Neuroprotection

This page contains all website entries whether pages, posts, updates, or blog entries that are tagged Neuroprotection or Neuroprotective Nootropics.

Piracetam is a designer nootropic that enhances cognitive brain function. It's the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.https://youtu.be/3A2yTpzFirU

Overview

What is Piracetam?

Piracetam (also known as Nootropil) is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It's been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.

Nootropics such as AniracetamPhenylpiracetam, FasoracetamSunifiram and Pramiracetam are all derivatives of this compound.

“Synthetic molecule designed to enhance brain function. Piracetam is the basic ‘racetam' molecule of a family of related compounds” Examine

Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. 

It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. 

Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.

“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.” Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Piracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Enhances Cognitive Function
  3. Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
  4. Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
  5. Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
  6. Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
  7. Helps with Schizophrenia

Supporting research:

Improves Memory

Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. 

In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. 

However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. 

Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result. [1] [2]

Enhances Cognitive Function

There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. 

Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. 

While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. 

Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits. [3] [4] [5]

Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration

Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. 

In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. 

Prevention is of often the best medicine there is. [6] [7]

Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought

There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. 

In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. 

Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. [8]

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression

In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. 

It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. 

However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. 

Use with caution. 

With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social [9] [10] – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)

Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics

Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. 

In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. 

Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time. [11] [12]

Helps with Schizophrenia

Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. 

Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus. [13] [14]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Piracetam Work?

Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. 

Piracetam' mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. 

Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. 

Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.

“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).

Piracetam Nootropic
Piracetam Skeletal Structure

The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.

Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. 

It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine

Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. 

Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. 

Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. 

Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.

Dosage

How to Take Piracetam?

Typically, the Piracetam dosage for adults is between between 1,200 to 4,800 mg per day.

The most effective and agreed upon Piracetam dose is 1,600 mg. It can be taken once per day, or up to three times per day, totaling a maximum of 4,800 mg per day.

If new to Piracetam and taking it for the first time, start with 1,600 mg and wait and observe your reaction to it. 

Few hours later, you can choose whether you want to take another dose, or if one is enough for your needs.

For optimal results pair it with 300mg of Alpha GPCCDP-choline, or your choline source of choice.

Side Effects

What Are Piracetam Side Effects?

Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. [15]

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them.

Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-GPC, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.

Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. [16]

User Experience

Reddit

A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:

So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i've never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions.

I've lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i'ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety.

With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me.

Now I focus on what is important and I don't care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I've started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions.

I've also noted i'm more honest and don't feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour.

I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i've been an asshole my whole life) Even so I'm still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they're only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself.

Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don't have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.

Reddit II

So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.)

But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn't expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.

Conclusion

Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.

Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Piracetam Legal in the US?

It’s legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.

What's the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”

Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”

What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?

Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked’ in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.

What is the correct way to take Piracetam?

“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”

Why does piracetam take so long to act?

Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down’s syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.

Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?

The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:

1. Enhance some form of cognition.
2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

For the first Qualifier:

Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.

Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focusmemory, and learning.

Second Qualifier:

Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]

Where can I buy Piracetam and Nootropil in Dubai, UAE?

Nootropix offers 30 & 60ct jars of Piracetam capsules in Dubai, and the UAE.

All products are lab-tested and verified for both product purity and identity. If you buy Piracetam capsules from our shop, expect it to ship within 24 hours for orders placed within Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and the UAE.

IntroductionBenefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide Effects


Summary: Vinpocetine is a neuroprotective nootropic, an extraction from flower-plant vinca minor. It works as a cognitive enhancer, memory booster, while also uplifting mood and supporting overall well-being.

Vinpocetine benefits
Vinpocetine Skeletal Structure

Introduction

What is Vinpocetine?

Vinpocetine (aka Cavinton, Intelctol), is an extract from flowering plant vinca minor (or myrtle); a flower-family native to Portugal, France, and other parts of central and southern Europe. A 1975 discovery by Hungarian chemist named Csaba Szantay. Only three years after the invention, production of the extract in pill form started. Some of the primary uses of Vinpocetine as a nootropic are memory and cognition improvement, increasing learning capacity, and mood enhancement. Medical applications extend to the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, dementia, and strokes. It is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. Its excellent safety profile is inspiring more companies to study and research Vinpocetine to explore other possible therapeutic and nootropic benefits. Although less popular comparing to other nootropics, the research as well as the knowledge of it is rapidly growing


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Vinpocetine Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory and Cognition
  2. Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow
  3. Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention
  4. Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being
  5. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory

Supporting research:

Vinpocetine Improves Memory and Cognition

Vinpocetine is widely in use for memory improvement. In Eastern Europe, it is a medical prescription for treating memory-related problems and disorders. Clinical trials confirm its effect on improving memory formation, and individuals receiving Vinpocetine report it’s beneficial especially in remembering and recalling information. Other studies also confirm it as a memory enhancer that can be used by anyone looking to improve their memory. (R)

Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow

Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and supports better blood circulation without having adverse effects on blood pressure. The better blood flow and circulation leads to an increase in productivity within the brain. This productivity increases and allows for better focus and concentration, as well as allowing for longer and steady attention span. Take notes, fellow ADHD ADHE’s – (attention-deficit hyperactive extraordinary). (R) (R)

Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention

Vinpocetine improves the body’s ability of converting dietary glucose and fat to ATP, which is the coenzyme that transmits chemical energy for metabolism. Having more ATP ready for use in the brain leads to better intellectual capability, and thereby learning becomes more comfortable and faster. Moreover, the presence of sufficient ATP reduces feelings of mental exhaustion and “brain fog,” as well as supports feelings of mental clarity. (R)

Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being

An increase in overall well-being is a result of a reduction in the rate of cognitive decline. (R) (R)

Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory

Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Vinpocetine Work?

Early studies show that Vinpocetine benefits the brain in many ways, one of which is by improving blood flow, circulation, and utilization of oxygen. Unlike common stimulants, Vinpocetine increases blood flow in the brain without affecting the rest of the body. It targets impaired cells and areas of poor circulation within the brain. Enhancing blood flow, circulation, and oxygenation allows the brain to tolerate conditions of lack of sufficient oxygen (such as ischemia and hypoxia) better. Those conditions can relate to strokes and similar injuries. The elevation of blood flow and oxygenation result the nootropic effect.

Furthermore, improving circulation and oxygenation in the brain also enhances the overall brain function while increasing the production of ATP. All of which are vital for cerebral metabolism. By generating sufficient amounts of ATP, vinpocetine increases the use of glucose thereby improves mental clarity.

Vinpocetine interacts with sodium, calcium, and potassium ion channels within the brain, modulating the release of various neurotransmitters. That includes, but not limited to acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Increasing the availability of those neurotransmitters not only affects memory and overall cognition but may also improve mood by relieving feelings of anxiety and enhancing energy and well-being. Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.


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Dosage

How To Take Vinpocetine?

For general health and prevention purposes, the low dose is 5mg 3x per day at meals and ranges up to 20 mg 3x per day. These doses are for neuroprotection, enhancing cerebral blood flow, and reducing the rate of cognitive decline.

For nootropic purposes, suggestion doses of 30 to 45 mg, 3 times a day, alongside food.


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Side Effects

What Are Vinpocetine Side Effects?

Vinpocetine is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. It is also very well tolerated and has no reported adverse effects. New users rarely experience a soft version of caffeine “buzz” that fades away as tolerance to vinpocetine is increased. Keep in mind that increasing the daily dosage to over 40 mg could decrease benefits.


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Conclusion

Vinpocetine’s unique mechanisms of action, great cognitive enhancement abilities, and insurance of neuroprotection are leading to increasing attention within the nootropic community. It’s a safe brain-booster that works well with other nootropics, thereby becoming an attractive addition to nootropic stacks. It’s affordable and easily accessible.

If you are interested in further optimizing your brain, enhancing its blood circulation, as well as allowing it to function at maximum productivity; vinpocetine is a nootropic worthy of your consideration.


Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Shilajit, also called mineral pitch, is the result of a long process of breaking down plant matter and minerals. It is a sticky, black, tar-like substance that comes from rocks in high mountain ranges.

Shilajeet is a thick, sticky tar-like substance with a colour ranging from white to dark brown (the latter is more common), found predominantly in Himalaya, Karakuram, Tibet mountains, Caucasus mountains, Altai Mountains, and mountains of Gilgit Baltistan.

It is used in Ayurveda and Unani, the traditional Indian system of medicine. It has been reported to contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form, as well as triterpenes, humic acids and fulvic acid.

Overview

What is Shilajit?

Known for thousands of years as a rejuvenator of the whole body, shilajit has garnered a fairly significant body of research for its impact on various body systems.

Shilajit is a sticky substance found primarily in the rocks of the Himalayas. It develops over centuries from the slow decomposition of plants.

Shilajit is commonly used in ayurvedic medicine. It’s an effective and safe supplement that can have a positive effect on your overall health and well-being. [R]

Shilajit was traditionally sourced in India and Tibet, though it is now found in many other countries.

Shilajit has been used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, and the compounds in it appear to be beneficial for many conditions. In this article, learn about the benefits and possible side effects of this naturally-occurring substance.

Benefits and Effects

Prevents and Slows Alzheimer’s Progression

The primary component of shilajit is an antioxidant known as fulvic acid. This powerful antioxidant contributes to cognitive health by preventing the accumulation of tau protein. Tau proteins are an important part of your nervous system, but a buildup can trigger brain cell damage.

Researchers think that the fulvic acid in shilajit may stop the abnormal buildup of tau protein and reduce inflammation, potentially improving Alzheimer’s symptoms. However, more research and clinical trials are needed.

Enhances Cognitive Function

The numerous compounds found in shilajit may be helpful for brain function, and may even aid Alzheimer's therapy.

A study in the International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease noted that shilajit is traditionally used for longevity and to slow aging. The compounds in it may help control cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's.

Researchers expect shilajit to have an impact in preventing cognitive disorders, but more research is needed to explore these possibilities.

Where Do Shilajit's Benefits Come From?

Shilajit is a sticky, tar-like substance often appearing dark brown in color, which is highly regarded as a rejuvenating substance in Ayurveda. It is found primarily at high altitudes in the Himalayan and Tibetan mountain ranges, but has also been found in Russian and Chilean mountain ranges (Carrasco-Gallardo et al., 2012). During warm summer months, the intense heat of the sun causes shilajit to become soft, which makes it appear as if it is oozing out of rocks. However, the true origin of shilajit remains somewhat of a mystery even after decades of research. The primary theory is that shilajit is the humification product of various latex producing plants, mosses, and liverworts. This theory would explain why shilajit has such a complex chemical makeup that is similar to other humic substances such as peat. Shilajit contains over 85 individual components consisting of a mixture of minerals, humic acids, and amino acids that can potentially provide benefits to your physical and cognitive function. In order to simplify things a bit, we will only talk about the main components of shilajit which appear to have the highest biological activity. These are dibenzo-α-pyrone Chromaproteins (DBPs) and fulvic acids (FA) with DBP cores.

