another research suggests that taking a higher dose (400-600 mg) notably improves anxiety, especially that which is related to public speaking and medical tests in people with social anxiety disorders. [5]


According to researchers, CBD has antidepressant effects in mice. These depression-reducing effects of CBD in mice were fast, maintained over time, and as strong as a standard antidepressant (common tricyclic medication imipramine, also known as Tofranil) [R] [R]

Treats Seizures, Epilepsy & Neurological Disorders

A 2014 survey conducted by researchers at Stanford University on 19 subjects who suffered epilepsy and had previously tried up to 12 antiepileptic drugs. 84% of the participants had a reduction in seizure frequency while taking CBD. Furthermore, 11% reported complete diminishing symptoms of seizure altogether. [6]

CBD Benefits Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Aside from all the research I came across supporting this, I just remembered that one of my friends’ sisters who has been suffering multiple sclerosis for a long time, told us the day she tried cannabis had been a turning point in her life regarding easing her symptoms to new levels. Moreover, with my knowledge of the plant, I can believe everything about this study, and it makes total sense to me.

Relieves Pain and Inflammation

CBD significantly suppresses neuropathic pain as well as chronic inflammation in rodents without causing tolerance. It inhibits the neuronal transmission within the pain pathways. With those findings and many more surfacing from all over the world, researchers are now suggesting that CBD and other ingredients of cannabis – those that don’t produce psychoactive effects, might be representing a novel class of therapeutic remedies for treating chronic pain. [7]

Furthermore, it is also said to lower the incidence of diabetes, relieve nausea, promote cardiovascular health, and much more. It sounds like an all-in-one ointment that you have to keep around in the house for when necessary. It can heal a wound if you have one or in another day gets you to relax and unwind. I thought I’m over it after my experiment, but now after researching it again a year later, I think I might give it another shot — although definitley not vaping it this time.

CBD Benefits Schizophrenia

While the psychoactive THC in cannabis seems to trigger psychotic episodes, especially in those with schizophrenia, CBD has opposite, antipsychotic effects. More and more studies are pointing to CBD as a natural alternative to antipsychotic drugs but with far fewer side effects. [R]

Anti-Cancer Properties

CBD decreases the energy production in cancers, triggering their death. It makes cancer cells kill themselves (apoptosis), stopping both cancer growth and spreading. [R] [R]

Furthermore, in test-tube and animal studies, CBD has demonstrated anti-tumor effects. In animals, it has been shown to prevent the spread of breast, prostate, brain, colon, and lung cancer. [R]

Additional Benefits

Antipsychotic effects

Studies suggest that CBD may help people with schizophrenia and other mental disorders by reducing psychotic symptoms [R]

Substance Abuse Disorder Treatment

CBD has been shown to modify circuits in the brain related to drug addiction. In rats, CBD has been shown to reduce morphine dependence and heroin-seeking behavior. [R]

Diabetes Prevention

In diabetic mice, treatment with CBD reduced the incidence of diabetes by 56% and significantly reduced inflammation. [R]

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Mechanism of Action

How Does CBD Work?

CBD supports your complete wellbeing by working with your Endocannabinoid System (ECS). In the 1990s, the first Endocannabinoid System receptors were cloned: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors have an effect on the brain, and nervous system and how our bodies feel overall. CB2 receptors influence appetite and immune system function. CB2 receptors also control the management of pain throughout the nervous system. It uses 2-AG and binds with enzymes throughout the Endocannabinoid system. The Endocannabinoid system also uses (2-AG) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol to control these body systems.

Cannabidiol has antipsychotic effects. The exact cause for these effects is not apparent. However, cannabidiol seems to prevent the breakdown of a chemical in the brain that affects pain, mood, and mental function. Preventing the breakdown of this chemical and increasing its levels in the blood seems to reduce psychotic symptoms associated with conditions such as schizophrenia. Cannabidiol might also block some of the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Furthermore, cannabidiol seems to reduce pain and anxiety. [R]

The Endocannabinoid System

The Endogenous Cannabinoid System, also known as the ECS system, are cell receptors that communicate with various parts of the body to tell them when to start or to tell the process when to stop such as:

  1. The brain
  2. Organs
  3. Connective Tissues
  4. Glands
  5. Immuno Cells

The goal of the ECS is to achieve the overall balance of the body’s systems. The ECS chemical keys are the CB1 and CB2 receptors within the body, which lock and unlock systems of the body. Since cannabinoids play a significant role within the body’s functions, they constitute an important tool to maintain our overall wellbeing.

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How to Take CBD?

CBD dosage can vary anywhere from 100 mg up to even 3 g per day, depending on the health issue on target.For protecting the brain (such as in Alzheimer’s) and reducing inflammation and muscle twitching (MS), doses of 100 to 600 mg of CBD were used in clinical studies. In some studies, patients took as much CBD oil as they needed to feel pain or muscle spasm relief.

Doses up to 800 mg CBD daily were used for psychosis and schizophrenia.

The highest CBD doses used in studies were up to 3.5 g of CBD oil daily for very severe drug-resistant seizures in children and young adults with epilepsy. 300 mg per day was enough to reduce anxiety in clinical studies.

Typically, it is recommended to take 150 mg of CBD oil twice a day for tackling anxiety, and for inflamation relief.

For multiple sclerosis: A spray delivering 2.5 mg of cannabidiol under the tongue per dose is positivley reported.

How is CBD Oil Used?

CBD oil is used to support the overall wellbeing of the body and mind. Today, it is used widely as a food supplement that activates receptors that communicate with the different systems of the body. CBD supports your overall feeling of wellbeing throughout the body, but does not give a sensation of “being high”, which is why THC, the other well-known active substance from the Cannabis plant, has been prohibited in most countries and considered a drug.

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Side Effects

What Are The CBD Side Effects?

CBD is generally well tolerated, and safe at high doses, and with chronic use in humans. [R]

Cannabidiol sprays used under the tongue have been used in doses of 2.5 mg for up to 2 weeks.

Some reported side effects of cannabidiol include dry mouth, low blood pressure, lightheadedness, and drowsiness.

This is what I can second as well, from my personal experience with CBD.

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User Experience

My Personal Experience

Although my method of administration was slightly different, during my experimental period with CBD oil I was inhaling it through a vape.

I can confirm that at many times it had an incredible effect on me especially regarding anxiety and on my hypertension. However, most often than not, I was experiencing side effects rather than the benefits. To me, those were dry mouth, which is tolerable and expected. However, I often suffered somewhat an anxiety rebound instead of ease. And I believe it stemmed from analyzing and paying attention to how my heart starts beating fast and I feel altogether uncomfortable. It’s like being on a bad trip and without even the psychoactive effect.

I tried several types. Some of the very potent and concentrated and some were diluted and had lower concentrations. I had very mixed feelings about it and decided to give away the oil along with the vape all together a long time ago. However, I might give it another try this time leaving the vape away and taking it orally instead.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Does CBD Oil Help Anxiety?

CBD was recommended to me for anxiety and depression about a month ago.
I’ve suffered anxiety and depression for as long as I can remember. I managed it for a while with vitamins and exercise, but a little over a year ago the depression and anxiety became overwhelming. They helped, but it was still there. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety meds have been recommended, but the idea of an adverse reaction making it worse was terrifying. A few months ago PMDD (pre menstral dysphoric disorder) appeared. A week or so before my period, anxiety went in to overdrive. I would wake up terrified. I was afraid to leave my house, go to work, I convinced myself I was a terrible mother and my daughter would be better off somewhere else. Horrible, awful, crippling fear. Even auditory hallucinations. I felt borderline psychotic, like I wasn’t in control of my thoughts. All created soley by out of whack hormones. And this happened every month!! Enter CBDs. I started taking 20Mg CBD capsules every morning about a month ago. Within a couple days, I felt better. In less than a week, anxiety and depression significantly dissipated and I just feel normal. I’m positive and energetic. I’m eating better, exercising again, and I don’t have a lead weight on my chest that prevents me from making decisions or doing what I need to. PMDD hasn’t shown up whatsoever. I’ve had unusually strong cravings for chocolate milkshakes the last couple days, but I’ll take that over the bs I was going through. My experience with CBDs has been phenominal, with absolutely no side effects. Everyone is different, but its helped me immensly with anxiety and depression.

What Does CBD Oil Do?

CBD has show promise for many health related issues, but still needs to be studied more closely. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) just realesed their findings on CBD ad the recognized they could not find any side effects associated with CBD and they found it MAY be useful for various issues, including:
Alzheimer’s disease: anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiapoptotic in in vitro and in vivo models of Aβ-evoked neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses.
Parkinson’s disease: Attenuation of the dopaminergic impairment in vivo; neuroprotection; improvement of psychiatric rating and reduction of agitation, nightmare and aggressive behaviour in patients.
Multiple sclerosis: Improved signs of EAE in mice, antinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties.
Huntington’s disease: Neuroprotective and antioxidant in mice transgenic models; no significant clinically important differences in patients.
Hypoxia-ischemia injury: Short term neuroprotective effects; inhibition of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in rodent models.
Pain: Analgesic effect in patients with neuropathic pain resistant to other treatments.
Psychosis: Attenuation of the behavioural and glial changes in animal models of schizophrenia; anti-psychotic properties on ketamine-induced symptoms
Anxiety: Reduction of muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue, problems in concentration, improvement of social interactions in rodent models of anxiety and stress; reduced social anxiety in patients.
Depression: Anti-depressant effect in genetic rodent model of depression.
Cancer: Antiproliferative and anti-invasive actions in a large range of cancer types; induction of autophagy-mediated cancer cell death; chemopreventive effects.
Nausea: Suppression of nausea and conditioned gaping in rats
Inflammatory diseases: Antinflammatory properties in several in vitro and in vivo models; inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pathways.
Rheumatoid arthritis: Inhibition of TNF-α in an animal model
Infection: Activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Inflammatory bowel and Crohn’s diseases: Inhibition of macrophage recruitment and TNF-α secretion in vivo and ex vivo; reduction in disease activity index in Crohn’s patients.
Cardiovascular diseases: Reduced infarct size through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo.
Diabetic complications: Attenuation of fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction

Related Natural Nootropics

  1. Bacopa Monnieri
  2. Ginkgo Biloba
  3. Ashwagandha
  4. Cordyceps Mushroom
  5. Lion’s Mane Mushroom

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Summary: Coenzyme Q10 (often called CoQ10) is a vitamin-like substance used in the treatment of a variety of disorders primarily related to cellular energy production, metabolism, and oxidative injury. Research shows coenzyme Q10 to be most promising for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and certain encephalomyopathies for which coenzyme Q10 has gained a high popularity.


What is CoEnzyme Q10?

Coenzyme Q10 (2,3 dimethoxy-5 methyl-6-decaprenyl benzoquinone) is a fat-soluble, vitamin-like quinone commonly known as ubiquinone, CoQ, and vitamin Q10. It is available in more than 100 single-ingredient and combination-ingredient products, and in 2002 it accounted for more than $200 million in sales in the United States. [R]

Coenzyme Q10 was first isolated in 1957 in beef mitochondria, and is found in highest concentrations in tissues with high energy turnover such as the heart, brain, liver, and kidney.