Fulvic acid (FA) is one of the main components of shilajit. It is a humic acid created as a result of millions of microbes breaking down decaying plant matter during a process called humification. Fulvic acid is a very complex molecule and contains a variety of functional groups, including carboxylic groups; this appears to allow Fulvic Acid to easily complex with cationic substances (Schepetkin et al., 2009). Fulvic Acid's complexing ability potentially explains quite a lot of shilajit's benefits. To begin with, fulvic acid demonstrates excellent bioavailability and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeation; this allows it to act as a very effective delivery mechanism for the compounds it complexes with (Mirza et al., 2011). In the case of shilajit derived fulvic acid, it appears to complex readily with DBPs, thus it acts as a delivery mechanism for them to various parts of the body including the brain. Furthermore, the carboxylic groups in Fulvic Acid appear to strongly support the complement immune system. This system is composed of various precursor zymogens, which circulate throughout our body and are completely inactive. However our innate and adaptive immune system can activate these precursor zymogens.

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Rhodiola Rosea is a naturally growing flower plant from the wild Arctic regions of Europe, widely used in Chinese, Scandinavian and Russian traditional medicine. It is believed to be the perfect remedy for fatigue and burnouts. Moreover, Rhodiola is useful for the brain; protecting it from toxin damage as well as boosting memory and productivity.

Overview

What is Rhodiola Rosea?

Rhodiola Rosea is thought to be the perfect remedy for fatigue and burnout. It is useful for the brain, protecting it from toxin damage, and boosting memory capacity as well as productivity. Recent research confirms that this high-altitude herb prevents the harmful effects of stress by restoring energy, improving mood, and enhancing cognition. Furthermore, Rhodiola seems to promote longevity, combat fatigue, reduce anxiety, in addition to serving as a general neuroprotectant.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Rhodiola Rosea Benefits?

  • Minimizes Fatigue
  • Promotes Cognitive Enhancement
  • Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  • Reduces Symptoms of Mild Depression
  • Neuroprotective

 

Supporting research:

Minimizes Fatigue

Rhodiola is an excellent fatigue fighter. Typically decreasing the harmful physical and mental consequences of minor physical exhaustion (R). It is most useful in combating the kind of fatigue produced by prolonged repetitive low-intensity exertion or extended periods of stress (R). It is observed to increase the length of active exercise time [R], but opinions vary on whether it improves athletic performance from intense exertion.

While Rhodiola may be minimally competent as a performance enhancer for athletes [R], it can be extremely of use for students, late workers, and individuals who need to keep going with everyday life after fatigue gets the best of them. Rhodiola relieves many physical symptoms of fatigue, even diminishing them. Of such example are muscle aches, soreness, feelings of exhaustion, headaches, and sleepiness (R).

Promotes Cognitive Enhancement

Rhodiola is proven to address many of the cognitive symptoms of fatigue; including irritability, impaired judgment or decision-making ability, and declining brain capacity (R). A vast number of clinical trials continuously indicate this herb notably increases cognitive skills. It improves the memory, increases motivation, and also increase the capacity to endure more challenging work (R).  Many consider Rhodiola a powerful fatigue-independent nootropic, and its potential cognitive benefits remain under a lot of clinical trials.

The most intriguing trials involved a group of healthy physicians on night duty over a period of six weeks (R). The double-blind placebo-controlled study revealed that the participants receiving Rhodiola outscored those receiving placebo on several complex mental capabilities. That included associative thought, short-term memory, calculation, concentration, keen speed, and overall level of mental fatigue. (R)

Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Recent studies on Rhodiola add to its well-earned reputation as an excellent adaptogen aiding the body to achieve systemic balance and restore itself to normal function after exposure to stress (R). This therapeutic process is a valuable benefit for users who frequently deal with intense situations, hectic schedules, and high expectations, which seems to describe the average 9 to 5 person in most developing cities today.

Furthermore, clinical trials involving participants with chronic stress symptoms exhibit measurable improvements in all stress marks across the board; low energy, headache, muscular aches and discomfort, depression, mood swings, and sleep disorders (R).

In another double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of students taking exams; Rhodiola shows to considerably improve general well-being and physical fitness, reduce mental fatigue, and improve scores on a battery of neuro-motoric tests (R). The students taking Rhodiola were scoring  8.4% higher on their exams in comparison to students on placebo. (R)

Reduces Symptoms of Mild Depression

Rhodiola has potential as a reliable and efficient treatment for mild depression (R). Research remains ongoing, but clinical trials indicate that twice-daily doses of Rhodiola resulted in a significant lessening of depression, insomnia, emotional instability and other symptoms in patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression. (R)

Neuroprotective

Many enzymes in Rhodiola have potent antioxidant properties (R). Not only do these enzymes guard neurons against oxidative damage and prolong cell life, but they also represent a potential therapy for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease, which is defined by significant oxidative stress and neuronal damage[R]. Animal studies show that Rhodiola can reduce oxidative damage to the cellular mitochondria and therefore has the potential to of being a decent addition to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. [R]

Though research is ongoing and results remain uncertain, Rhodiola still has the possibility of being a remedy for a broad scope of conditions, including high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, heart disease, cancer, and longevity.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Rhodiola Rosea Work?

It seems to act primarily by modulating a variety of signaling pathways and molecular networks in the brain. It affects this modulation to no small extent via many phytochemical components.

These components help to prevent the removal of serotonin and dopamine; primarily chemicals associated with making us feel happy. It also increases the availability of epinephrine and norepinephrine, compounds related to giving us drive and energy. Through these alterations, Rhodiola positively impacts mood, reduces fatigue perception, and enhances cognitive abilities.

Rhodiola promotes movements for chemicals in our brain, improving processing and reaction time. It also helps with stress system by suppressing the cortisol (stress-inducing hormone) and promoting beta-endorphins and opiate peptides (stress reducing hormones).

Dosage

How To Take Rhodiola Rosea?

Safe and effective at doses ranging from 50 mg to 680 mg daily. It is best to take on an empty stomach, in a periodic cycle, thereby preventing tolerance build up.

A 100 mg dose effectively improves memory and focus, but a 400 mg is more effective at relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Side Effects

What Are Rhodiola Rosea Side Effects?

Rhodiola is generally safe and non-addictive at moderate doses (50 mg – 680 mg daily) for a period up to 10 weeks. The most common side effects are mild to moderate dizziness, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, nausea, restlessness, and increased libido. Those side effects exist in consuming high doses. Therefore, it is essential to start with the minimum effective dose and increase as needed.

Conclusion

Rhodiola as a tonic has become a tradition at this point after maintaining its reputation for generations. Moreover, it is still growing in popularity today as we learn more about its potential uses and capabilities. It is a powerful adaptogen and reliable neuroprotectant that help manage the adverse effects of stress. Therefore, it is a great supplement to consider for individuals interested in pushing up mental and physical performance to the optimum.

Frequently Asked Questions

Rhodiola rosea has a large number of beneficial qualities that make it an excellent herb for you to use to aid your health. It is one of the best herbs for stress. It is not only an adaptogen, but it is also an antidepressant and an antioxidant, as well as being one of the herbs to aid a viral infection. It is the rhodiola rosea root that is used to make herbal remedies, that are powerful aids for heart problems. Its active ingredients are cardio-protective and anti-arrhythmic, meaning that it protects you from irregular heart beats. The root of this plant has been in use in Siberia, Russia and China for around two thousand years. It is one of the adaptogenic herbs that only grows in certain locations at high elevations in mountainous regions. It has an excellent action to aid mental alertness and to help fatigue. It is also helpful to stimulate your memory and to help protect your liver from chemical damage.
Rhodiola Rosea does seem promising, but as there is still insufficient evidence on the safety of this combination, I would strongly advise you to consult your psychiatrist first, before combining Zoloft with it. There is a potential for adverse drug interactions when combining SSRI antidepressants with Rhodiola, the latter of which has strong MAOI effects. It should also be noted that Rhodeola Rosea can inhibit the CYP3A4 enzyme in the liver; although these were in-vitro studies, the potential exists for in-vivo inhibitions. Whilst this enzyme plays a minor role in the metabolism of Zoloft, it plays a large role in the metabolism of many other psychotropics.

Verified by Dr. Sundru M. Devi
M.D. Microbiology, PhD Biotechnology, January 28, 2020

Phenibut is a a GABAergic agent that works on the GABA neurotransmitter distinctly reducing anxiety. It also lessens depression, and PTSD symptoms, improving sleep, and providing an overall feeling of ease and well-being. Due to the euphoric-like effects it offers, users prefer to stick to occasional use rather than frequent in respect of its abuse and addiction risk potential.

Overview

What is Phenibut?

Phenibut Skeletal Structure
Phenibut Skeletal Structure

Phenibut is a supplement that is a derivative of GABA, but much stronger. It was discovered in Russia and is considered as a nootropic (a substance that helps your brain work better) because it can help with focus and then help to cause profound sleep. Russian researchers found that phenibut protected against the psychological side effects of chronic stress.

It was also suggested that maintaining a  dose less than 600 mg is effective, or else it might stop working  when taken daily. There are reports of people abusing it by taking high doses for long periods and becoming dependent on it. This is a very powerful sleep hack, but it doesn’t mix with alcohol or some other medications.

Phenibut might not have as widespread use as other nootropics  in the market. However, it has demonstrated numerous benefits over ten  decades through both formal studies and anecdotal documentation. It's a nootropic designed to simulate the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that acts on the central nervous system. It is marketed as a psychotropic with a positive effect on mental capability and improved neurological function. The anxiety diminishing effects of phenibut are the most praised of all its attributes. Once anxiety is resolved, natural sleep patterns and enhanced cognitive processes shortly start following.

Phenibut was invented in the Soviet Union practically 50 years back. An intriguing, recorded tale uncovers that Russian cosmonauts were supplemented with phenibut, particularly during the 1975 mission Apollo-Soyuz at the joint of the USSR and US. It stays being used to date in Russia as a treatment and solution for some conditions, including anxiety, depression, prevention of motion sickness, even alcohol withdrawal syndrome, to name a few. Also, obviously, its nootropic properties.

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications. – Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Phenibut Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress Levels
  2. Increased Sociability
  3. Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality
  4. Improves Symptoms of ADHD

 

Supporting research:

Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Anyone who suffers from anxiety knows that it can be tough to control; it’s not just something that can be ‘switched’ off. When taking Phenibut, you will be able to gain more control. Once administered, you can expect to feel more relaxed and composed.