CoQ10 is a ubiquitous compound vital to a number of activities related to energy metabolism.

Because dysfunctional energy metabolism has been cited as a contributing factor for a number of conditions, coenzyme Q10 has been indicated in the treatment of cardiac, neurologic, oncologic, and immunologic disorders.

Although the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 does not allow claims for treatment of specific diseases in the United States, coenzyme Q10 has been cleared for treatment indications in other countries, such as for congestive heart failure (CHF) in Japan since 1974.

“Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10) is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). It is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail.

This fat-soluble substance, which resembles a vitamin, is present in all respiring eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, which generates energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body’s energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements, such as the heart, liver, and kidney, have the highest CoQ10 concentrations.

There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol). The capacity of this molecule to act as a two-electron carrier (moving between the quinone and quinol form) and a one-electron carrier (moving between the semiquinone and one of these other forms) is central to its role in the electron transport chain due to the iron–sulfur clusters that can only accept one electron at a time, and as a free-radical–scavenging antioxidant.” – Wikipedia

From Nootropics Depot:

Coenzyme Q10 (also known as CoQ10) is, as the name suggests, a coenzyme. CoQ10, via its action as a coenzyme, can drive many cellular processes throughout our bodies. Although not classified as a vitamin, CoQ10 closely resembles the structure of vitamin K and it appears that CoQ10 benefits resemble vitamin-like effects. This also hints at an important aspect of CoQ10: it is essential for overall human health. Without CoQ10, many bodily functions would may not work properly. Luckily our bodies are fairly good at preserving CoQ10, and CoQ10 deficiencies are rare. That said, taking a CoQ10 supplement still may have some remarkable effects on overall health.

Supplementing with extra Coenzyme Q10, alongside a healthy diet, may produce the following CoQ10 benefits:

  1. Coenzyme Q10 can support our cardiovascular health
  2. Coenzyme Q10 can support our metabolic function
  3. Coenzyme Q10 can promote our cognitive function
  4. Coenzyme Q10 can support brain health via its neuroprotective effects

A large majority of these CoQ10 benefits are attributed to how CoQ10 helps the body produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a very important molecule which drives most biological processes in the body. CoQ10 is also known as a redox molecule, which allows it to transfer between fully oxidized and fully reduced states. Through its redox actions, CoQ10 can help power our cells while also helping protect them from oxidative stress. This all sounds great on paper, right? However, CoQ10 in its crystalline form is faced with some major issues and may not be able to produce all of the CoQ10 benefits mentioned above.

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Benefits & Effects

What Are The CoQ10 Benefits?

  1. Enhances and Sharpens Mental Capabilities
  2. Boosts Energy and Reduces Fatigue
  3. Boosts Mitochondrial Health & Function
  4. Reduces Stress and Free Radicals Damage
  5. Supports Fertility
  6. Combats Statin Drug Side Effects
  7. Cancer Prevention Potential
  8. Powerful Antioxidant & Neuroprotectant
  9. Protects Blood Vessels and Enhances Blood Flow

Supporting research:

Enhances and Sharpens Mental Capabilities

Coenzyme Q10 may also present significant benefits to your cognition. Studies found that individuals with higher levels of CoQ10 showed greater mental sharpness, increased mental energy, and greater performance on a variety of mental tests. In contrast, those with lower levels of Coenzyme Q10 had greater difficulty concentrating, experienced brain fog, were slower in their mental processing, and showed general cognitive decline. Some researchers suggest that taking Coenzyme Q10 early enough may decrease your chances of suffering memory loss as a result of aging.

Boosts Energy and Reduces Fatigue

Some studies also show that Coenzyme Q10 may help to reduce physical fatigue, increase energy, improve exercise capacity, and expedite recovery from exercise.

Boosts Mitochondrial Health & Function

In studies of eight to 44 patients, Coenzyme Q10 demonstrated positive trends in reducing symptoms associated with selected mitochondrial abnormalities including the mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, and the myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRhF) syndrome. [R]

Reduces Stress and Free Radicals Damage

Oxidative damage (or free radical damage) of cell structures plays an important role in the functional declines that accompany aging and cause disease. As both a water- and fat-soluble antioxidant, CoQ10 has been found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, which occurs when cell membranes and low-density lipoproteins are exposed to oxidizing conditions that enter from outside the body. [R]

Supports Fertility

The antioxidant properties of CoQ10 could help improve sperm quality and reduce the decline in the number and quality of eggs in women. Supplementing with CoQ10 seems to help and may even reverse this age-related decline in egg quality and quantity.

Female fertility decreases with age due to a decline in the number and quality of available eggs. CoQ10 is directly involved in this process. As you age, CoQ10 production slows, making the body less effective at protecting the eggs from oxidative damage. [R]

Combats Statin Drug Side Effects

Statins are drugs that help lower cholesterol but often come along with a host of side effects.

Patients suffering from statin-related muscle pain, muscle strength degradation, and decreased aerobic activity can increase performance through daily intake of CoQ10 without other symptoms.

“Statin drugs can induce rhabdomyolysis (muscle death) which release rhabdomyosarcoma cells into the bloodstream, degrading other tissues. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells treated with a CoQ10 supplement alongside simvastatin reversed muscle death and killed off remaining sarcoma cells.” [R]

Cancer Prevention Potential

Low levels of CoQ10 have been associated with up to a 53.3% higher risk of cancer and indicate a poor prognosis for various types of cancer [R]

CoQ10 plays a critical role in the protection of cell DNA and cell survival, both of which are strongly linked to cancer prevention and recurrence.

Powerful Antioxidant & Neuroprotectant

Antioxidants are necessary for neutralizing harmful compounds known as free radicals, which are created when cells undergo oxidation. Free radicals can promote cell death, mutate DNA, and damage cell membranes. CoQ10 may help to eliminate free radicals and prevent the damage they can cause. Some studies even suggest that CoQ10 may recharge other antioxidant compounds and nutrients.

Within mitochondria, coenzyme Q10 has been found to protect membrane proteins and DNA from the oxidative damage that accompanies lipid peroxidation and neutralize free radicals directly that contribute to nearly all age-related diseases (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, neurological disease, etc.). [R]

Protects Blood Vessels and Enhances Blood Flow

According to Nootropics Depot, one of the most popular companies that manufactures nootropics, CoQ10 can protect your blood vessels and enhance your blood flow. This is partly caused by preservation of nitric oxide, a signaling molecule that relaxes the arteries. This may improve overall circulation and cardiovascular health.

COQ10 can reduce the damage oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) can do to blood vessels, as well as reduce plaque buildup in the arteries.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does CoQ10 Work?

Coenzyme Q10 is vital for the proper transfer of electrons within the mitochondrial oxidative respiratory chain, whose main function is adenosine triphosphate production. Coenzyme Q10 also appears to increase adenosine triphosphate levels by preventing the loss of the adenine nucleotide pool from cardiac cells.4 Additionally, coenzyme Q10 has demonstrated activity in preventing lipid peroxidation as an antioxidant scavenger and an indirect stabilizer of calcium channels to decrease calcium overload.

Much of the basic research in support of coenzyme Q10 supplementation has focused on the CHF model. The myocardium of patients with CHF demonstrates increased oxidative stress as well as decreased concentrations of coenzyme Q10 as confirmed by tissue assays.8 These levels appear to correlate with CHF severity in the animal and human model, with coenzyme Q10 supplementation protecting against ischemia and reperfusion injury in animal studies.

Ubiquinol vs. Ubiquinone

Coenzyme Q10 can occur in multiple different forms in the body, and the two most abundant forms are oxidized CoQ10 (ubiquinone) and reduced CoQ10 (ubiquinol). Many people tend to prefer ubiquinol, due to its oxidation reducing effects in the body. However, due to this, the lesser desired ubiquinone often times gets overlooked. This is a shame because it actually has some very unique effects! Ubiquinone plays a major role in the electron transport chain, acting as a shuttle for cellular energy. Due to the fact that ubiquinone CoQ10 is hydrophobic and lipophilic, it can freely move between hydrophobic regions in the inner membranes of mitochondrion. It moves by way of passive diffusion, so no energy is needed to move CoQ10 around in the mitochondrion.

Ubiquinone stores energy temporarily, and is able to move it through the electron transport chain. It does this by attaching an electron to its benzoquinone head. It can accept electrons from various different systems, such as NADH-Q reductase. Ubiquinone transports these electrons from complex I and complex II of the electron transport chain, to complex III of the electron transport chain. While it does this, it also transports protons, which generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. As these protons flow back across the inner mitochondrial membrane, it directly helps form adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is in addition to ubiquinone already enhancing ATP synthesis by transporting electrons throughout the electron transport chain.

Nootropics Depot

What Does Ubiquinol Do?

As mentioned earlier, many people appear to prefer the fully reduced form of Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinol. Why is this the case? In the body, and especially in mitochondrion, ubiquinol benefits are focused on directly reducing oxidation. This is highly important in mitochondrion as their high activity results in large amounts of oxidative stress. By supplementing with ubiquinol CoQ10, it is possible to directly reduce oxidation in targeted areas such as the mitochondrion. These ubiquinol benefits make it highly attractive to consumers, and for good reason, as these oxidation reducing ubiquinol benefits are very desirable! That being said, you do not necessarily have to directly supplement with ubiquinol in order to utilize ubiquinol benefits. This is due to the fact that ubiquinone actually turns into ubiquinol as it travels through the electron transport chain. In the electron transport chain, CoQ10 exists in three forms: ubiquinone, semiquinone and ubiquinol. Ubiquinone is the fully oxidized form, and when it picks up a proton, it turns into the partially reduced form, semiquinone. Semiquinone is a highly unstable compound which is quickly further reduced to ubiquinol by picking up another proton. Ubiquinol may then act as an antioxidant in the mitochondria. However, when ubiquinol interacts with an oxidant, it becomes oxidized and loses a proton. This turns ubiquinol back into semiquinone. Semiquinone then also becomes oxidized and now we are back at the fully oxidized form of CoQ10: ubiquinone. This means that by either supplementing with ubiquinone or ubiquinol, you will reap similar benefits. That being said, supplementation of ubiquinone may act more rapidly to produce ATP whereas supplementation with ubiquinol may act more rapidly to control oxidative stress in the mitochondria. – ND

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How To Take CoQ10?

The standard dose for CoQ10 is generally 90mg for a low dose and 200mg for the higher dose, taken once daily with a meal due to its reliance on food for absorption.

There generally isn’t too much of a therapeutic effect of CoQ10 supplementation (mostly taken with the ‘just in case’ mentality that pervades multivitamin supplementation), although for people who have previously experience a heart attack or damage to cardiac tissue as well as for people on statin therapy supplementation becomes much more important. CoQ10 supplements can be either the oxidized form (ubiquinone) or reduced form (ubiquinol) as both forms seem pretty equally potent in increasing circulating levels of total CoQ10 in the body. ‘Total CoQ10’ refers to the sum of both forms, since CoQ10 can readily swap between forms as it acts in the body. –

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is CoQ10?