This attribute is the most appreciated benefit of phenibut, which is documented by Izyaslav Lapin. [1]

Anxiety is often the result of overactivity in the brain's concentration and overthinking and analysis of unnecessary or irrelevant matters, often with the inability to realize the direction to which the train of thought is heading. Turning down and resting the continuous and distracting neuron processing frees the negative thought preoccupation, which in turn opens a fresher, vibrant, and often productive range of possibilities.

Increases Sociability and Enhances Mood

The anxiolytic impact prompts receptiveness towards social interaction, which without anyone else is an issue quite often connecting with nervousness. Studies suggest phenibut to be a promoter of enhanced cognitive processing, but the fundamental reason is practically still due to anxiety relief. Those seeking to improve interaction in social settings report better results with the supplement in comparison with alcohol or prescription medication such as benzodiazepines. While attempted anxiety-reduction using traditional tranquilizers often leads to drowsiness and reduction in motor skill and cognitive ability, phenibut seems to mitigate the feelings, except without the associating and undesired side effects that associate with traditional prescription medication. [R]

Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality

People living through the depression, anxiety, stressful life events, while going through hormonal changes such as menopause, often report degenerating sleep quality, sleep disturbance, and insomnia. While melatonin is a remarkable and beneficial supplement to consider, some require pharmaceutical sleep aid for more sedating and sleep-inducing effects.

Lack of continuous quality sleep can cause impairment in cognitive processing, opening the way to more anxiety and more sleep disturbance. Used consciously, Phenibut is an excellent supplement that can restore significant, natural sleep patterns, duration, and quality. The ability to fall asleep, remain asleep, maintain an extended period of healthy, rejuvenating deep sleep is attainable with phenibut. [R] [R]

May Improve ADHD

According to Selfhacked, since phenibut improves attention, it may also help with ADHD symptoms. In one clinical trial of 50 children with ADHD, it improved cognition, self-control, sustained attention, and memory after one month (500-700 mg/day). One month is a short time for evaluating ADHD effects; long-term studies need to determine if the beneficial effect can be sustained.

Editor's Thought

Well, I am ADHD and have taken Phenibut and similar “GABA-acting” drugs, such as gabapentin, for about a year. It's interesting that, at the time, I had not been diagnosed with ADHD yet and was not aware nor had a clue what ADHD is. I self-medicated with gabapentin and phenibut along the way, and now years later, looking back at how routinely I was taking it, I realize the reason I was hooked and amazed by it was its effect on me as an ADHD, before any anxiety triggers that might associate. It was a transformative medication – but overtime, mister W (withdrawals) had been sitting and just waiting for me to get off it to introduce himself – and that horrible experience was almost equally transformative.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Phenibut Work?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (also known as GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in our central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier makes supplementing with GABA close to being ineffective due to its inability to bypass the blood-brain restriction. However, phenibut crosses the barrier due to the addition of the phenyl group molecule. Once in the brain, it slows the neuronal excitability, resulting in the effects as mentioned earlier.

GABA frees up channels in the neurons, reduces the function of other neurotransmitters, and diminishes collective fears and anxieties in the neuron. It remains vague whether or not phenibut binds to the GABA receptor, although some studies suggest that it only does so in high concentrations.

Lapin’s research found that phenibut increases the levels of dopamine as well. Dopamine is another vital neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It regulates emotions and creates the reaction of what we call motivation.

More from the Web

To affect one’s cognitive functioning, mood, and overall relaxation levels, this supplement needs to cross the blood-brain barrier. GABA cannot effectively do this, while Phenibut can. This is due to a phenyl group that is attached to GABA’s structure.

Naturally, GABA balances out the effects of chemicals that stimulate neurons. When neurons are overstimulated, this can lead to feelings of anxiety and restlessness. Since Phenibut works like GABA, it helps to restore this balance.

The result is neurons firing only when they’re supposed to. Once Phenibut reaches the brain, it targets GABA receptor sites.

It is believed that Phenibut is non-selective, as it stimulates both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors. This allows you to feel a sense of relaxation, lessening anxiety. This is relatively different from other nootropic supplements, which is why it’s beneficial in a stack.

Phenibut also stimulates dopamine receptors, which is critical  in terms of your mood. Once dopamine is increased, you will experience a more positive attitude. Users also tend to experience high levels of motivation, allowing them to achieve more.

Dosage

How to Take Phenibut?

Phenibut is a potent compound. Start at the lowest effective dose and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs. A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers with no tolerance. 500 mg would be ideal, in my opinion.

Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and the optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.

Phenibut is GABA (the major calming neurotransmitter in your brain) with a phenyl ring attached, which allows the molecule to pass your blood-brain barrier and reach receptors in your brain. Phenibut was developed initially for Russian astronauts, to ease the stress of flight and help them sleep in space. It relieves anxiety and drives you into a deeper sleep. Phenibut is also a nootropic: it boosts cognition, giving you relaxed clarity of thought.

Powder Phenibut Dosage

For people trying to figure out which capsules to buy, here's how much phenibut I can pack into each capsule size (using lift mode fine crystals phenibut HCL powder):

Terms:

“Packed body” is when you press as much powder as you can into the large inner portion of the capsule.

“Entirely packed capsule” is when you pack the cap (top) of the capsule and the body of the capsule as tightly as you can while still being able to close it to the point of “popping” together.

Size 000

Packed body: ~1100-1150

Entirely packed: ~1200-1250

Size 00

Packed body: ~800 mg

Entirely packed: ~850 mg

Size 1

Packed body: ~410mg

Entirely packed: ~430mg

Dave Aspey on Phenibut

Phenibut can be addictive, so it’s very important to take it correctly. The two common mistakes people make are taking phenibut daily and increasing the dose over time. Phenibut’s effects last for 48-72 hours, so you only want to take it once every three days (twice a week max).

You also want to cycle it to avoid tolerance. Go two weeks on phenibut, two weeks off. Don’t go past 250 mg doses; if you stop feeling the effects at 250mg, cycle off for a couple of weeks. Don’t mix phenibut with alcohol, either. It amplifies the consequences, which can be dangerous.

Dose: 250 mg (never higher)

Time: Anytime, but only twice a week max (Monday and Thursday, for example).

Do two weeks on phenibut, two weeks off.

Side Effects

Phenibut Side Effects

Like anything we put inside our body, the best source of measurement and criticism is the human body itself. To avoid adverse effects, start at a low dose and see your body's reaction and adaptation to it.

Often individuals report dizziness and drunk-life sensation as a side effect. On the other hand, many people supplement with phenibut for the very same impact.

The experience is entirely subjective. Rarely users report fatigue, nausea, and stomach discomfort. People on epilepsy medication or MAO inhibitors are advised to consult a professional doctor before taking phenibut. The consumption of alcohol must be within reasonable limits, as a synergistic effect might be induced in combination of alcohol and phenibut. 

Avoid taking daily.

Phenibut has high abuse potential. If taken regularly, be mindful of possible withdrawal effects upon discontinuation. It's wise to limit intake to once or twice a week. Thereby maintain a low tolerance, enjoy its benefits, and avoid building a destructive habit of use. Do not underestimate the power of phenibut and do your research if you decide to include it in your stack.

Withdrawals

Essential and useful resources on phenibut usage, abuse, retreats, and much more can be found on Reddit's phenibut sub. Please use it with caution.

It is essential to be aware of the possible withdrawal effect upon discontinuation of phenibut, which can be mild to wild, depending on whether or not it has been abused or not, the dosage, a period of use, amongst other things. An example from the wilder end is the following opinion, from a long-time, high-dose phenibut (ab)user:

In my experience, it is the worst feeling ever. If you had problems in your life anyway and were using Phenibut to mask them, then they will come back twenty times as bad. Withdrawal strips away any optimistic delusions the Phenibut might have given you, and puts you into a state of intense ‘depressive realism'. You see things seemingly for how they are, and find it physically impossible to believe in potential hope of a miracle happening. You are forced to confront the crushing hopelessness of your situation. Any optimism you remember from your Phenibut days seems like meaningless self-delusion. Regrets and doubts multiply. You start planning for the worst, expecting the worst.

Waking up at 3 am every morning after ultra-depressing dreams, your energy reserves are depleted. Your range of vision widens so you can see out of the corners of your eyes, like a prey animal. It feels like there are cold, damp, grey clouds above your eyes. Vision becomes blurry, and you feel old. Smiling becomes physically impossible and fake. Breathing is difficult; you can hold your breath for a long time before having to force yourself to take a big, stressful gulp of air. You may get audible hallucinations, such as hearing a chorus of a particular song repeated over and over again, almost mockingly loudly, when you lie in bed. Things like tooth pain that were masked with GABA are felt again. If you were worried about balding, your scalp would feel cold. Your worst fears will be played upon, as if by a demon, and exaggerated. You find it easy to believe in Hell, but impossible to believe in Heaven.

 

It gets worse for the first three days, then stays bad, becomes manageable by the end of the first week of cold turkey, though you remain melancholy for about two more weeks. This is based on having taken a relatively high dose daily for several months. With a more sensible dosage, the withdrawal will be far milder.

Phenibut Warnings

The following Reddit page is valuable for anyone uses or planning to use or stop phenibut:

Is Phenibut Legal In Australia and Hungary?

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary.

In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential.

In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose. [R]

As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list. [R]

FDA on Phenibut

Phenibut is a substance that does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) defines a dietary ingredient as a vitamin; mineral; herb or other botanical; amino acid; nutritional substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or a combination of the preceding substances. Because phenibut does not fit any of the categories of dietary ingredients under the FD&C Act, any nutritional supplements that declare phenibut as a dietary ingredient are misbranded.

Phenibut is also known as:

  • fenibut
  • phenigam
  • PhGaba
  • Phenigamma
  • Phenygam
  • 4-Amino-3-phenylbutanoic acid
  • β-(aminomethyl)benzenepropanoic acid
  • beta-(Aminomethyl)hydrocinnamic acid
  • β-phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid+

 

Phenibut in Dietary Supplements

Phenibut in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Phenibut is unregulated in the UAE. It is legal for personal use, however, it is not permitted for retail sale.

If you order Phenibut from overseas, if has a chance of being seized by customs, but that won't be an issue of serious importance, however, you will have lost the money paid for it.

You can buy Phenibut in Dubai locally from here.

User Experience

Reddit

We all love phenibut. It removes our social anxiety (which everybody has nowadays), removes inhibitions we have as humans, removes a mental condition we didn't know we had before the use of this substance, makes us more motivated so we can focus on tasks.

Phenibut is a substance which is very handy to treat all of this. You can use it for the rest of your life. You will have continuous anxiolysis, but the motivational aspects will disappear. This is because of a down-regulation of GABA-B on the lesser hand and especially down-regulation of your dopamine receptors. It's called tolerance.