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural antioxidant synthesized by the body, found in many foods, and available as a supplement. It comes in two forms: ubiquinol, the active antioxidant form, and ubiquinone, the oxidized form, which the body partially converts to ubiquinol. Many multi-ingredient supplements contain both forms of CoQ10. In general, coenzymes support enzymes in their various biochemical functions. CoQ10 is a vital participant in the chain of metabolic chemical reactions that generate energy within cells. It is found in every cell of the body (the name ubiquinone stems from its ubiquity), but is present in higher concentrations in organs with higher energy requirements such as the kidneys, liver, and heart. Many medical studies demonstrate CoQ10 benefits when taken as a supplement, most of which stem from its vital role in oxygen utilization and energy production, particularly in heart muscle cells.

Why is CoQ10 necessary?

Coenzyme Q10 is beneficial for heart health in many ways. It assists in maintaining the normal oxidative state of LDL cholesterol, helps assure circulatory health, and supports optimal functioning of the heart muscle. CoQ10 may also help support the health of vessel walls. In addition, Coenzyme Q10 may play a role in reducing the number and severity of migraine headaches, and improving sperm motility in men. Some research has indicated therapeutic value in high doses to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease, but a 2011 study by the National Institute for Neurological Disease and Stroke found no benefit in slowing symptoms or neural degeneration. A few small clinical trials have indicated CoQ10 supplementation may help prevent and treat inflamed gums, a condition known as gingivitis.

What are the signs of a Coenzyme Q10 deficiency?

Studies in both animals and humans have associated significantly decreased levels of CoQ10 with a wide variety of diseases. Since this enzyme is found in high concentration in heart muscle cells, deficiency has been associated with cardiovascular problems including angina, arrhythmia, heart failure and high blood pressure. Problems with blood sugar regulation, gingival (gum) health, and stomach ulcers have also been associated with CoQ10 deficiency. Those who are taking statins to lower cholesterol are at particular risk for deficiency, because not only do statins reduce cholesterol levels, but they also block CoQ10 synthesis in the body. Low CoQ10 levels in patients on statins can contribute to the common side effects of statin therapy such as fatigue and aching joints and muscles.

How much, and what kind of Coenzyme Q10, does an adult need?

There is no official Daily Value recommendation, but its suggested at least 90 to 120 mg of supplemental CoQ10 for any adult taking statin medications and for those with a family history of heart problems, or who is at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This dosage is also appropriate for otherwise healthy men and women as a preventive measure and to help maintain a healthy cardiovascular system. CoQ10 is fat-soluble, so take the supplement with a meal containing fat. Seek out the soft-gel ubiquinol form when taking CoQ10 as a standalone supplement, as this has greater antioxidant efficiency than the ubiquinone form.

Is COQ10 harmful?

Of course not! The coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is vital for human metabolism, and is best known for its roles in glucose and fatty acid conversion to ATP, the form of energy used to power most body functions and as a powerful antioxidant in cells, inhibiting lipid peroxidation in cell membranes, DNA and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Studies show that when taken daily, CoQ10 supplements are capable of significantly reducing oxidative damage. Also note that CoQ10’s levels in skin decline with age, which may also make your skin more susceptible to oxidative damage. The key thing that impacts the effectiveness of CoQ10 supplements is that many of them have relatively poor bioavailability due to limited solubility. Thus, it is helpful to go for solubilized forms of CoQ10 which allow for 90-100 percent of dissolution, and which have been improved absorption.

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Summary: Ginkgo biloba is the most commonly ingested herb for brain health. Research proves that its neuroprotective, improves memory, boosts cognitive function, to name a few of its diverse benefits.

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What is Ginkgo Biloba?

Ginkgo biloba derives from the family of medicinal plant  Ginkgoaceae – which is highly loved, appreciated, and respected traditional Chinese medicine. It is the last and only ‘ginkgoaceae’ plant still existing today. The rest of the family is said to have gone extinct, after nearly 190 million years of existence. [R]

Today, Ginkgo biloba (also known as Tebonin, Tanakan, Rökan, Maidenhair, and gingko) is the most widely used herb for cognitive function and brain health.

Moreover, it is one of the top 10 best selling dietary supplements in the whole world. [R]

Although more commonly used by older people, the wide variety of benefits it possesses make it appeal to people of all ages.

Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko, also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated, and was cultivated early in human history. – Wikipedia

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Benefits & Effects

What Are The Benefits of Ginkgo Biloba?

  • Improves Memory (Formation, Consolidation, and Recall)
  • Ginkgo Relieves Anxiety & Stress (Generalized Anxiety)
  • Ginkgo biloba Relieves Depression Symptoms
  • Ginkgo biloba Protects Mitochondrial Health and Supports Longevity
  • Provides Neuroprotection
  • Promotes Nerve Repair and Neurogenesis
  • Promotes Better Sleep Quality
  • Treats Sexual and Erectile Dysfunction

Supporting Research:

Improves Memory (Formation &Recall)

In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia running over the course of 52 weeks and involving 309 patients, it was concluded that it is “capable of stabilizing improving the cognitive performance and the social functioning of demented patients for 6 months to 1 year.” [R]

Relieves Anxiety & Stress (Generalized Anxiety)

In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using ginkgo extract in patients with generalized anxiety disorder and ‘adjustment disorder with anxious mood’.

In this study, the results were “significantly superior to placebo on all secondary outcome measures. It was safe and well tolerated and may thus be of particular value in elderly patients with anxiety related to cognitive decline” [R]

Ginkgo biloba Relieves Depression Symptoms

Due to its ability of preserving serotonin and dopamine, as well as having strong protective and antioxidant effects, those 3 together allow ginkgo to provide an antidepressant effect. [R]

Protects Mitochondrial Health and Supports Longevity

Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents mitochondrial aging by protecting it against oxidative stress. The study suggests that on a rodents experiment, the extract ‘partially’ prevented changes due to oxidative damage [R] and that sounded good enough for me to reach out to my supplements cabinet for a 120mg dose.

Provides Neuroprotection

In a different rodent study where they were fed ginkgo biloba, a reduction in platelet activating factor (PAF) activity was noted. That reduction seems to be one of the leading mechanisms allowing ginkgo to have neuroprotective effects. [R]

Promotes Nerve Repair and Neurogenesis

Ginkgo (bilobalide) appears to promote neuronal proliferation with higher potency than Rolipram. Moreover, this can apply to all neurons of the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to the cognitive function effect, this also underlie its nerve repair benefits. [R]

Promotes Better Sleep Quality

240mg Egb-761 over four weeks to depressed persons currently on therapy (trimipramine) was able to improve sleep efficiency by reducing the frequency of waking and increasing non-REM sleep, although REM sleep was unaffected. [R]

Treats Sexual Dysfunction

Some sources indicate that ginkgo may treat sexual dysfunction, such as erectile dysfunction or low libido.

Ginkgo has the ability to improve blood levels of nitric oxide, which improves circulation via the dilation of blood vessels. [R]

As a result, ginkgo may also be useful for treating various symptoms of sexual dysfunction by improving blood flow to those areas of the body.

Some research has investigated using ginkgo to treat sexual dysfunction caused by the use of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs). Results indicated that ginkgo wasn’t any more effective than a placebo in these cases.

Additionally, there may be an interaction between ginkgo and SSRI medications, which could render them less effective.

One study evaluated the use of ginkgo to increase sexual desire and contentment in women who were concurrently undergoing sexual psychotherapy [R]

The combination of ginkgo and therapy were effective over a longer term compared to a placebo, but supplementing with ginkgo alone was not.
The rationale for using ginkgo to treat sexual dysfunction makes sense, but research does not support it at this time.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Ginkgo Biloba Work?

Absorption of oral supplementation allows for a 79% to 88% depending on the variant whether it is ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, or bilabolide [R] which if you try to say out loud would sound in between funny and awkward.

Oral ingestion of ginkgo biloba is thought to increase dopamine concentration levels in the prefrontal cortex. Which is related to the flavonoids rather than terpenoids assuming anyone would care about that comparison. [R] – However, the fact that its neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects may actually be extending its effects to the dopaminergic neurons is sort of interesting. “The key benefits of Ginkgo originate in one’s circulatory system. The most popular and effective nootropics and smart drugs, typically have the ability to enhance circulation. Gingko supports the release of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. These help protect vessel walls, while blocking platelet formation. The end result is improved circulation in all major tissues and organs in the body.

Having excellent brain circulation is critical, because if circulation is poor, it can lead to severe imbalances. In more mild cases, individuals can experience headaches. In more severe cases, individuals could have a stroke. When you have good brain flow, these instances can be prevented.

This increased blood flow helps maintain healthy neural tissues. When neuron and synapse growth are supported, memory formation is enhanced. Gingko works by acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. This aids in the protection of acetylcholine levels. When all these effects are combined, they lead to greater neuroplasticity. This is the brain’s ability to adapt over time, which is key to mental power long-term.

While focusing on neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, Gingko acts as a Monoamine Oxidase inhibitor. Since this chemical generally decreases the amount of these neurotransmitters, Gingko helps to boost mental energy, clarity, and focus (by elevating levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine).”

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How to Take Ginkgo Biloba?

For its nootropic effect, the recommended dose is 120 to 240 mg, and to be taken 2 hours before the task or performance.

For neuroprotection and preventing cognitive degeneration, the recommended dose is 40 to 120mg, taken three times a day after food.

Ginkgo comes in various forms and seems to be most effective when taken in several doses throughout the day that total 120–240 mg.

Ginkgo Biloba Stack

Ginkgo biloba seems to synergize very well with another popular herb and one of my favorite nootropics, Panax Ginseng. The exact synergism isn’t really known or understood, but it is suggested that its synergy is especially effective and beneficial for memory formation and enhancement.

It also goes well with Phosphatidylserine. There are claims of Phosphatidylserine enhancing the efficacy of ginkgo biloba but the study on the subject lacked solid evidence therefore is irrelevant.

If you would like to boost the cognitive effects of Ginkgo, you should stack is with a choline-enhancing supplements. These are known as cholinergics, and include options such as Alpha GPC and Citicoline. By stacking with a choline supplement, you can amplify positive effects.

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Side Effects

What Are Ginkgo Biloba Side Effects?

For most adults, the risk associated with taking ginkgo is relatively low, but there are cases in which ginkgo could cause serious harm. If you are allergic to plants that contain alkylphenols or taking certain medications, you should not take ginkgo. Possible side effects include:

  1. Nausea
  2. Diarrhea
  3. Dizziness
  4. Headaches
  5. Stomach pain

Those taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) as antidepressants should not take ginkgo as it inhibits monoamine oxidase, reducing the effectiveness of the medications.Combining the two may also increase the risk of a potentially fatal condition known as serotonin syndrome. Examples of SSRIs are Prozac, or fluoxetine, and sertraline, also known as Zoloft.

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Ginkgo biloba has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities and an ability to improve circulation.

Together, these characteristics have the potential to affect numerous body systems and diseases, although the science behind it still has some catching up to do.

While ginkgo has been used for centuries, it’s not completely understood how it works. Much of the available research is inconsistent or inconclusive, and it’s important to keep that in mind.