I was 3 years addicted and I have a long road of nootropic use behind me. Herbal extracts, synthetic nootropics, soft- and hard drugs… Some to get high, others to make me smarter and others to remove phenibut tolerance. But 99% of these maybe 100+ compounds I used really helped.

However I discovered 2 very useful substances on my long road.

First of all, memantine. It's an Alzheimer's medication. It works as an NMDA-antagonist. NMDA receptors are receptors in your brain part of the glutamate system, used for learning and memory. These are said to reverse tolerance for stimulants such as caffeine and amphetamine. Phenibut can be classified as a relaxant and stimulant, and while it has like all the other stimulants tolerance problems, NMDA antagonists come in handy to reduce this. Various reports of people you can find on the internet indeed back this claim up. Other compounds who work in this system are ketamine, DXM (cough surpressant), MXE and N20. We also call these compounds dissociatives. Memantine is dissociative in higher doses as a recreational drug but for Phenibut it's more suited in 1-10mg doses for tolerance reduction. It's also a dopamine agonist. You read that good: an NMDA-antagonist (reduces tolerance for dopaminergic stimulants) and dopamine antagonist. So memantine is a stimulant while reducing tolerance for stimulants. In my use of this substance I learned this: start low – with 1 mg to begin with. Because memantine is also a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, it can have anti-nootropic effects the first week while starting. This may contribute to initial worsening of cognitive function during early memantine treatment and is the reason why many people don't take memantine for longer than I week and why you can't find many succesful reports on the internet. I was very succesful in doing this but had to way for minimum 2 weeks. Memantine is also the best in the 2 chemicals I describe in the post when comparing price/efficacy. You can find 10 grams for €75 on the internet (contact me when interested).

The other succesful substance I used is fasoracetam. It's a nootropic in the racetam family. Some other nootropics in this family are piracetam and aniracetam. 2 famous nootropics known for there ability to increase blood flow in your brain and make you more sharper. But only fasoracetam has the ability to increase GABA-B receptors in the brain. It's no GABA-B agonist and no GABA-B antagonist. This is good to know because GABA-B antagonists have a negative on your ability to relax in the beginning and are dangerous in general (because they can damage your nervous system). GABA-B antagonists don't know as far as I know, so this is purely hypothetical. Just wanted to say fasoracetam is an ideal substance. Fasoracetam is more expensive compared to memantine, I can find 10 grams on the internet for €60. Since you need to use higher doses (10-50mg) it will cost you more.

Because of my discovery of these substances and success with it, I decided to be a social butterfly and highly motivational person for the rest of my life. I decided it long before I discovered this, but I couldn't make it true because of the disappearment of phenibut's effects. I hope I stay them for the rest of my life.

My current method? I make 000 capsules which hold approximately 800mg powder. With a weighing scale I weigh 100g phenibut, 2.5g fasoracetam and 0.5g memantine. Then I mix it. By doing this I get a nice mixture of these powders. Be aware, people will say this is not 100% mixed because you do it manually. But this is not a huge problem, it's not really a bad thing if you get sometimes 1 mg memantine and other times 3 mg memantine. If you want to do it more precisely, you can buy a super accurate weighing scale and put 1mg memantine every morning under your tongue. But you lose the comfort of easy dosing.

Conclusion

Phenibut is a useful anxiety-relieving supplement that does not cause the infamous drowsiness often accompanying anxiety medication. It is well-studied and standing amongst the top in line when it comes to anxiety relief, sleep regulation, and cognitive improvement.

Frequently Asked Questions

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.

Start at the lowest effective dose (250mg) and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs. A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers with no tolerance. 500 mg would be the ideal in my opinion. Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.

For first-time, 250mg, If you're experienced and know well enough about it, you can take 500mg. The best approach is to start low and see how you react to it, and increase accordingly if needed. But keep in mind that it takes around an hour and a half to be felt, so make sure you keep about 2 hours interval between doses.

I can only recommend products I personally tried, and in the case of Adrafinil, I only bought and tried Nootropic Depot's 300 mg Adrafinil capsules. Although I've seen it available in a few different websites, there was always something sketchy about the website, or negative reviews about the vendors adding some unknown fillers to the products.

And surprisingly, I actually found that I prefer Adrafinil over Modafinil greatly, even though I've always (on the occasions that I took it) maintained a dose of 300mg once per day only.

If you decide to purchase from another vendor, make sure you research, find out more information about them from Reddit's nootropics forum, find reviews on google and whatnot, before making a transaction.

If you are in Dubai, you can buy Adrafinil as well as many other nootropics from the shop page.

Phenibut has a long onset time of around 1.5 – 2 hours until its peak effect, for most people. The time that it takes to kick in depends on the amount of food in your stomach, your metabolism, the dosage, and how you took it. Taking Phenibut sublingually results in a faster onset time that taking it with water or juice.

5-HTP affects serotonin, while Phenibut effects gaba, glutamate, and dopamine. It should be ok as long as you don't exaggerate with the dosage.

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary. In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential. In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose. As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list. Phenibut in Dubai is unregulated. This means that it is not illegal to possess for personal use, however, it is not permitted for retail sale. If you order Phenibut from overseas, it has a chance of being seized by customs, and the money being lost.

Based off my experience, I'd only only tried and therefore recommend Nootropic Depot Phenibut. But you can simply search online and make your choice from the different vendors. And make sure you research those vendors too, before actually making a purchase.

You can buy Phenibut in Dubai as well as a selection of different nootropics from the shop page.

Phenibut is a gabapentinoid so if it’s nerve pain that you’re dealing with then there’s a good chance it will help. It’s very chemically similar to gabapentin and gab is regularly prescribed to patients with nerve pain. 

But being that phenibut is a gabapentinoid means that it will potentiate opiate medications so just be careful if you are taking any for your pain because the phenibut will make the effects of them stronger.

As for anxiety, it’s great for it.

Further Readings

Noopept is one of the most potent nootropics available. It boosts overall cognition with a slight psychostimulatory effect. Effects kick-in within minutes of consumption, making it a handy choice right when dealing with or getting to mentally-demanding tasks.

Overview

What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that's been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.

Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action. But when it comes to noopept, results are usually felt minutes after ingestion. It shares similar onset of action as somewhat related racetam phenylpiracetam.

“N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester is promoted as a nootropic and is a prodrug of cycloprolylglycine. Other names include the brand name Noopept, developmental code GVS-111; proposed INN omberacetam. Its synthesis was first reported in 1996. Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question.” – Wikipedia

In Russia and a few of the surrounding countries, Noopept is prescribed for its nootropic qualities. The demand for it is dramatically rising and is currently retailing worldwide, amongst the best selling nootropics on the major vendor websites.

It also acts similar to the way Piracetam does – however, it is said to be somewhere over 1,000 more potent. That is why people tend to reach desired effect or outcome from as little as 10 mg and usually not exceeding 30 mg as total, per day. It smoothly settles itself onto the brain’s receptors.

Even with a dose as small as 10mg, many report it to be quite comparable, and many (myself included) actually favor it over Piracetam.

Noopept is also inexpensive comparing to other nootropics because of its high potency.

Its effectiveness and inexpensive price led to it being a classic, very popular, and in many case, a favorite, amongst the nootropic community.

According to Nootropics City:

Noopept is a very potent Ampakine nootropic drug, and the nootropics brand name for the research peptide “N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethyl ester.” Noopept capsules is an entirely synthetic molecule, and has a similar effect to Piracetam, though its effects are quoted as up to 1000 times stronger. Effects are very much like a “mega dose” of piracetam (when a nootropic is taken in dosages up to 8 times the usual amount) and even provides a slight psycho stimulatory effect when taken in low to moderate dosages.

Typical dosages of Noopept range from 10mg at the lower end, to a maximum effective dosage of 30mg per day. When higher dosages are taken then this, tiredness can result, negating many of Noopept’s benefits, alongside tolerance and an increase in Noopept’s negative side effects. Noopept, for best results, should be taken 3 times daily (preferably once with each meal) and should be taken with a choline source (preferably CDP Choline) for maximum results. Noopept, like Piracetam, displayed many neuroprotective effects in rats and mice during testing. More studies are needed to confirm exactly what causes Noopept’s supposed neuroprotective effect.

Take into account with Noopept capsules: Remember, Noopept is entirely a research molecule (as are most nootropics) understand what you are taking, do your own personal research on it, and weigh the positives and negatives before taking Noopept. Take Noopept capsules in a regular, consistent dosing pattern of 10mg per day, and continue to supplement in the form of a U shaped curve, ie: Start off with a low dosage, increase accordingly, then taper back down towards the end of your Noopept regiment.

Noopept capsules should be cycled on and off for 1-3 months at a time for best results. Be sure to take Noopept when a particularly rigorous mental task is being performed.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Noopept Benefits?

  • Supports Memory and Learning
  • Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  • Increases Nerve Growth Factor and BDNF
  • Improves Association Between Left and Right Brain Hemispheres

 

Supporting research:

Supports Memory and Learning

Noopept primary interest is how it improves memory and ease the learning process. It helps in memory creation, with additional benefits such as memory consolidation and speed of recall. Noopept helps the correct management of all sorts of stimuli as they are under process by the cerebellum, which permits better memory retrieval.

In other terms, signal handling by our sensations is more smooth as they are carrying forward into our memory. Through the continued use of Noopept, individuals report information to be more easily digested and processed, giving them the availability to be ready-for-use in everyday activities. One might remember names, places; maybe a word chatted in contact, a tune thought to be forgotten, and such. Memory failures will diminish or to the least will be kept to a very minimum. [1]

Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)

Studies prove that noopept possesses excellent neuroprotective attributes. The stimulation of the neurons produced by the supplement blocks oxidative damage in the human brain.

Many patients dealing with cognitive impairment can benefit from a consistent dosage of noopept to avoid further cognitive decline. [2]

Increases Nerve Growth Factor and BDNF

NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) is a protein in the body that is involved in the growth, preservation, and continuation of nerve cells, including brain cells. Nerve growth factor is also deemed to be very important in neurogenesis; the body’s ability to generate new cells.

By raising NGF levels in the cerebellum, it allows for new neural connections. The result indicates potentially improved mental skills in nearly all areas of cognition. [3]

BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) is another protein in the body that has s role to the NGF mentioned above. BDNF is one of the most critical molecules that associate with memory, playing an essential role in both short and long-term memory formation. [45]

Improves Association Between Left and Right Brain Hemispheres

Both the right and left hemispheres of the brain to have their localized functions. Through the use of noopept, each of those functions is developing through the synthesis of various memories, ideas, and stimuli. There are nuances among these functions that improve the way we think. That is why many people have claimed that their quality of life had a significant improvement when taking noopept on a regular basis.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim.