As with any herbal supplement, there are risks involved. Ginkgo could lead to serious health complications if you are allergic or taking certain medications.If you’re thinking of including ginkgo in your regimen, be sure to consult your doctor first.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Does Ginkgo biloba work?

Ginkgo extract has proven benefits to elderly people. This ancient herb acts to enhance oxygen utilization and thus improves memory, concentration, and other mental faculties also to significantly improve long-distance vision and may reverse damage to the retina of the eye. Studies have also confirmed its value in the treatment of depression in elderly people. The ginkgo extract may provide relief for those who suffer from headaches, sinusitis, and vertigo. It may also help relieve chronic ringing in the ears known as tinnitus.

Healing properties:
Germany and France have run literally hundreds of studies on the leaf extract. These studies along with similar studies in America, have shown significant results. The extract of ginkgo biloba has been studied for its effectiveness in the treatment of acrocyanosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral atherosclerosis, cerebral insufficiencies, cochlear deafness, dementia, depression, menopause, peripheral and cerebral circulatory stimulation, peripheral vascular disease, Raynaud’s syndrome, retinopathy, senility, short-term memory loss, tinnitus, vascular diseases, and vertigo. It is said to be effective in improving the blood flow to the hands and the feet as well as stimulating the brain and reducing short-term memory loss. It increases blood flow to the brain, the uptake of glucose by brain cells, and has been said to improve the transmission of nerve signals.

Patients suffering from varying degrees of vascular insufficiency also noted an improvement in mood while taking ginkgo biloba extract. This has prompted a surge of interest in its use as a treatment for depression, especially in the elderly. Those under the age of fifty may also benefit from ginkgo biloba’s antidepressant effects. So far though, the greatest level of improvement has been noted with older patients.

Alzheimer’s & mental function:
As more than 300 studies demonstrate, ginkgo facilitates better blood flow through out the body, most notably the brain, where it both protects and promotes memory and mental function, even for people with Alzheimer’s disease.

Antioxidant Properties:
As an antioxidant, ginkgo biloba combats free radicals and repairs molecular damage. A great deal of research suggests that antioxidants such as GBE may play important roles in preventing or delaying heart disease, cancer and other ills. Antioxidants may even halt the damage to cells, thereby slowing the effects of aging.

Another use for ginkgo biloba is in the treatment of impotency. The main cause of male impotence is poor circulation and impaired blood flow through the penis, which is often the result of atherosclerosis. Since ginkgo biloba increases blood flow, it’s been found to help up to fifty percent of patients after six months of use.

Raynaud’s disease:
Raynaud’s disease is believed to be caused by blood vessels that over react to the cold and spasm, reducing blood flow and there by depriving extremities of oxygen. Ginkgo biloba may help this condition by widening the small blood vessels, which would keep these spasms from completely blocking the blood flow.

Parkinson’s Disease:
Ginkgo biloba may help symptoms by increasing the brain’s blood flow and thereby allowing more of the depleted dopamine to be circulated to the areas that need it most.

Other Conditions:
Other uses for which ginkgo biloba extract is often recommended include depression, diabetes related nerve damage and poor circulation, allergies, vertigo, short-term memory loss, headache, atherosclerosis, tinnitus, cochlear deafness, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and PMS.

Scientists continue to study the prevention and treatment benefits, ginkgo biloba may help stop strokes from occurring. It’s also believed that the herb inhibits free-radical damage of brain cells after a stroke.

Why is Ginkgo biloba called a living fossil?

You have to understand that Ginkgo biloba is the world’s oldest living plant. It is called a living fossil because it has no close living relatives and also appears to be the only plant species dating back 270 million years (Permian) in the fossil record. However, it is also one of a rare few (6%) dioecious flowering plants, meaning it has distinct male and female organisms. Not only has this exceptionally hardy species survived three mass extinction events over the past quarter of a billion years, but it was found to be the only surviving plant species near the epicenter of the August 6th, 1945 Hiroshima atomic bomb blast.

Does Ginkgo biloba actually enhance brain functions?

Yes. Scientific research support that it improves memory and cognitive thinking. But remember, just because it’s natural doesn’t mean it’s not harmful. Some people are allergic to Ginkgo biloba. They can also interfere with other medications, boasting or decreasing their effects. If you take other medications, always ask your physician if it’s safe to take a new one.

How much Ginkgo Biloba is safe?

There is no standard dose of ginkgo. Most studies have used a standardized extract of ginkgo, to 24% flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones. For improving cognitive function, studies have used between 120 milligrams to 600 milligrams of the extract daily. The dose given to people with dementia is 40 milligrams of that extract three times daily. No matter why are you using ginkgo, you better start at a low dose (120 milligrams daily) and increase this level gradually while observing your body and its response to the supplement. 

What research supports the claim that ginkgo biloba improves memory?

In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia running over the course of 52 weeks and involving 309 patients, it was concluded that it is “capable of stabilizing improving the cognitive performance and the social functioning of demented patients for 6 months to 1 year.

A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. New York Institute for Medical Research, Tarrytown 10591, USA
PMID: 9343463

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Agmatine SulfateBacopa MonnieriMelatoninLion’s Mane MushroomL-Theanine, and more on the Nootropics Blog.

Ultimate Nootropics FAQNootropics 101Racetams 101

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What is Agmatine Sulfate?Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsFAQs

Summary: Agmatine is an amino acid that offers a wide of cognitive boosting benefits. It also has excellent effects on reducing neuropathic pain, as well as drug addiction habits. It is neuroprotectant and can reduce tolerance built to many medications like benzodiazepines, morphine, and other painkillers. It also synergizes with SSRI’s & cannabis.

Agmatine Sulfate Youtube Video TTS

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What is Agmatine Sulfate?

Agmatine is a form of amino acid that derives from L-Arginine. It has been shown to inhibit receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays a major role in memory and reasoning.

Agmatine supplement also regulates levels of Nitric Oxide by the affecting nitric oxide synthase enzyme. It controls cellular energy levels by influencing polyamine metabolism and function.

In some studies, it has been shown to enhance the effects of both morphine and fentanyl to increase pain killing, reduce tolerance, and lower addiction, as well as working synergistically with marijuana.

It is also found naturally in every day foods, including beer, wine, coffee, and other fermented foods.

Because it is capable of targeting multiple receptors, agmatine may benefit a spectrum of complex diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, opioid addiction, mood disorders, and even cancer. Furthermore, agmatine may enhance cognitive function, stress resiliency, mood, and athletic performance. The highest levels of agmatine are found in the gut, where it is produced by the microbes living there. It is also found in dietary form, mainly in fermented foods, and in supplemental form like agmatine sulfate. Agmatine is also produced in small amounts within the body by the mitochondria in the liver.

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Benefits & Effects

What Are Agmatine Sulfate Benefits?

  1. Reduces Pain Sensitivity
  2. Reduces Symptoms of Anxiety & Depression
  3. Neuroprotection & Longevity
  4. Improves Weight Loss & Prevents Weight Gain
  5. Supports Muscle Growth
  6. Helps Erectile Dysfunction & Infertility
  7. Help with Alzheimer’s Disease
  8. Helps Alcohol & Morphine Withdrawal

Supporting research:

Agmatine sulfate benefits the body and mind in many different ways and depending on the method it is taken. Some of the most notable agmatine benefits are:

Reduces Pain Sensitivity

In research studies, Agmatine shows to be an effective way for pain relief. Especially in the case of thermal hyperalgesia, a condition where the body is sensitive to changes in temperatures. The body becomes hypersensitive to heat or cold.

Agmatine improves those pain sensations, which is a result of its pro-circulations effect.

In studies looking at pain reduction in neuropathic conditions or inflammatory pain, agmatine was not found to produce a statistically significant effect. However, anecdotal, first-hand reports show that it actually did work for neuropathic conditions. So in this specific situation, it seems to be subjective to each individual.

Reduces Symptoms of Anxiety & Depression

Agmatine exhibits antidepressant effects and promotes mood improvement as well as anxiety reduction and relief. It helps the brain and body manage and overcome stress by reducing anxiety and promoting a sense of well-being.

By increasing NRF2, agmatine prevents depressive behavior by protecting brain cells from high levels of stress hormone cortisol. [R]

Agmatine increases adenylate cyclase in the prefrontal cortex, and decreases levels of adenylate cyclase which associate with depression. [R, R].

Furthermore, it blocks the NMDA receptor, prevents calcium overloading, as well as reverses the decrease of monoamines such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Depression often associates with a reduction of monoamines in the brain [R, R]

Studies & Research

A small pilot study on three patients suffering depression, Agmatine supplement caused a complete disappearance of depression symptoms in all patients. It most likely did so through NMDA receptor-blocking and not through serotonin pathways. [R]

Agmatine also reduced anxiety in rats when they were put in swimming and maze navigation tests. [R]

Neuroprotection & Longevity

Agmatine acts as an anti-oxidant and is continuously under more research for its anti-aging and longevity potential. It has been found to exhibit neuroprotective effects against oxidative damage and injuries to the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is also believed to limit the activity of glutamate receptors and thus, the over-excitation of neurons within the brain.

Additionally, by inhibiting iNOS and nNOS and increasing eNOS, Agmatine protects against brain damage from stroke. Increasing eNOS protects the brain by dilating the blood vessels to increase blood flow. This prevents damage during times of lack of oxygen from reduced blood flow to the brain (also known as ischemic stroke).

Agmatine decreases iNOS and nNOS, two enzymes that contribute to brain damage from stroke. [R]

A Study on Effects of Agmatine Sulfate on Nerve Injury:
    Evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy.
    The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination.
    Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004).
    Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration. PMID: 28122652

Improves Weight Loss & Prevents Weight Gain

Individuals who struggle to gain weight can benefit from Agmatine supplements. In some studies, subjects increased food consumption rates by 44% to 54% in 24 hours.

Moreover, in the following studies, Agmatine shows an increase in fat burning, a decrease in fat composition, and an increase in muscle mass [R], which also contributes to the next benefit of Agmatine:

Supports Muscle Growth

Agmatine stimulates the production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Increasing these hormone levels lead to an increase in testosterone levels.

By increasing testosterone levels, Agmatine contributes to an optimal hormonal environment for muscle growth, enhances athletic performance, and fastens recovery. [R]

Agmatine also increases insulin sensitivity and the uptake of glucose into the muscle. Increasing insulin sensitivity results in more effective shuttling of amino acids as well as glucose into the tissues for growth and repair. [R] [R]

Helps Erectile Dysfunction & Infertility

Studies show that L-arginine is involved in the process of cell replication, in addition to enhancing blood circulation, so it can help improve both sperm production and motility.

Men dealing with cardiovascular issues due to low levels of NO in the blood are more prone to experience erectile dysfunction and fertility problems because an erection requires a relaxation of smooth muscles, which Nitric Oxide triggers.

Although it doesn’t apply to every person, a significant rate of male infertility cases (92%) is treatable with L-arginine supplements in combination with dilators, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatories. [R]

Research suggests that high-stress levels lower L-arginine levels in the sperm production pathway. Therefore, men with chronic stress specifically can benefit from Agmatine supplement.

According to Dr. Axe, a combination of L-arginine, L-glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride is a common way of treating erectile dysfunction. And it works better than L-arginine alone. [R]

“In fact,” he says, “many of the most frequently prescribed medications for ED work similarly to L-arginine: by increasing nitric oxide production.”

Furthermore, there’s research suggesting treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and L-arginine together can help balance hormones naturally and restore normal sexual function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and estrogen imbalances.

Other studies suggest that L-arginine with herbs such as chasteberry, green tea extract, and antioxidant supplements improve pregnancy rates in women struggling to conceive. [R]

Help with Alzheimer’s Disease

Insulin resistance could cause an increase of plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Agmatine prevents cognitive decline by rescuing insulin signaling and avoiding potential accumulation of those tangles. [R]

Helps Alcohol & Morphine Withdrawal

Agmatine reduces and to an extent, prevents, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as “wet dog shakes,” anxiety, flashes, and shakings. [R] [R]

Agmatine sulfate
Agmatine Sulfate Skeletal Structure

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Mechanisms of Action

How Does Agmatine Sulfate Work?

Agmatine has several mechanisms. It can inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as activate imidazoline receptors. Agmatine can also inhibit nitric oxide synthase enzymes, which allows it to regulate elevated levels of nitric oxide. Agmatine can inhibit calcium channels and specific serotonin receptors as well. Further research is needed to determine the full extent of agmatine mechanisms. [R]

Agmatine was found to exert modulatory actions directly and indirectly at multiple key molecular targets underlying cellular control mechanisms of cardinal importance in health and disease. It is considered capable of exerting its modulatory actions simultaneously at multiple targets. The following outline indicates the categories of control mechanisms and identifies their molecular targets:

Neurotransmitter receptors and receptor ionophores. Nicotinic, imidazoline I1 and I2, α2-adrenergic, glutamate NMDAr, and serotonin 5-HT2A and 5HT-3 receptors. Ion channels. Including: ATP-sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs).

Membrane transporters. Agmatine specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine transporters (ENT), polyamine transporters, and mitochondrial agmatine specific-selective transport system. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis modulation. Both differential inhibition and activation of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms is reported.

Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT), and inducer of antizyme. Protein ADP-ribosylation. Inhibition of protein arginine ADP-ribosylation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Indirect down-regulation of the enzymes MMP 2 and 9. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Direct blockade of AGEs formation. NADPH oxidase. Activation of the enzyme leading to H2O2 production.


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How to Take Agmatine Sulfate?

There is currently no standard dosage for agmatine sulfate because there haven’t been enough human studies for determination. These numbers are rough estimates to give an idea of typical, experimental dosing:

  1. For treatment of neuropathic pain: 1,000 to 2,500 mg of agmatine (daily)
  2. For improving cognitive function: 200 to 500 mg of agmatine (daily)
  3. For vasodilation and enhanced recovery: 500 to 1000 mg of agmatine (30 minutes pre-workout)

Note: Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine

Quoting Examine:

“There are no standard dosages for agmatine because of the lack of human evidence for its effects. However, a single human study used 1,300-2,670mg of agmatine, daily for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The estimated human dose for improving cognition is 1.6-6.4mg/kg of agmatine, taken orally.

This is based off of the 10-40mg/kg dosage range for rats, and is equivalent to 217-435 mg for a 150lb person. Supplementation should not exceed 6.4mg/kg of bodyweight. Studies on agmatine use a daily dosing protocol.

Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine. Further research is needed to determine if oral agmatine supplementation provides the same benefits as were observed in animal studies.”

“The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.”

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Side Effects

What Are Agmatine Sulfate Side Effects?

According to studies conducted so far, it appears that Agmatine Sulfate is safe even in relatively high doses. While there have been few studies conducted thus far, they have not shown any side effects to be associated with this supplement.

If you follow the recommended Agmatine sulfate dosage protocol and do not have any pre-existing contraindications for use, the risk of serious adverse effects is very low. Minor side effects included nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting in a small percentage of participants, which cleared up after a few days of discontinuing use. [R]

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User Experiences

Agmatine Sulfate Reddit User Experience

“Not only does it have varied anti-addiction properties to Opioids, amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine & alcohol, but it also seems to make other drugs, and medicines more potent in their effects. It also shares the properties of Ketamine’s antidepressant effects, via the mTOR AMPA pathway. A small study found a robust antidepressant effect; all patients reported remission of depression. Considering that, shutting down Serotonin production via parachlorophenylalanine, did not reverse the antidepressant effects, shows how punchy this substance is. It’s also a painkiller. I’d recommend this be added to everyone’s stack, provided they aren’t too fond of Alcohol, as I noticed it definitely seems to blunt the good feelings of certain drugs.” Reddit user

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Agmatine Sulfate?

Agmatine Sulfate is a biogenic amine that is derived from the amino acid L-Arginine. This happens by a process called decarboxylation, which is better known as the removal of carboxylic acid group from the amino acid.

Is Agmatine safe?

Yes. And here is a 5 year-long, daily high dosage of Agmatine in order to measure and proof its safety:

Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. [R]

How long does Agmatine take to work?

Agmatine starts working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption. Users can expect to experience an increase in muscle pumps, vascularity and muscular endurance within this timeframe. [R]

How much Agmatine should I take?

The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.

Can you take Agmatine with creatine?

This is the reason creatine and protein work so well together, in a nutshell. Bodybuilders can cut out the creatine middle man by supplementing with agmatine sulfate directly. … You take creatine to improve the protein effects. You take nitric oxide to improve the creatine effects.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Agmatine – Wikipedia
  2. Agmatine – Scientific Review – Examine

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsSide EffectsDosageUser ExperienceFAQ

Summary: N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, an essential antioxidant in the body. NAC supports glutathione replenishment which has been found to bind to the glutamate recognition sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. It also promotes healthy inflammatory responses.


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What is N-Acetyl Cysteine?

N-Acetyl Cysteine (also known as Acetylcysteine or NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, an essential antioxidant in the body. NAC supports glutathione replenishment which has been found to bind to the glutamate recognition sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. It also promotes healthy inflammatory responses. Acetylcysteine was initially patented in 1960 and licensed for use in 1968. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines and is easily accessible for a very affordable price.

“Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine, is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It can be taken intravenously, by mouth, or inhaled as a mist. Some people use it as a dietary supplement.” Wikipedia

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Benefits & Effects

What Are N-Acetyl Cysteine Benefits?

  1. Improves Cognitive Function
  2. Reduces Symptoms of Depression
  3. Helps Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder and Mania
  4. Reduces Symptoms of OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
  5. Improves Male Fertility
  6. Boosts Skin Health
  7. May Improve Autism
  8. Reduces Muscle Fatigue
  9. Reduces Antibiotic Side Effects
  10. Reliefs ADHD Symptoms
  11. Other Benefits

Supporting Research:

N-Acetyl Cysteine Improves Cognitive Function

Combinations of NAC with other antioxidants improve cognition in both healthy older people and those with mild cognitive impairment. (R) (R)

NAC has many studies on enhancing cognitive function in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and schizophrenia. Currently, it’s under research for boosting cognitive performance after general anesthesia. (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Symptoms of Depression

NAC helps people with depression by balancing glutamate levels within the brain. Doing so, it reduces inflammation and increases the growth of new brain cells. R

In a study of more than 500 participants, NAC shows an improvement in symptoms of depression and overall functionality. At 2000mg per day, it improves mood in people diagnosed with depression. (R), (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Helps Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder and Mania

NAC improves chronic health issues such as heart disease and hormonal imbalance in people with Bipolar Disorder. In a 6-month study, NAC indirectly shows to affect overall health, antioxidant and inflammation levels, as well as mood. (R)

Another study on 17 subjects with bipolar disorder, NAC shows improvements in low moods and reduction in overall associating symptoms after six months of supplementation. (R)

In a study of 15 individuals suffering from mania, NAC also shows improvement after a six-month regime. The group receiving NAC had a reduction in symptoms versus the one receiving placebo. However, mood swings seem to worsen as a result. (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Symptoms of OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)

NAC balances glutamate levels as well as increases antioxidants within the brain. In a study of 44 subjects with OCD, a NAC dose of 2000mg added to standard medication shows to improve symptoms, even in severe cases. R

Another study of 48 subjects who didn’t respond to typical treatment, NAC shows to improve symptoms after a 3-month period safely. (R)

NAC is useful for obsessive-compulsive disorders according to extensive research. It shows promising benefits and has very few side-effects. (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Improves Male Fertility

In addition to helping women with PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome), NAC may help increase fertility in men. Oxidative stress damages the sperm’s DNA, which results in reducing fertility. (R)

A study done on 120 infertile men receiving NAC, improvements were notable in semen quality and antioxidant status after a period of three months. (R)

Other studies look at the fertility benefits of NAC in combination with other antioxidants such as B vitamins, vitamin C and D. The combination improves the sperm count in those with low sperm count. (R)

In an extensive study of almost 500 infertile men, NAC with selenium show improvement in fertility after a six month period. (R)

Sub-fertility Conditions

Some men are sub-fertile — they are less fertile without an apparent reason. In 84 of subfertile men trying to conceive, NAC combination supplement called Condensyl (with vitamins, zinc, fig extract, and vitamin E) increased pregnancy rates. It raises the “fertility potential” of subfertile men increasing the rate of successful pregnancy. (R)

The typical NAC dose for improving fertility in those studies was 600 mg/day.

N-Acetyl Cysteine Boosts Skin Health

Interestingly, NAC can be used as a cream or gel to improve skin health. It boosts glutathione in the skin protecting it from damage. Furthermore, NAC reduces skin inflammation and normalizes skin cell division. It’s used for eczema, skin irritation, radiation-induced skin damage, wound healing, and acne. In a study of 100 participants, a 5% NAC gel shows to reduce mild to moderate acne. (R)

Overall, NAC skin formulations are promising and very safe. Case reports and animal studies support this wide range of skin benefits of NAC.

N-Acetyl Cysteine May Improve Autism

NAC seems to benefit children with autism. In a study of 33 autistic children, NAC (900-2,700 mg/day) shows to reduce irritability after three months period. (R)

In 2 different studies with 80 autistic children, those receiving NAC as an add-on to their medication (risperidone) show less irritability and hyperactivity after two months period. (R), (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Muscle Fatigue

Overall, NAC tends to help muscles improve blood flow during intense training as well as recover faster after a workout.

It also seems to help older individuals in improving fitness and enhancing endurance in athletes on the short-term. However, long-term NAC with exercise may prevent muscle recovery.

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reduces Antibiotic Side Effects

Antibiotic side effects arise from free radicals damage. As a potent antioxidant, NAC (1,200 mg/day) reduces side effects, prevents kidney and ear damage from several strong antibiotics in 2 studies of 100 people. (RR)

NAC also protects the liver from the harmful effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs as shown in a study of 60 participants. Those receiving NAC show intact liver after treatment, while 40% of those who didn’t take NAC suffer liver damage. (R)

N-Acetyl Cysteine

N-Acetyl Cysteine Reliefs ADHD Symptoms

In a study of nearly 100 ADHD participants, NAC shows to reduce ADHD symptoms in patients with as well as improving cognition, impulsivity, and overall symptoms.