Noopept review
Noopept Skeletal Structure

“Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”

Examine.com

Noopept users report results of improved clarity, better memory, and focus. More studies are undergoing to determine precisely how it provides those privileges to the brain. Studies on animals have shown that Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity in all brain areas (R).

Noopept’s mechanism of action is similar to the other racetams. Noopept works on the AMPA and NDMA receptor sites and their pathways of function. It also has an affinity for the Acetylcholine system and the ACh receptor sites. Both of these factors contribute to Noopept’s array of nootropic benefits. Like Aniracetam, Noopept appears to produce an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) response in animal and human models. This is not a guaranteed result and seems to vary widely between subjects. Like with Aniracetam, Noopept seems stimulate Dopamine receptor sites (D2 and D3) as well as the ACh nicotinic receptor sites. Noopept also seems to stimulate certain Serotonin receptors and this may also contribute to its mood boosting qualities.

Nootropics City

On Memory and Cognitive Decline

Noopept seems to be especially effective, and demonstrates the greatest benefits to patients with mild cognitive decline. It is now undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cognitive deficiency of post-traumatic origin and cerebrovascular cause.

The cerebellum benefits include antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory qualities,  along with repression of toxicity by the removal of excessive glutamate, and calcium. Similarly, blood rhythm and flow signifies further improvement. Two possible mechanisms of action for enhancing cognition are a sensitizing effect on acetylcholine processes or induction of neurotrophin production, both of which theoretically enhance memory formation.

Noopept absorption is a process by the digestive system and succeeding to cross the blood-brain barrier readily. The brain utilizes it almost entirely, very little goes to waste.

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning. It works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes.

Anecdotal reports often recall the “sudden abundance of clarity and precision” delivered by the immediate advantage of added oxygen to the brain and enhanced glucose use. Furthermore, its frequently reported that it also improves eyesight and perception, expanding one's awareness to his or her surroundings and perceiving colors and objects to be more alive, vibrant, and vivid.

Dosage

How to Take Noopept?

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, the recommended Noopept dosage would be to take it in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

  • 10 mg: divide into three doses throughout the day
  • 15 mg: divide into two doses twice a day
  • 30 mg: one dose per day

Do not exceed the 30mg Noopept dosage in one day – and ideally, no longer than 60 days cycle if taken everyday. After that, allow yourself some time off before you start another cycle. Alternatively, you can take it on and off as needed. Experimenting is the best way to find out what works for your own body.

Given how fast the body metabolizes it, and due to its rather short half-life, it is best to take small doses multiple times a day instead of a large one at once; thereby prolonging the effects. In the beginning, it is wise to start with the smallest effective dose with careful observation, before progressing into a higher dose.

Noopept Powder Form

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately. According to the label, take Noopept for 1.5 to 3 weeks and then, if necessary, to begin another cycle after a 1-month break. Alternatively, many users follow 56 days on and four days off. Do not take Noopept late in the evening as its energizing effects may interfere with sleep.

And furthermore; “to supplement Noopept, take 10 – 30 mg, once a day, for up to 56 days at a time. More research is needed to determine the optimal human dose for Noopept.” again, quoting Examine.

Noopept Nasal Spray (Intranasal)

Many people seem to discuss different mixtures to getting the most ideal ratio for a Noopept Nasal spray, but there isn't any solid information that I could put on here. If you're interested in user experiments and anecdotal experiences, there are a couple different threads you can find by searching ‘Noopept Nasal' on reddit nootropics subreddit here.

Alpha-GPC or Citicoline (or whatever your choline preference may be). This will massively potentiate the effect, and will prevent the occasion occurrence of Noopept's headaches.

Side Effects

What Are Noopept Side Effects?

These side effects of Noopepts are mostly occurring when higher doses are consumed:

  • Headache
  • Restlessness (or overstimulation)
  • Dizziness
  • Irritability

Some studies suggest that it magnifies the effects of stimulants such as amphetamines, so caution is advisable for individuals using ADHD medication. I can personally advise that as well. I've felt that sense of overstimulation in a couple different occasion when taking a 30 mg dose of Noopept shortly after taking my ADHD medication. I now find that a 15 mg dose works best for me whether once or twice per day.

User Experience

My Personal Experience

Noopept was amongst the very first nootropics I got to try taking it in a one dose of 30 mg in the early afternoon with 300mg of Alpha-GPC.

Probably the most effective, and most profound feeling I ever got off a nootropic to this day. I really thought I hit the jackpot. I was able to sit throughout the day at work fully engaged and focused on my whatever I was working on, without any sort of complaining whatsoever. And that was at my corporate job, not at my home office. I was amazed by that.

I had to see if it was in my head or if it had been really that effective, and so I had both my best friend and my sister to try it out on different occasions – both of them ended up asking me to try it a few more times. My friend went on to buy her own while doing her finals at an international affairs academy programme and I never heard her talk so positively about any supplement or nootropic whatsoever the way she talked and liked Noopept.

Unfortunately though, today, after quite a long time since I first discovered it, it seems to have half the effect it had on me back in the day even if I don't take it for a month or so. But it makes complete since due to the similarities of other racetams that I supplement with frequently – mostly Aniracetam. But the feeling I experienced in the very first few times of Noopept was something I had never felt with any other nootropic.

Reddit

On reddit's nootropics sub, a user wrote:

“Noopept: Probably the most potent memory and cognition enhancing nootropic I’ve tried besides Phenylpiracetam…noopept really makes a huge difference for me in terms of mental clarity, memory recall, and fluid thinking. I’ll be on this for life 100%”

Another reddit user wrote his experience titled: ‘My Experience with Noopept and Adderall' and it says:

Before the downvote brigade comes out and downvotes me to hell, I am prescribed adderall, it works wonders for me, and no nootropic could ever replace adderall for me. I've been on it for probably 15 years. It does its job, but I still have issues with performance anxiety where if I start thinking about my performance it slowly spirals into being so anxious about not being able to do well that I can't even retain the information in a sentence. CBD oil helps a little bit.

My focus has never really been mine to ‘give', it's more at the whim of when and where it works, no matter how hard I may try to concentrate. Noopept is changing that.

Anywho, WOW is all I have to say. I have tried noopept many times, but never did I do it consistently. I hate that I hadn't before because this is borderline life changing. Here's what happened:

My friend ordered some Russian noopept for the both of us, as he's from Russia and wanted to try it out. I had tried the sublingual and powdered versions of it and they had always given me brain fog, so I was a bit wary, but his dad had said that he had used it in college and that you have to keep taking it to get over that yucky feeling. So I figured I'd give it a shot, it was the original stuff after all. So I took he threw me a box of it in class the day it came in, and we took some right there.

Day 1: The first dose in the morning didn't kick in until about an hour, took it on an empty stomach. It was the same yucky, brain foggy stuff I was used to, but he was so excited about it I was gonna give it a few days before I was gonna stop and tell him. We took a second dose a few hours later and felt noticeably worse. We kinda brushed it off and hoped his dad's advice was correct.

Day 2: Same thing, took it in the morning, and at lunch, but couldn't concentrate at all. Except later that day, I got this burst of clarity around the time I was expecting it to wear off, which was unusual. But before the clarity happened, I was feeling downright awful, enough so that I wasn't going to take another dose. It felt like nicotine poisoning almost. I told him about it and he said he felt similarly. But then this clarity, it was like I had a cup of coffee but I hadn't. It was weird.

Day 3: I take it with breakfast and holy crap, I feel great. It's like I can just read a sentence without my eyes jumping around the page!!! (Something that I would consider quite the feat!) It was like my focus was mine to give, like I could read an entire line of code and actually process it without having to re-read it at all!

Day 4 and 5: I continue taking it with food and now I understand why people say its effects compound. I still have plenty of focus to give, more so, and I feel like some of my anxiety has gone. Very satisfied.

Now here it is on Day 7 on a Sunday, I didn't take it yesterday and I feel like the effects are still there. I had focus to give yesterday and today and I haven't taken it. Like I don't know what to say, except that I wonder if this is how neurotypical people feel on a regular basis. It's nuts.

My only concern I have here is its interaction with adderall tolerance. I haven't noticed anything yet, but has anybody that has taken these 2 together experienced any effects on their adderall/amphetamine tolerance? (vyvanse, dexedrine, etc.) That would be the only thing that would get me to stop with noopept is if it has a severe effect on tolerance.

Anyway, I just wanted to share my experience with the two, and I hope it's helpful! I also wasn't on any other nootropics this week to test this out.

UPDATE: I have been taking 10mg twice a day on weekdays and the only physical side effect I've noticed is I'm more sensitive to temperature and I've been sweating more, even sitting still. Off of it my pits don't sweat but on it they do.

Conclusion

The benefits of Noopept are numerous, but the best thing about it is that its effects are cumulative.

Noopept has quickly grown in demand and has earned its space within people’s nootropic stacks due to its impressive results, ease of small doses, and its reasonable, affordable cost.

Whether an expert nootropic user or merely getting to learn about it all, noopept is an excellent choice for an overall cognitive function boost.

Frequently Asked Questions

Noopept is a nootropic that's been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning.

Noopept is a powerful Nootropic compound. It protects your brain from stresses and toxins (neuroprotection). It is great at improving cognitive performance and memory. Furthermore, it shields from degenerative brain disorder relating to aging.

Noopept works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes. Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action.

  • 10 mg – divide into three doses throughout the day
  • 15 mg – divide into two doses twice a day
  • 30 mg – one dose per day

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, take Noopept in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately.

There's no “right way” to do it. Place under tongue, close mouth and rest tongue gently on the Noopept. Just hold it there for a while. Once it's mostly gone, swoosh it around a bit and swallow the rest. Try not to swallow the saliva that builds up in your mouth because then you are most likely swallowing some of the drug that hasn't been absorbed yet.

Noopept's half-life depends on the individual. The duration of Noopept is around 3 – 6 hours. Effects of Noopept increase after using it for a few days.

 

If you are in Dubai, you can buy Noopept 30mg Capsules as well as many other nootropics online from the shop page.

N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, an essential antioxidant in the body. NAC supports glutathione replenishment which has been found to bind to the glutamate recognition sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. It also promotes healthy inflammatory responses.

Overview

What is N-Acetyl Cysteine?

N-Acetyl Cysteine (also known as Acetylcysteine or NAC) is a prodrug for L-cysteine, a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, an essential antioxidant in the body. NAC supports glutathione replenishment which has been found to bind to the glutamate recognition sites of the NMDA and AMPA receptors. It also promotes healthy inflammatory responses. Acetylcysteine was initially patented in 1960 and licensed for use in 1968. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines and is easily accessible for a very affordable price.

“Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine, is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It can be taken intravenously, by mouth, or inhaled as a mist. Some people use it as a dietary supplement.”

– Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are N-Acetyl Cysteine Uses and Benefits?