Participants were receiving up to 5g per day during this study. (R)

Other N-Acetyl Cysteine Benefits

According to Health Line, the following are the 9 top benefits of NAC:

  1. Essential for Making the Powerful Antioxidant Glutathione
  2. Helps With Detoxification to Prevent or Diminish Kidney and Liver Damage
  3. May Improve Psychiatric Disorders and Addictive Behavior
  4. Helps Relieve Symptoms of Respiratory Conditions
  5. Boosts Brain Health by Regulating Glutamate and Replenishing Glutathione
  6. May Improve Fertility in Both Men and Women
  7. May Stabilize Blood Sugar By Decreasing Inflammation in Fat Cell
  8. May Reduce Heart Disease Risk by Preventing Oxidative Damage
  9. Ability to Boost Glutathione Levels May Improve Immune Function

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Side Effects

What Are N-Acetyl Cysteine Side Effects?

N-Acetyl Cysteine is a safe substance with very few known side effects. Although occasionally, it can cause nausea, diarrhea, or constipation.

Large doses in a mouse model showed that acetylcysteine could potentially cause damage to the heart and lungs. They found that acetylcysteine was metabolized to S-nitroso-N acetylcysteine (SNOAC), which increased blood pressure in the lungs and right ventricle of the heart (pulmonary artery hypertension) in mice treated with acetylcysteine.

The effect was similar to that observed following a 3-week exposure to an oxygen-deprived environment (chronic hypoxia).

The authors also found that SNOAC induced a hypoxia-like response in the expression of several important genes both in vitro and in vivo.


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How To Take N-Acetyl Cysteine?

The typical dose for general wellness and gut health is 500mg per day taken in the morning on an empty stomach 800to2,400mg are the most common across clinical studies. However, for a chronic health condition, consider a higher dose. Studies concerning addiction and mental health issues use doses closer to 3000 mg/day.

Daily doses should be taken at 2-3 times a day.

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User Experience

Both the reviews/experiences below are customer reviews posted on Nootropic Depot’s product page. You can only write a review for a product you actually purchased:

NAC is the supplement of choice for helping to mitigate nasal congestion. I’ve found even with a cold, taking a large dose divided up into several small doses separated by 2-4 hours throughout the day significantly controls the nose situation. Recently while going through this routine, I also noticed heightened mental clarity which quickly was attributed to the NAC as nothing else in my regular stack had changed. Combined with the fact the loose powder is inexpensive, NAC has high opinion from me. Con, it tastes terrible. It seriously tastes like butt if that was made from rubber. Capsulating it yourself is highly recommended!

NAC is an essential part of my daily routine. I take 2000mg every morning and if I feel a cold coming on I also take 1000 or 2000mg of an evening. Every winter I get a cold which precipitates a severe chest infection. It is now halfway through winter and I have not yet even caught a cold, despite the fact that the rest of my family has been sick with colds. My nose usually runs all winter but the mucous dissolving properties of NAC somehow even ameliorate that. I use Nootropics Depot’s NAC because I know it’s pure and independently tested. It comes in user friendly packaging, it’s inexpensive, the postage is tracked and it arrives quickly.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is N Acetyl L Cysteine Powder?

N Acetyl L Cysteine, also known as N Acetyl Cysteine or NAC, is an acetylated form of L Cysteine. NAC is one of few natural mucolytic agents. Mucolytic agents help thin out mucus which makes it easier to cough up mucus. NAC is also used to enhance the production of glutathione when it is normally depleted. Glutathione benefits are plentiful and thus, supplementing with NAC can provide many of the glutathione benefits we would see with glutathione supplementation.

What are N Acetyl L Cysteine Benefits?

Supports respiratory health
Promotes skin health
Supports organ health
Promotes vitality

What is N Acetyl L Cysteine Good For?

Studies observing glutathione levels after taking a NAC supplement found that NAC elevated glutathione levels. This is significant because the supplementation of glutathione on its own did not significantly increase glutathione levels. Since NAC is able to increase glutathione, NAC benefits have been linked to skin health, organ health, and promoting vitality. Additionally, taking a NAC supplement is believed to have some detoxification effects since it allows more glutathione to be produced. In addition, NAC benefits include organ protective properties when exposed to alcohol. A study on rats found that a NAC supplement taken 30 min before alcohol exposure seemed to produce a protective effect while administration 4 hrs after alcohol exposure elevated organ tissue damage. Additionally, these protective behaviors increased when alcohol consumption was stopped. Additional trials confirmed that the protective properties NAC has against alcohol only work when taken prior to alcohol consumption. Again, it is important to note that NAC should only be taken prior to consumption of moderate quantities of alcoholic drinks. NAC should never be taken after the consumption of alcoholic drinks as it may have an opposite and detrimental effect on the liver. This is important to note as many hangover supplements, intended to be taken after the consumption of alcoholic drinks, contain N Acetyl L Cysteine. The cystine-glutamate antiporter on astrocytes is known to regulate synaptic levels of glutamate by taking up cystine, the oxidized dimer form of Cysteine, in exchange for glutamate release. It is believed that additional Cysteine through N Acetyl L Cysteine supplementation may provide more substrate to further reduce glutaminergic stimulation. This is important, as glutamate can over-excite neurons, which can cause neuronal damage. This is part of the reason why some people avoid the consumption of monosodium glutamate, which is more commonly known as MSG. It is falsely believed that the consumption of MSG will result in too much glutamate in the brain, which could then cause neurotoxic effects. The claims that MSG has negative effects in the brain have long been disproven, however, glutamate levels may increase independently from MSG consumption. It is believed that higher Cysteine levels in the brain may lower glutaminergic transmission by lowering the amount of glutamate release. It has been found that glutamate levels can be reduced within 1 hour of orally administering a NAC supplement, making NAC a great neuroprotective agent. Other N Acetyl L Cysteine uses were studied after the relationship between glutathione and NAC supplementation were established. Researchers were interested in NAC for its vitality enhancing effects. Studies on sprint performance found vitality enhancing effect when subjects used a NAC supplement but only a slight increase in vitality from baseline was achieved with a large dose.

What Are N Acetyl Cysteine Food Sources?

The body converts N Acetyl L Cysteine which converts into Cysteine which is then converted to glutathione. Cysteine is an amino acid produced by the body but it requires methionine to do so. Cysteine is primarily found in animal proteins such as chicken, pork, sausage, turkey, fish and duck. Dairy sources of cysteine include yogurt, ricotta cheese, eggs, and cottage cheese. Cysteine is also found in some plant sources for vegetarians and vegans. Foods such as broccoli, red pepper, onion, granola and oat flakes are all good sources of Cysteine. Other sources include garlic, bananas, linseed, soy beans, and wheat germ. Low levels of Cysteine can delay growth in children and lower immunity. Weakness and muscle loss may also occur as a result of a low Cysteine die

How much N Acetyl Cysteine should I take?

As a dietary supplement, take one 500mg of N-Acetyl L-Cysteine once daily.

Where to buy N Acetyl Cysteine Powder?

Nootropics Depot offers 200 gram, 400 gram and 1 kilogram jars of high quality N-Acetyl L-Cysteine powder. Nootropics Depot’s N-Acetyl L-Cysteine has been lab-tested and verified for both product purity and identity.

NOTE: Please consider voting regarding posting direct purchasing link to products.

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IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide Effects

Summary: Vinpocetine is a neuroprotective nootropic, an extraction from flower-plant vinca minor. It works as a cognitive enhancer, memory booster, while also uplifting mood and supporting overall well-being.

Vinpocetine benefits
Vinpocetine Skeletal Structure


What is Vinpocetine?

Vinpocetine (aka Cavinton, Intelctol), is an extract from flowering plant vinca minor (or myrtle); a flower-family native to Portugal, France, and other parts of central and southern Europe. A 1975 discovery by Hungarian chemist named Csaba Szantay. Only three years after the invention, production of the extract in pill form started. Some of the primary uses of Vinpocetine as a nootropic are memory and cognition improvement, increasing learning capacity, and mood enhancement. Medical applications extend to the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, dementia, and strokes. It is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. Its excellent safety profile is inspiring more companies to study and research Vinpocetine to explore other possible therapeutic and nootropic benefits. Although less popular comparing to other nootropics, the research as well as the knowledge of it is rapidly growing

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Benefits & Effects

What Are Vinpocetine Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory and Cognition
  2. Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow
  3. Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention
  4. Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being
  5. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory

Supporting research:

Vinpocetine Improves Memory and Cognition

Vinpocetine is widely in use for memory improvement. In Eastern Europe, it is a medical prescription for treating memory-related problems and disorders. Clinical trials confirm its effect on improving memory formation, and individuals receiving Vinpocetine report it’s beneficial especially in remembering and recalling information. Other studies also confirm it as a memory enhancer that can be used by anyone looking to improve their memory. (R)

Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow

Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and supports better blood circulation without having adverse effects on blood pressure. The better blood flow and circulation leads to an increase in productivity within the brain. This productivity increases and allows for better focus and concentration, as well as allowing for longer and steady attention span. Take notes, fellow ADHD ADHE’s – (attention-deficit hyperactive extraordinary). (R) (R)

Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention

Vinpocetine improves the body’s ability of converting dietary glucose and fat to ATP, which is the coenzyme that transmits chemical energy for metabolism. Having more ATP ready for use in the brain leads to better intellectual capability, and thereby learning becomes more comfortable and faster. Moreover, the presence of sufficient ATP reduces feelings of mental exhaustion and “brain fog,” as well as supports feelings of mental clarity. (R)

Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being

An increase in overall well-being is a result of a reduction in the rate of cognitive decline. (R) (R)

Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory

Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Vinpocetine Work?

Early studies show that Vinpocetine benefits the brain in many ways, one of which is by improving blood flow, circulation, and utilization of oxygen. Unlike common stimulants, Vinpocetine increases blood flow in the brain without affecting the rest of the body. It targets impaired cells and areas of poor circulation within the brain. Enhancing blood flow, circulation, and oxygenation allows the brain to tolerate conditions of lack of sufficient oxygen (such as ischemia and hypoxia) better. Those conditions can relate to strokes and similar injuries. The elevation of blood flow and oxygenation result the nootropic effect.

Furthermore, improving circulation and oxygenation in the brain also enhances the overall brain function while increasing the production of ATP. All of which are vital for cerebral metabolism. By generating sufficient amounts of ATP, vinpocetine increases the use of glucose thereby improves mental clarity.

Vinpocetine interacts with sodium, calcium, and potassium ion channels within the brain, modulating the release of various neurotransmitters. That includes, but not limited to acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Increasing the availability of those neurotransmitters not only affects memory and overall cognition but may also improve mood by relieving feelings of anxiety and enhancing energy and well-being. Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.

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How To Take Vinpocetine?

For general health and prevention purposes, the low dose is 5mg 3x per day at meals and ranges up to 20 mg 3x per day. These doses are for neuroprotection, enhancing cerebral blood flow, and reducing the rate of cognitive decline.

For nootropic purposes, suggestion doses of 30 to 45 mg, 3 times a day, alongside food.

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Side Effects

What Are Vinpocetine Side Effects?

Vinpocetine is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. It is also very well tolerated and has no reported adverse effects. New users rarely experience a soft version of caffeine “buzz” that fades away as tolerance to vinpocetine is increased. Keep in mind that increasing the daily dosage to over 40 mg could decrease benefits.

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Vinpocetine’s unique mechanisms of action, great cognitive enhancement abilities, and insurance of neuroprotection are leading to increasing attention within the nootropic community. It’s a safe brain-booster that works well with other nootropics, thereby becoming an attractive addition to nootropic stacks. It’s affordable and easily accessible.

If you are interested in further optimizing your brain, enhancing its blood circulation, as well as allowing it to function at maximum productivity; vinpocetine is a nootropic worthy of your consideration.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsFAQs

Summary: Bacopa monnieri is a powerful natural herb nootropic used for ages for its memory enhancing and anti-aging effects. It reduces anxiety and improves memory formation. It also expands learning capacity, decreases stress and even offers neuroprotection

Bacopa Video TTS

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What is Bacopa Monnieri?

Bacopa monnieri (also known as Brahmi) is one of the most acknowledged and widely respected nootropics. A traditional Ayurvedic medicine that has a good reputation of being a potent cognitive enhancer, stress and anxiety reliever, and brain protector. It improves memory formation and recall speed, it stimulates learning, enhances thought clarity, and increase brain function. It acts as a brain protectant, and studies confirm it as a potential remedy for dementia and similar conditions. Furthermore, it reduces anxiety and provides a feeling of calm and tranquility, all while eliminating stress. Users report it an excellent relaxant that improves sleep quality, leading to rejuvenating and refreshing rest. Its nootropic effects are comparable to those of Piracetam, one of the most popular smart drugs in the world. The supplement is produced from the plant extracts.

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Benefits & Effects

What Are Bacopa Monnieri Benefits?

  1. Enhances Memory Formation
  2. Improves Learning and Cognition
  3. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  4. Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  5. Reduces Symptoms of Depression

Supporting research:

Bacopa Monnieri Enhances Memory Formation

Enhancement in memory formation, as well as recall speed, is one of Bacopa’s primary benefits. Studies show that it significantly enhances memory in older people, and ongoing research is investigating its potential as a treatment of memory issues relating to neurological disorders.  (J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0342.)

Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. [1]

Improves Learning and Cognition

Bacopa Monnieri improves cognitive processing, making learning new things faster and easier. Studies show that it significantly enhances spatial learning, and it has also been confirmed to improve learning capacity in subjects under stress. Most users say that taking bacopa while studying makes it easier to understand and process new information. Reports carried out by clinical trials at India’s Central Drug Institute (CDRI) in Lucknow state that children taking bacopa show improved academic skills.[2]

Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Bacopa Monnieri is effective in reducing anxiety and stress. Clinical trials show that it significantly decreases anxiety and depression in volunteers, and animal studies compare bacopa to other plant extracts for the effective treatment of anxiety and similar disorders. [3] [4]

Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)

Bacopa is effective in reducing oxidative stress effects on the brain. It possesses potent antioxidant properties that protect the brain against environmental stressors associated in the cognitive decline relating to aging and associated with Alzheimer’s and other neurological diseases.[5]

Reduces Symptoms of Depression

In a study of individuals over 65 years old receiving 300mg dosage, the results show a notable decrease in depression symptoms as well as anxiety. [6]

Bacopa Monnieri waterhyssop
Bacopa is a genus of 70–100 aquatic plants belonging to the family Plantaginaceae. It is commonly known as water hyssop.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Bacopa Monnieri Work?

Bacopa’s nootropic and anxiolytic effects are due to its capability of enhancing neural communication as well as modulating the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and GABA.

Memory and Cognitive

Although it works over time by a variety of functions, bacopa improves memory and cognitive abilities by increasing synaptic communication. It promotes dendrites generation, thereby enhancing neural signaling. The improvement in neural impulse transmission is key to cognitive enhancement. The active ingredient in Bacopa monnieri extract (Bacoside-A) has been shown to stimulate nerve cells and cause synapses to be more receptive to nerve impulses. Studies show that Bacoside-A can prevent dopamine receptor dysfunction. Dopamine is a powerful neurotransmitter responsible for the brain’s reward and pleasure systems.

It also improves production of the enzyme Tryptophan Hydroxylase (TPH2); vital to many central nervous system actions such as the biosynthesis of serotonin. Furthermore, Bacopa stimulates activity in the hippocampus by increasing the activity of kinases, which are proteins that regulate cellular pathways. Because the hippocampus is involved in almost all cognitive activity, this is one of the main methods that allows bacopa to boost brain function.

Anxiety and Stress Relief

Bacopa monnieri produces its unique calming effects through several actions. One of the most crucial anxiety reduction effects is within its power to modulate the activity of certain neurotransmitters like those that regulate the uptake of serotonin, which is connecting to mood and anxiety.

Another active ingredient in bacopa is hersaponin, an alkaloid that provides a relaxing and soothing effect. Bacopa’s active ingredients also support the activity of GABA, another major neurotransmitter that acts to prevent anxiety by restricting the signaling of neuron over-excitement due to stress.

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How To Take Bacopa Monnieri?

The minimum effective dose of Bacopa Monnieri is 300mg, taken with food or fat source. Some people, myself included, find it more effective at a higher dosage.

I take 300 to 600mg depending on the purpose, while people like Dave Asprey recommend a daily dose of 750mg.

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Side Effects

What Are Bacopa Monnieri Side Effects?

Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.

Bacopa side effects range from minor (digestion issues and fatigue) to severe (thyroid disorders and urinary tract complications). Minor side effects usually disappear as the body adapts to the herb.

Rodent studies suggest bacopa may reduce sperm count, so it’s wise to avoid it if you are planning to conceive. However, it didn’t have any impact on sex drive nor testosterone. Moreover, sperm count returns to normal once supplementation stops. [7]

Severe side effects may include thyroid disorders, urinary tract problems, gastrointestinal blockage, adverse impact on ulcers and lung conditions, and bradycardia.

So start with the lowest effective dose, and observe your body’s reaction to it. If adverse effects occur, stop use.

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Bacopa monnieri enhances cognitive abilities, reduces anxiety, and treats a variety of conditions. Although it works over time, the anxiety-relieving effects are immediate.

Its a precious addition to nootropic stacks. If you’re looking for a natural nootropic to boost your cognition, relieve anxiety, and protect your brain against oxidative stress, Bacopa would make an excellent choice.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Does the smart drug Bacopa monnieri work?

Yes it does and it is great. You can even grow it yourself on the balcony. It does bring more oxygen to the brain hence you feel stimulated. But can’t compare to synthetic nootropics.

If you want a good harmonizing (stress relief) with energizing stack. Take

1x Bacopa 300mg
1x Rhodiola rosea 300mg
1x Alpha-GPC 300mg

You can 1x 5-HTP 50mg (optional)

And throughout your day, if you drink coffee add 1x L-theanine 100-200mg in it.

How much Bacopa Monnieri should I take?

The minimum effective dose of Bacopa Monnieri is 300mg, taken with food or fat source. Some people, myself included, find it more effective at a higher dosage.

I take 300 to 600mg depending on the purpose, while people like Dave Asprey recommend a daily dose of 750mg.

Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.

How long does it take Bacopa Monnieri to work?

The acute relaxation effects of Bacopa Monnieri start working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption.

The potential benefits of Bacopa Monnieri for improving memory and cognition will generally take effect within 4-6 weeks.

What are some uses of a Bacopa monnieri?

It can:

Enhance Memory Formation
Improve Learning and Cognition
Reduce Anxiety and Stress
Neuroprotective and Promote Longevity
Reduce Symptoms of Depression

Bacopa monnieri commonly called as ‘Brahmi’ is a perennial herb belonging to Plantaginaceae family of the flowering plants. In India it has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine as memory enhancer. It is also used in treatment of anxiety, digestive disorders, asthma, bronchitis and heart problems.

Further & Related Readings

  1. Ashwagandha
  2. Ginkgo biloba
  3. Lion’s Mane Mushroom
  4. Rhodiola Rosea
  5. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

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IntroductionBenefits & Effects Mechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a popular multi-functional nutrient, amino acid type nootropic. It benefits the body and brain. A potent antioxidant and neuroprotectant, and a powerful energizing nootropic that promotes anti-aging and longevity.

Acetyl L-Carnitine Video TTS

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What is Acetyl-L-Carnitine?

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, also known as ALCAR and ALC, is an amino acid naturally produced in your body to generate energy. It’s also found in animal proteins such as red meats. Many people supplement with acetyl-L-carnitine because of its potential benefits. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a more bioavailable form of amino acid l-carnitine, a derivative of amino acid lysine. The body continuously produces L-carnitine, and furthermore gets it from the foods you eat.

Although research shows actual carnitine insufficiency is uncommon in healthy people with no metabolic disorders, supplementation with addition of it is proven to be beneficial in many different ways. Ranging from improving heart health [1] to enhancing brain function. [2]

Acetyl-L-Carnitine is L-carnitine with the addition of an acetyl group, thereby making it the most bioavailable form of L-carnitine and it readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Its primary actions work towards brain functionality. Its nootropic properties seem to magnify when taken with other nootropics. The combination makes it a potentiating agent allowing nootropics to work more effectively.

Other forms of L-carnitine include L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) which is typically assessing physical performance, and Glycine Propionyl L-carnitine (GPLC), which relieves blood flow issues. The only L-carnitine form that possesses nootropic properties is Acetyl L-carnitine, and it furthermore provides both L-carnitine and acetyl groups (molecule) that act towards the development of the learning neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.

From Nootropics Depot product description:

Acetyl L-Carnitine, also commonly known as ALCAR, is an acetylated version of L-Carnitine. L-Carnitine is an amino acid naturally produced but is also taken in supplement form. It is a natural nootropic supplement that may aid in delivering fatty acids to our cells’ mitochondria to be broken down. Acetyl L-Carnitine has superior absorption in comparison to standard L-Carnitine. Acetyl L-Carnitine promotes energy.

Acetyl L-Carnitine HCL Capsules are best known for supporting brain health and cognitive function, but it has many other potential uses.

ALCAR vs L-Carnitine vs Carnitine

  • ALCAR: supplies acetyl group and carnetine, and crosses the blood brain barrier easier. The acetyl group detaches from the amino acid and helps to recycle acetylcholine.
  • L-Carnetine: the same as carnitine. The ‘l-‘ prefix is just a part of the chemical notation and is often omitted because cells only make ‘l-‘ form (as only those forms are used in proteins) and it’s implied that it’s the ‘l-‘ form if it’s not specified (if you imagine a molecule as a 2D picture of structure, then ‘l’ and ‘d’ prefix specifies whether the molecule is flipped or not; flipped version can have totally different properties; the ‘l-‘ version of amino acids is the one you supplement and your cells use).
  • Carnitine: Refrence the above. It is also involved in energy metabolism.

Taking Acetyl-L-Carnitine or ALCAR, therefore, supplements both and gets both the effects.

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Benefits and Effects

What Are Acetyl-L-Carnitine Benefits?