  • Improves Cognitive Function
  • Reduces Symptoms of Depression
  • Helps Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder and Mania
  • Reduces Symptoms of OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
  • Improves Male Fertility
  • Boosts Skin Health
  • May Improve Autism
  • Reduces Muscle Fatigue
  • Reduces Antibiotic Side Effects
  • Reliefs ADHD Symptoms
 
 

Top ↑

Supporting research:

Improves Cognitive Function

Combinations of NAC with other antioxidants improve cognition in both healthy older people and those with mild cognitive impairment. (R) (R)

NAC has many studies on enhancing cognitive function in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and schizophrenia. Currently, it’s under research for boosting cognitive performance after general anesthesia. (R)

Reduces Symptoms of Depression

NAC helps people with depression by balancing glutamate levels within the brain. Doing so, it reduces inflammation and increases the growth of new brain cells. R

In a study of more than 500 participants, NAC shows an improvement in symptoms of depression and overall functionality. At 2000mg per day, it improves mood in people diagnosed with depression. (R), (R)

Helps Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder and Mania

NAC improves chronic health issues such as heart disease and hormonal imbalance in people with Bipolar Disorder. In a 6-month study, NAC indirectly shows to affect overall health, antioxidant and inflammation levels, as well as mood. (R)

Another study on 17 subjects with bipolar disorder, NAC shows improvements in low moods and reduction in overall associating symptoms after six months of supplementation. (R)

In a study of 15 individuals suffering from mania, NAC also shows improvement after a six-month regime. The group receiving NAC had a reduction in symptoms versus the one receiving placebo. However, mood swings seem to worsen as a result. (R)

Reduces Symptoms of OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)

NAC balances glutamate levels as well as increases antioxidants within the brain. In a study of 44 subjects with OCD, a NAC dose of 2000mg added to standard medication shows to improve symptoms, even in severe cases. R

Another study of 48 subjects who didn't respond to typical treatment, NAC shows to improve symptoms after a 3-month period safely. (R)

NAC is useful for obsessive-compulsive disorders according to extensive research. It shows promising benefits and has very few side-effects. (R)

Improves Male Fertility

In addition to helping women with PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome), NAC may help increase fertility in men. Oxidative stress damages the sperm’s DNA, which results in reducing fertility. (R)

A study done on 120 infertile men receiving NAC, improvements were notable in semen quality and antioxidant status after a period of three months. (R)

Other studies look at the fertility benefits of NAC in combination with other antioxidants such as B vitamins, vitamin C and D. The combination improves the sperm count in those with low sperm count. (R)

In an extensive study of almost 500 infertile men, NAC with selenium show improvement in fertility after a six month period. (R)

Sub-fertility Conditions

Some men are sub-fertile — they are less fertile without an apparent reason. In 84 of subfertile men trying to conceive, NAC combination supplement called Condensyl (with vitamins, zinc, fig extract, and vitamin E) increased pregnancy rates. It raises the “fertility potential” of subfertile men increasing the rate of successful pregnancy. (R)

The typical NAC dose for improving fertility in those studies was 600 mg/day.

Boosts Skin Health

Interestingly, NAC can be used as a cream or gel to improve skin health. It boosts glutathione in the skin protecting it from damage. Furthermore, NAC reduces skin inflammation and normalizes skin cell division. It’s used for eczema, skin irritation, radiation-induced skin damage, wound healing, and acne. In a study of 100 participants, a 5% NAC gel shows to reduce mild to moderate acne. (R)

Overall, NAC skin formulations are promising and very safe. Case reports and animal studies support this wide range of skin benefits of NAC.

May Improve Autism

NAC seems to benefit children with autism. In a study of 33 autistic children, NAC (900-2,700 mg/day) shows to reduce irritability after three months period. (R)

In 2 different studies with 80 autistic children, those receiving NAC as an add-on to their medication (risperidone) show less irritability and hyperactivity after two months period. (R), (R)

Reduces Muscle Fatigue

Overall, NAC tends to help muscles improve blood flow during intense training as well as recover faster after a workout.

It also seems to help older individuals in improving fitness and enhancing endurance in athletes on the short-term. However, long-term NAC with exercise may prevent muscle recovery.

Reduces Antibiotic Side Effects

Antibiotic side effects arise from free radicals damage. As a potent antioxidant, NAC (1,200 mg/day) reduces side effects, prevents kidney and ear damage from several strong antibiotics in 2 studies of 100 people. (RR)

NAC also protects the liver from the harmful effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs as shown in a study of 60 participants. Those receiving NAC show intact liver after treatment, while 40% of those who didn’t take NAC suffer liver damage. (R)

Reliefs ADHD Symptoms

In a study of nearly 100 ADHD participants, NAC shows to reduce ADHD symptoms in patients with as well as improving cognition, impulsivity, and overall symptoms.

Participants were receiving up to 5g per day during this study. (R)

Other N-Acetyl Cysteine Benefits

According to Health Line, the following are the nine top benefits of NAC:

  • Essential for making the powerful antioxidant glutathione
  • Helps with detoxification to prevent or diminish kidney and liver damage
  • May improve psychiatric disorders and addictive behavior
  • Helps relieve symptoms of respiratory conditions
  • Boosts brain health by regulating glutamate and replenishing glutathione
  • May improve fertility in both men and women
  • May stabilize blood sugar by decreasing inflammation
  • May reduce heart disease risk by preventing oxidative damage
  • Ability to boost glutathione levels may improve immune function

Dosage

How To Take N-Acetyl Cysteine?

The typical dose for general wellness and gut health is 500mg per day taken in the morning on an empty stomach 800to2,400mg are the most common across clinical studies. However, for a chronic health condition, consider a higher dose. Studies concerning addiction and mental health issues use doses closer to 3000 mg/day.

Daily doses should be taken at 2-3 times a day.

Side Effects

What Are N-Acetyl Cysteine Side Effects?

N-Acetyl Cysteine is a safe substance with very few known side effects. Although occasionally, it can cause nausea, diarrhea, or constipation.

Large doses in a mouse model showed that acetylcysteine could potentially cause damage to the heart and lungs. They found that acetylcysteine was metabolized to S-nitroso-N acetylcysteine (SNOAC), which increased blood pressure in the lungs and right ventricle of the heart (pulmonary artery hypertension) in mice treated with acetylcysteine.

The effect was similar to that observed following a 3-week exposure to an oxygen-deprived environment (chronic hypoxia).

The authors also found that SNOAC induced a hypoxia-like response in the expression of several important genes both in vitro and in vivo.

User Experience

Nootropics Depot

NAC is the supplement of choice for helping to mitigate nasal congestion. I've found even with a cold, taking a large dose divided up into several small doses separated by 2-4 hours throughout the day significantly controls the nose situation. Recently while going through this routine, I also noticed heightened mental clarity which quickly was attributed to the NAC as nothing else in my regular stack had changed. Combined with the fact the loose powder is inexpensive, NAC has high opinion from me. Con, it tastes terrible. It seriously tastes like butt if that was made from rubber. Capsulating it yourself is highly recommended!

Nootropics Depot II

NAC is an essential part of my daily routine. I take 2000mg every morning and if I feel a cold coming on I also take 1000 or 2000mg of an evening. Every winter I get a cold which precipitates a severe chest infection. It is now halfway through winter and I have not yet even caught a cold, despite the fact that the rest of my family has been sick with colds. My nose usually runs all winter but the mucous dissolving properties of NAC somehow even ameliorate that. I use Nootropics Depot's NAC because I know it's pure and independently tested. It comes in user friendly packaging, it's inexpensive, the postage is tracked and it arrives quickly.

Frequently Asked Questions

N Acetyl L Cysteine, also known as N Acetyl Cysteine or NAC, is an acetylated form of L Cysteine. NAC is one of few natural mucolytic agents. Mucolytic agents help thin out mucus which makes it easier to cough up mucus. NAC is also used to enhance the production of glutathione when it is normally depleted. Glutathione benefits are plentiful and thus, supplementing with NAC can provide many of the glutathione benefits we would see with glutathione supplementation.

  • Supports respiratory health
  • Promotes skin health
  • Supports organ health
    Promotes vitality

Studies observing glutathione levels after taking a NAC supplement found that NAC elevated glutathione levels. This is significant because the supplementation of glutathione on its own did not significantly increase glutathione levels. Since NAC is able to increase glutathione, NAC benefits have been linked to skin health, organ health, and promoting vitality. Additionally, taking a NAC supplement is believed to have some detoxification effects since it allows more glutathione to be produced. In addition, NAC benefits include organ protective properties when exposed to alcohol. A study on rats found that a NAC supplement taken 30 min before alcohol exposure seemed to produce a protective effect while administration 4 hrs after alcohol exposure elevated organ tissue damage. Additionally, these protective behaviors increased when alcohol consumption was stopped. Additional trials confirmed that the protective properties NAC has against alcohol only work when taken prior to alcohol consumption. Again, it is important to note that NAC should only be taken prior to consumption of moderate quantities of alcoholic drinks. NAC should never be taken after the consumption of alcoholic drinks as it may have an opposite and detrimental effect on the liver. This is important to note as many hangover supplements, intended to be taken after the consumption of alcoholic drinks, contain N Acetyl L Cysteine. The cystine-glutamate antiporter on astrocytes is known to regulate synaptic levels of glutamate by taking up cystine, the oxidized dimer form of Cysteine, in exchange for glutamate release. It is believed that additional Cysteine through N Acetyl L Cysteine supplementation may provide more substrate to further reduce glutaminergic stimulation. This is important, as glutamate can over-excite neurons, which can cause neuronal damage. This is part of the reason why some people avoid the consumption of monosodium glutamate, which is more commonly known as MSG. It is falsely believed that the consumption of MSG will result in too much glutamate in the brain, which could then cause neurotoxic effects. The claims that MSG has negative effects in the brain have long been disproven, however, glutamate levels may increase independently from MSG consumption. It is believed that higher Cysteine levels in the brain may lower glutaminergic transmission by lowering the amount of glutamate release. It has been found that glutamate levels can be reduced within 1 hour of orally administering a NAC supplement, making NAC a great neuroprotective agent. Other N Acetyl L Cysteine uses were studied after the relationship between glutathione and NAC supplementation were established. Researchers were interested in NAC for its vitality enhancing effects. Studies on sprint performance found vitality enhancing effect when subjects used a NAC supplement but only a slight increase in vitality from baseline was achieved with a large dose.

The body converts N Acetyl L Cysteine which converts into Cysteine which is then converted to glutathione. Cysteine is an amino acid produced by the body but it requires methionine to do so. Cysteine is primarily found in animal proteins such as chicken, pork, sausage, turkey, fish and duck. Dairy sources of cysteine include yogurt, ricotta cheese, eggs, and cottage cheese. Cysteine is also found in some plant sources for vegetarians and vegans. Foods such as broccoli, red pepper, onion, granola and oat flakes are all good sources of Cysteine. Other sources include garlic, bananas, linseed, soy beans, and wheat germ. Low levels of Cysteine can delay growth in children and lower immunity. Weakness and muscle loss may also occur as a result of a low Cysteine die

As a dietary supplement, take one 500mg of N-Acetyl L-Cysteine once daily.

Nootropics Depot offers 200 gram, 400 gram and 1 kilogram jars of high quality N-Acetyl L-Cysteine powder. Nootropics Depot's N-Acetyl L-Cysteine has been lab-tested and verified for both product purity and identity.

Lion’s Mane Mushroom has become one of nature's most potent nootropic supplement for the brain. There is evidence that is can permanently enhance brain function as well as protect the brain and promote NGF and neurogenesis.

Overview

What is Lion's Mane Mushroom?

Lion’s Mane Mushroom (also known as Hericium erinaceus), or rarely “monkey head mushroom,” is a traditional medicine that’s developing a strong fan base around the world. It has been voted as one of the top 10 natural nootropics of 2018 in terms of best selling, according to Nootropics Depot, as well as most beneficial. The list also included L-TheanineCiticoline, as well as L-Theanine & Caffeine synergistic combo.

The profound effects it has on cognitive function while being neuroprotectant, as well as supporting NGF production, make it an appealing nootropic. The nerve growth factor is a discovery from 1986 that led Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini to win a Nobel Prize. NGF is one of the primary building blocks of neuroplasticity.

Furthermore, it is part of a group of molecules responsible for neurodevelopment. A go-to tonic for years, Lion’s Mane (Hericium Erinaceus) is native to Japan, China, Europe, and North America. It offers many benefits to the brain. It's in use as an alternative medicine to treat neurodegenerative disorders.

It is becoming more popular after the discovery of connections to promoting neurodevelopment. It raises the quantity of NGF in the brain, which improves cognition by decreasing inflammation, promoting neural growth, and enhancing brain health. Furthermore, studies verify that Lion’s Mane is a powerful neuroprotectant that can be valuable in the treatment of a variety of conditions ranging from cardiovascular health to obesity and even to certain types of cancer. Thus, Lion's Mane has become a novel nootropic.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Lion's Mane Mushroom Benefits?

  • Enhances Memory and Brain Function
  • Promotes Nerve Growth Factor and
  • Neuroprotection
  • Reduces Anxiety and Symptoms of Depression
  • Reduces Inflammation,
  • Boosts Immunity, and
  • Helps Digestion
  • Supports Heart and Circulatory System, and Prevents Strokes
  • Improves Mental Health and Overall Well-Being

 

Supporting research:

Enhances Memory and Brain Function

Lion’s Mane Mushroom benefits are diverse. One of which is that it boosts cognition, especially in memory and recall speed. Additionally, it helps in maintaining concentration, increasing mental stamina, and heightening focus. It is one of the most praised nootropics due to being organic and natural. Furthermore, it provides a variety of benefits, often surpassing pharmaceutical products. 

A study in Japan on subjects diagnosed with a mild cognitive decline receiving Lion’s Mane mushroom extract at a daily dose of 3 g for 16 weeks found a measurable increase in scores on the cognitive function scale. And amazingly, without adverse effects. [R], [R]

Promotes Nerve Growth Factor and Neuroprotection

Lion's Mane Mushroom extract has an impressive ability preventing and healing damaged nerves. Studies support the claim of Lion’s Mane promotion of neurogenesis. The promotion of neurogenesis is also called neurodevelopment or generation. Neurogenesis results in long-lasting and continuous improvements in brain health (R) (R). In a study by Tohoku University on Lion's Mane and nerve growth states Lion’s Mane has most profound impact on nerve regeneration.

Post digestion, Lion’s Mane distributes through the body – crossing the blood-brain barrier. Then becomes capable of stimulating the generation of enzymes that release the Nerve Growth Factor, and additionally repairing nerve myelin. Those capabilities turn out useful in the cases of Alzheimer’s, dementia, neurodegeneration, muscular weakness, Parkinson’s Disease, and other neurological disorders. (R) (R)

Reduces Anxiety and Symptoms of Depression

Studies show that Lion’s Mane Mushroom benefits depression as well as anxiety symptoms after several weeks of supplementation. In a clinical trial where thirty women have been receiving Lion's Mane for four weeks versus women receiving placebo, it concluded that lion's mane intake indeed reduces depression and anxiety. (R), (R)

Reduces Inflammation, Boosts Immune System, Supports Healthy Digestion

Due to its potent anti-inflammatory properties, lion’s mane mushroom might improve the function of your stomach and digestive system. In many studies, lion’s mane mushroom has been shown to protect from or shrink gastric ulcers.

Moreover, according to a survey by the Mushroom Research Centre at the University of Malaya, experts from the field concluded that the bioactive compounds in lion’s mane extract are responsible for the gastroprotective action. (R)

Another research from China published in the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms verifies that “results indicate that polysaccharide fraction is the active component of the H. erinaceus mycelium culture, which protects against gastric ulcers.”

Lion’s mane also significantly improve symptoms of two major inflammatory disorders of the digestive system; inflammatory bowel disease, and gastritis. Another study in Japan found that lion’s mane was able to reduce inflammation in fatty tissue, the factor in the formation of metabolic syndrome, a group of conditions that increase the risk of heart diseases, strokes, and diabetes. (R)

Lion’s mane can improve immune system function like the polysaccharide content in the fungus according to mice studies. [R]

Lion’s mane additional benefits is its antibacterial effects against what is now known to be “the world's most successful virus in human history.” (RR)

Supports Heart and Circulatory System Health and Prevents Strokes

Experiments observed that extracts of lion’s mane block the spread of LDL cholesterol, sometimes referred to as the “bad” cholesterol, while simultaneously raising HDL, the good cholesterol. (RR)

A stroke, which happens as a result of lack of sufficient blood supply to the brain, is often caused by blood clots. An extract of lion’s mane mushroom may be useful in the prevention of blood clots accumulate. Thereby helping decrease the risk of stroke, according to a study by the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Japan. (R)

Improves Mental Health and Overall Well-Being

Lion’s mane helps feeling better by improving sleep rhythm and reducing the effects of mental health issues. The powerful extracts from the mushroom have been shown to combat fatigue (R).  

They also possess the ability to regulate the body's circadian rhythms, which is especially important for people at risk of developing dementia. (R)

Mechanism of Action

How Does Lion's Mane Mushroom Work?

Lion’s Mane mechanism of action is completely different from other nootropics. Lion’s Mane enhances cognition by increasing the amount of nerve growth factor in the brain (NGF). Nerve growth factor is one of a group of molecules named neurotrophins that are essential for the growth, development, maintenance, and survival of neurons.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)

A discovery in the 1980s that led Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini to win a Nobel Prize – NGF is confirmed to be one of the primary building blocks of neuroplasticity. The presence of sufficient NGF improves cognition by stimulating growth as well as axons branching.

Inadequate NGF, on the other hand, decreases brain functionality by leading to neuronal degeneration and eventually, the death of nerve cells. The more axons existing, and the better health they possess, the more efficiently impulses are transmitting. The more efficiently impulses are transmitting; the better cognition and overall brain function are.

Myelination

Another way in which NGF enhances cognition is by promoting myelination. Myelin works much like an electrical insulator, raising the speed which impulses progress onward the axons by increasing the electrical resistance of neural cell walls. Furthermore it inhibits the pulse from dissipating the axon.

Myelination lays the groundwork for the restoration and regrowth of damaged axons, providing a track along which regrowth occurs. This activity is a crucial process in preserving the brain from the ravages of aging and is useful in the treatment of neurological complications.

Some of which are multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders including depression, schizophrenia, dementia, as well as autism and Alzheimer’s disease.

Ongoing research hint that NGF production stimulated by Lion’s Mane may have anti-anxiety and mood enhancing effects. Furthermore, it could also facilitate weight-loss by improving metabolism.

Dosage

How To Take Lion Mane Mushroom?

The lowest effective dosage is 500 mg and the limit per day is 3000 mg.

However, higher doses don't necessarily result in more benefits.

A 1000 mg dosage once or twice a day is what I find the most beneficial for my needs.

I remember coming across posts on Reddit r/Nootropics where people were going really, really next level megadosing this. None of which reported anything more than a “slight” psychostimulant effect though – I am going to try to find that thread.

Side Effects

What Are Lion's Mane Mushroom Side Effects?

There are barely any side effects that arise from taking Lion’s Mane.

The most common side effect is an itchy skin which is likely due to the increase in Nerve Growth Factor.

It most likely is the cause and could be a good sign that NGF levels are increasing.

Conclusion

Lion's Mane is an exceptional, one of a kind,  organic nootropic that has many health benefits; additional to its nootropic ones.

Research and clinical trials support its wide variety of perks. It's a nootropic to consider if you are looking for profound benefits to memory, cognition, detoxification, physical, and brain function.

It is one of the few nootropics I have been continuously refilling from the very first use.

User Experience

Reddit

An on-going Lion's Mane Mushroom experience thread by Reddit users:

After reading about its memory and nervous system injury healing properties, I figured I'd give it a try. I simply purchased a bottle and take two after putting food in my stomach.

Previously I had spent a year on adderall and endured more physical anxiety than I should have had to. I do feel more…evened out, if that makes senseLess on edge and less anxious than I'd ordinarily be. Still on the lookout for other effects, and still willing to accept it could all be a placebo, but I'm remaining curious.

Frequently Asked Questions

In most cultures other than the US, bitter is an acceptable flavor, and nutritionally acceptable. You can explore other cuisines where the line between medicine and food are more blurred. TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) frequently uses bitter herbs/mushrooms/etc in a soup, with other ingredients to balance the flavors. In Asian medicine, mushrooms are consumed as food, and as teas, as well as extracts. You could use the mushrooms in a soup where the broth contains the water used for rehydration, you can boil the mushrooms to make a tea or extract and add flavourings to those.

Satvik is a living term. This changes according to the situations and purposes. Satvik is something that is pure in purpose. All mushrooms grow in a decaying substrate. They grow in places devoid of sunlight. They are scavenger in nature and feed off the dead substrate. They are normally heavy to digest, cold in nature and increase Kapha according to Charak Samhita. I personally believe that mushroom is not exactly satvik in nature as they grow in a decaying medium. However, as said before, satvik is a contextual term. Satva guna is a state of mind. Basically, food that is earned through pure and righteous means, in a non-violent way, the food that does not cause distress or disgust to anyone and endows not only health but bliss to the soul, mind, and body, is called satvik.