  1. Enhances Brain Function and Stamina
  2. Provides Neuroprotection Against Brain Cell Death
  3. Restores Cognitive Function and Repairs Impairment
  4. Support Mitochondrial Function and Nervous System
  5. Regulates Sexual Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction

Supporting research:

Research proves ALCAR beneficial to the brain and body in many ways. From enhancing cognitive abilities [3] to increasing energy [4], reducing pain, and even preventing damage from alcohol consumption. [5]

Enhances Brain Function and Stamina

Studies show that it successfully lowers mental exhaustion and improves cognitive function as well as learning capability. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, 2-phase study, 66 participants with fatigue were given 2 g of L-carnitine once a day. By the end of the study, the group taking L-carnitine showed significant improvements in physical fatigue, mental fatigue, fatigue severity amongst other physical enhancements, as compared to those receiving a placebo.

Moreover, the study confirms that oral supplementation of L-carnitine reduces the total of fat mass, increases muscular mass, increases capacity for physical and cognitive activity, improves cognitive functions, all while reducing fatigue as well. [6]

Provides Neuroprotection Against Brain Cell Death

Due to its potent antioxidant attributes, ALCAR acts as a neuroprotectant, blocking and restoring damage from free radicals that injure brain cells. It also helps the brain clear itself of other toxins and decreases cell death due to excitotoxicity, a neurotic process that triggers by the over-activation of glutamate receptors. It enhances the neural network by stimulating nerves and signal receptors and additionally protects the brain against the damaging influences of drinking alcohol. [7]

Restores Cognitive Function and Repairs Impairment

One of Acetyl-L-Carnitine’ many exciting prospects is as a treatment for age-related neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. It has been confirmed to dramatically slow decline in Alzheimer’s patients and decreases age-related recall failure. Other studies showed that ALCAR supports repair ambulatory capability in the elderly and functions as a mood lifter as well as working as an anti-depressant in the elderly. [8]

Support Mitochondria and Nervous System

ALCAR promotes mitochondrial function and serves to support the nervous system overall performance. Especially in the case where an individual is subject to neurodegenerative disease. It can be of significant benefit to people with physical disorders typically correlated with aging, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. It has shown to be efficient in managing nerve pain, enhancing kidney function, and improving heart health. [9] [10]

Regulates Sexual Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction

ALCAR regulates men’s infertility and improves signs of andropause and erectile dysfunction. It is also in use to fight Peyronie’s disease, an inflammatory disease that affects the penis. [11] [12]

Additionally, it is under clinical trials as a possible treatment for chronic fatigue.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Acetyl-L-Carnitine Work?

ALCAR synthesizes primarily in the liver and kidneys, after which it travels to other tissues. ALCAR has excellent bioavailability. The gastrointestinal tract quickly digests it. Its actions differ considerably from other forms of L-carnitine, which don’t cross the blood-brain barrier. The acetyl groups that make ALCAR unique, enable it to cross the blood-brain barrier readily and rapidly. Its most effective role is within the cerebellum.

alcar benefits
Acetyl-l-carnitine skeletal structure

Another one of ALCAR’s nootropic benefits involves the acetyl groups, which produce the support for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Often referred to as “the learning neurotransmitter,” acetylcholine is accountable for learning, memory, and cognitive function. Increased levels of acetylcholine result in an improvement in cognitive function, and low levels of that essential neurotransmitter risks neurological complications similar to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

On Neurotransmitters

ALCAR resumes showing increasing levels of norepinephrine and serotonin. They are vital neurotransmitters that play an essential part in mood and brain function. The capacity to improve neurotransmitter production is one of the principal techniques that ALCAR complements nootropics attributes. Similar to those of the racetams, which enhance the action of neurotransmitter receptors in the cerebellum.

Moreover, ALCAR targets brain metabolism, promoting cellular energy and serving as a potent neuroprotectant. Its critical antioxidant qualities combat the impressions of cellular oxidation. It further decreases the number of damaged cells in an individual brain, thereby becoming a useful longevity tool.

Damaged fat cells identified as lipofuscin (age spots) also happen in the brain and are actively correlated amidst age-related neurological dysfunctions, lack of energy, and weak memory. By supporting the brain excrete those damaged cells. ALCAR increases brain function and significantly lessens the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. It has also been shown to limit brain deterioration during times of stress.

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How to Take Acetyl-L-Carnitine?

Typical Acetyl-L-Canritine dosage is 500 mg per day once in the morning, and up to 1,500 mg split into three doses of 500 mg. From there, adjust dosage to your need without exceeding 1,500 mg. At least not during trial period. It is water-soluble, therefore it can be taken with or without food. However, taking ALCAR late in the evening can result in disruption of sleep.

Recommended ALCAR dosage, active amounts, other details:

“The standard dose for L-carnitine is between 500-2,000mg. There are various forms of carnitine supplementation available.Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) is used for cognitive enhancement. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate (LCLT) is typically used for physical performance and power output. Glycine Propionyl L-Carnitine (GPLC) is used to alleviate intermittent claudication and blood flow issues. L-carnitine is supplemented daily. The equivalent dosage range for other forms of L-carnitine are as follows: 630-2,500mg (ALCAR), 1,000-4,000mg (LCLT) and 1,000-4,000mg (GPLC).”

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Side Effects

What Are the Side Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine?

  • Headaches may occur in cases of consuming high doses before allowing the body to adapt to the additional amount of Acetyl-L-Carnitine that it is receiving.
  • Nausea is the most common side effect. It is easily preventable by taking ALCAR alongside food rather than on an empty stomach.
  • Headaches are the second most common side effect, which may imply an excessive amounts of choline.
  • Users report that headaches from ALCAR use decrease when they reduce the amount of choline in their stacks and diets.

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User Experience

To be fair in sharing the Reddit community experiences, I will add the first 3 that I see whether the experience is positive or negative. Three Acetyl-L-Carnitine reddit experiences:

Reddit 1

As the title says, it’s been a game changer. Old stack was: Citicoline 300mg with centrophenoxine 350mg one to two times daily. Switched Centro to ALCAR 500 one daily just to try and damn it’s been really good. Mornings are good, everything is really clear. Honestly this feels a lot like amphetamine. So much so that I cancelled my pdoc appt to get a refill. I was basically off the meds but wanted to have a few around but now I really don’t think I need them. Very glad people on here have posted about alcar before!

Reddit 2

Funny enough I get a stronger response from ALCAR then I do racetams in regards to mental performance. It seems to make me really smart. Your mileage may vary though. To OP: I get results in a day. Be careful for not overdoing it. I’ve posted before that acetylcholine overload tends to make you depressed and function worse. – eastmangobo

Reddit 3

“I have been taking Acetyl for about 17 years. For the last 2 yrs or so it has affected me less and less (no idea why) but before that, I noticed a MASSIVE positive boost from taking it. I experienced a huge uptick in word retrieval and overall brain function. used to always say that when I took Acetyl, it was like an electric switch was turned on, as that’s what it felt like … electric..I always bought it in bulk powder and almost always used 1 gram in my morning shake (180lb Male). DO NOT use it after noon …. you will NOT sleep !!!! You should notice a difference within 3-4 days. As I did mention, I am noticing now that I am affected by Acetyl less and less. If I miss a few days, I don’t really notice it like I did years ago and I don’t really get that electric charge feeling. I don’t know why this is, as I’ve purchased a few different brands.” Gernan_Mafia

Tim Ferris

Measuring the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on various aspects of cognitive performance. Alas, after multiple consecutive nights of vivid nightmares (which I rarely have), I wondered if ALC might play a role. I only experienced this when taking ALC in the later afternoon or evening, and daily total consumption never exceeded 1,500mg. After finding a few reports like this, I decided to call it quits with my protocol. Thus far, I have found ALC to produce unpleasantly vivid dreams to a much greater extent than, say, galantamine or huperzine-A, which enhance vividness but don’t seem to create the same degree of negative tone. Of course, this is an N of 1 (single subject) amateur hour, but the contrast has been both remarkable and remarkably consistent. I’d be curious to hear if anyone else has experienced something similar. And be careful with those cholinergic neurons…

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ALCAR is an outstanding amino acid nootropic. It offers many benefits to both the body and the brain. In addition to its potent  brain boosting effect, it is also a healthy nutrient. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is safe, affordable, very tolerable, and easily accessible in department and drug stores. It enhances cognitive function, supports ant-aging and longevity, which makes it a nootropic worth adding to any stack.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between L-Carnitine L-Tartrate, L-Carnitine Tartrate, and Acetyl L-Carnitine?

L-Carnitine L-Tartrate and L-Carnitine Tartrate are the same thing, they just truncate the L-Tartrate for brevity. This is the form of L-Carnitine that is in supplements that some studies have linked to possibly helping recover times from work outs (specifically it was shown that people taking L-carnitine had less damage to their leg muscles after a workout versus people that weren’t taking it), there weren’t any other observations of it’s added use outside of that.
Acetylcarnitine is an alternative form of l-carnitine for supplementation that has been pushed because of it’s bioavailability. The downside is that it’s less concentrated in the bloodstream after digestion. It doesn’t appear that any studies have been performed linking acetylcarnitine to exercise performance, but it’s only proven use has been in increasing sperm mobility. A few proposals have set out to use it treat neurological conditions, but none have yet been proven.

Can I take 5-HTP and Acetyl L-Carnitine together?

To date there has been no evidence that either counteract the other or have negative effects. Both substances are great for many aspects of brain health. You can be pretty safe in the assumption that it’s worth testing out for yourself to see how you react to this combination.

Can I take acetyl-l-carnitine & taurine together with antidepressants, antipsychotics and NAC?

They don’t interact, in fact, Acetyl-L-Carnitine is used as “complementary” therapy along with Psych Meds. Taurine is as well. Taurine is also VERY much so present in Energy Drinks like Red Bull & Monster. It is responsible for much of the “kick” and focus Energy Drinks give us.

Is ALCAR effective?

Yes. ALCAR has nootropic and neuro-protective benefits. This compound works great alone if you want a substance to help protect your brain from oxidative stress. Better cognitive results often happen when ALCAR is stacked with other nootropics.

The main nootropic benefits of ALCAR will be consistent with higher acetylcholine levels. Low acetylcholine is linked to cognitive deficient and low energy levels. Although ALCAR helps in the production of Acetylcholine, nootropic benefits may not be apparent when taken alone. For this reason, ALCAR is highly recommended to stack with other nootropics. Below is a list of typical benefits seen in an ALCAR + racetam/ampakine combination.

Better memory
Faster learning
Higher concentration
Heightened perception

ALCAR is often stacked with a cheap choline salt like choline bitartrate or citrate because it acts synergistically to produce Acetylcholine. Some people will use this stack as a cheaper alternative to more expensive acetylcholine intermediates such as alpha GPC or citicoline.

ALCAR by itself or in a choline stack will also work great with the racetams and ampakines. Boosting the level of Acetylcholine will allow for a synergistic combination with racetams which act as Acetylcholine receptor agonists. ALCAR is suggested to help protect from excitotoxic situations resulting from excess glutamate that may be a result of taking certain ampakines. For this reason, ALCAR may be beneficial when stacked with certain glutamate agonists like sunifram and unifram.

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Further and Related Readings

  1. N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (NALT)
  2. L-Theanine
  3. N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC)
  4. Agmatine Sulfate
  5. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

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