It is important to sustain human life at any cost because human life is the only entrance to the state of salvation. Therefore, any food that helps to sustain life for the evolution of the soul is considered satvik. For example, if there is nothing else to eat, in an area with a sparse availability of vegetables, fruits, and grains, in that case even non-vegetarian food(considered rajasic) can be consumed and will not affect the satvik state of mind. But even vegetarian food that is foul smelling, stale, cooked or earned with an unhappy mind, and unappealing to the tongue is not satvik. Mushroom has a natural tendency to trigger susceptibility towards rhinitis and cause other Kapha related problems. Anything that has a natural tendency to cause harm is not considered satvik. For this reason, also, I think that they should be consumed only when other vegetables are not available or affordable; or consumed once in a while. Otherwise, it is not satvik.

Lion's Mane promotes NGF which has in test tube experiment generated 60% neurite outgrowth. It human experiments it has notably diminished mild cognitive impairment, the precursor of Alzheimer's dementia. It reduces amyloid-beta production, which form plaques toxic to healthy neurons, due to its anti-inflammatory properties. So far, there are no cures for Alzheimer's disease. Prevention is multifold: a life-style of regular adequate sleep (brain repair time includes clearing debris), both aerobic and weight-bearing exercise (promotes mitochondria synthesis and efficiency), and ideally intermittent fasting (promotes autophagy – the process where cells of the body are forced to use cellular scraps for synthesis of what is needed). Autophagy strategy is extremely effective for long-lived health. As an aside, B12 deficiency can cause dementia as well and can compound vulnerability to Alzheimer's.

You can buy Lion’s Mane Mushroom Capsules as well as many other nootropics in Dubai from Nootropix webstore.

A reputable brand for shipping quality nootropics locally.

OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsStackFAQ

Summary: Huperzine A is a natural neuroprotectant based on plants that can improve memory and increase general cognition. Huperzine A was first recognized in the 1980s as an alkaloid compound extracted from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata, but Chinese herbal medicine has been using plant extracts for centuries.

Overview

What is Huperzine A?

Although it is typically used in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, the nootropic potential of huperzine A is making it more popular among learners and otherwise healthy people who want to think more obviously, learn faster, and remember more correctly. Huperzine A's advantages and effects offer benefits for both the brain and body.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Huperzine A Benefits?

  1. Neuroprotectantion
  2. Antioxidation
  3. Improving Memory
  4. Protects Against Glutamate Toxicity
  5. Relieves Symptoms of Depression

Neuroprotection

Huperzine A's capacity to safeguard the brain from oxidative damage, one of the most prevalent issues connected with aging, is one of the most significant advantages. Oxidative damage is at the core of most age-related diseases and is thought to play an essential part in the growth of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Oxidative damage begins with an abnormality that occurs when oxygen molecules are divided into individual atoms, a normal process that occurs continuously. Ideally, each particle should be encircled by pairs of electrons orbiting the atom in layers, but as we grow older, the method becomes less reliable, and a growing proportion of fresh particles are created without a complete electron complement. The imbalanced atoms, called free radicals, scavenge surrounding cells in search of electrons suitable for balancing their layer of particles.

They generate a chain of possibly harmful chemical reactions when free radicals attack neighboring cells and eventually destabilize the cells they “borrow” electrons from. The existence of antioxidants or molecules that can “donate” an electron to a free radical without becoming themselves volatile can offset this impact. The method can effectively be useful if free radicals and antioxidants are present in equilibrium, but if free radical activity exceeds antioxidant activity, the outcome is oxidative stress that damages lipids, proteins, and DNA.

Over time, this harm can result in several debilitating and even lethal age-related illnesses, including diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, artery atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Antioxidation

Huperzine A is a powerful antioxidant that has been shown to have a positive effect on oxidative balance and is regarded as a secure, efficient, and well-tolerated adjunct therapy for Alzheimer's disease.

Improving Memory

Memory Enhancer Huperzine A can enhance memory by enhancing the level of acetylcholine in the brain, an important neurotransmitter vital to all elements of cognition.

While this advantage plays a significant role in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease, clinical studies suggest that huperzine A can also enhance memory and learning capacity in healthy youth.

Protects Against Glutamate Toxicity

Glutamate is an active, exciting neurotransmitter responsible for sending signals between nerve cells. When present at normal levels, it plays a significant part in learning and memory, but when concentrations are too large, it can become poisonous and can result in cell damage and even death.

Chronic glutamate toxicity induced by over-sensitive receptors is a typical characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, causing anxiety, restlessness, enhanced pain sensitivity, and reduced focusing or concentration capability.

This syndrome is particularly dangerous for older people, as age seems to increase the sensitivity of the receptor and make neurons more susceptible to glutamate toxicity. It has been shown that Huperzine A acts as an antagonist to glutamate receptors in the brain, preventing neurons from being overactivated by glutamate[8].

Relieves Symptoms of Depression

A 2016 review of three clinical trials indicate that Huperzine A supplementation may be efficient in alleviating the symptoms of cognitive impairment of significant depressive disorders.

A total of 238 individuals aged 16 to 60 participated in studies that compared the efficacy of antidepressant therapy with Huperzine supplemented antidepressant treatment. While the addition of Huperzine A did not appear to treat depressive illnesses, the group that took both antidepressants and Huperzine A showed considerably higher improvement in both mental functioning and quality of life.

Mechanism of Action

Huperzine A is a water-soluble alkaloid that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes quickly across all brain areas. It appears within 5–10 minutes in the blood in humans, and maximum concentration is reached in about an hour. Its half-life is roughly 10 hours and mostly eliminated within 24 hours through urine.

Huperzine A inhibits the formation in the brain of the G4 isoform of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that degrades and decreases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine concentrations. This intervention efficiently elevates levels of acetylcholine, which is profoundly connected with all aspects of cognition and shown to be a crucial role in new memory formation. High concentrations of acetylcholine also enhance brain signaling and increase cortical circuit response time, while at the same time reducing exciting feedback that may impede memory recovery.

Studies indicate that huperzine A has a potency equal to or even higher than prescription inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. It has also been shown that huperzine A acts as a potent antioxidant, neutralizing and in some instances preventing or even reversing oxidative damage induced by free radicals in the brain.

This antioxidant capacity is regarded as essential to the importance of huperzine A in treating Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders as an adjunct therapy.

Glutamate Toxicity

Huperzine A is also known to assist safeguard the brain from the toxicity of glutamate by blocking certain glutamate receptor kinds. This intervention prevents the overactivation of brain cells and helps to normalize glutamate concentrations, stopping the toxicity of acute glutamate typically associated with dementia and other neurological disorders connected with age.

Dosage

How to Take Huperzine A?

There is no medically known guideline for Huperzine A dosage, but it has been securely administered as follows in clinical study studies: 50–200 mcg twice daily for the therapy of Alzheimer's illness, 100 mcg twice daily for improved memory in teenagers, and 30 mcg twice daily for the treatment of senile or pre-senile dementia. It can be taken with food or without.

Cycling can be helpful because of its long half-life of over 10 hours. A supplementation cycle of 2–4 weeks followed by a supplementation break is typical, although no ideal cycle duration was recognized.

Stacking

While huperzine A is going to have an impact alone, accumulating it with the correct parts can produce even better outcomes.

Huperzine A may boost the quantity of acetylcholine in the brain in conjunction with a choline source such as Alpha GPC, further improving the impact of huperzine A.

Many people in their diets lack adequate choline, so supplementation can be useful.

Also, a racetam is an excellent option for Huperzine A stacking. It is believed that racetams activate glutamate receptors situated close receptors of acetylcholine. This activity sensitizes the receptors of acetylcholine to enable them more probably. Stimulating the receptors with a racetam and raising the quantity of Huperzine A acetylcholine enhances both drugs ‘ nootropic impact.

Also, Huperzine A is often coupled with Noopept, a potent nootropic synthetic.

Memory Boosting Huperzine A Stack

Daily 20 mg Noopept 300 mg Alpha GPC As required/cycled 200 mcg Huperzine A 10 mg Vinpocetine

Side Effects

Huperzine A appears to be secure and well tolerated when taken in moderation, although there has been no study of long-term safety or safety during pregnancy. No toxicity incidence was recorded in Huperzine A research and tests. Side effects are rare and transitory when taken in quantities frequently used for supplementation and consist primarily of minor digestive upset.

Huperzine A can trigger nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea when taken in massive doses, slurred speech, twitching of muscles, drooling, incontinence, increased blood pressure, and slow heart rate.

Huperzine A may communicate with anticholinergic drugs such as atropine and scopolamine; it may also interact with antihistamines and antidepressant medicines. Individuals taking these medicines or having heart disease, hypertension, or taking anticholinergic medication for Alzheimer's or glaucoma should talk to their doctor about huperzine A before taking it.

Conclusion

Huperzine A is an antioxidant, neuroprotectant, and nootropic natural supplement. Decades of studies suggest that memory and general co-operation can be enhanced.

Frequently Asked Questions

Nootropics Information FAQ

Ginkgo biloba is the most commonly ingested herb for brain health. Research proves that its neuroprotective, improves memory, boosts cognitive function, to name a few of its diverse benefits.

Overview

What is Ginkgo Biloba?

Ginkgo biloba derives from the family of medicinal plant  Ginkgoaceae – which is highly loved, appreciated, and respected traditional Chinese medicine. It is the last and only ‘ginkgoaceae’ plant still existing today. The rest of the family is said to have gone extinct, after nearly 190 million years of existence. [R]

Today, Ginkgo biloba (also known as Tebonin, Tanakan, Rökan, Maidenhair, and gingko) is the most widely used herb for cognitive function and brain health.

Moreover, it is one of the top 10 best selling dietary supplements in the whole world. [R]

Although more commonly used by older people, the wide variety of benefits it possesses make it appeal to people of all ages.

Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko, also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated, and was cultivated early in human history. – Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Ginkgo Biloba Benefits?

  • Improves Memory (Formation, Consolidation, and Recall)
  • Relieves Stress and Anxiety
  • Relieves Symptoms of Depression
  • Supports Mitochondrial Health and Longevity
  • Provides Neuroprotection
  • Promotes Nerve Repair and Neurogenesis
  • Promotes Better Sleep Quality
  • Treats Sexual and Erectile Dysfunction

 

Supporting research:

Improves Memory (Formation, Consolidation, and Recall)

In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia running over the course of 52 weeks and involving 309 patients, it was concluded that it is “capable of stabilizing improving the cognitive performance and the social functioning of demented patients for 6 months to 1 year.” [R]

Relieves Stress and Anxiety

In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using ginkgo extract in patients with generalized anxiety disorder and ‘adjustment disorder with anxious mood’.

In this study, the results were “significantly superior to placebo on all secondary outcome measures. It was safe and well tolerated and may thus be of particular value in elderly patients with anxiety related to cognitive decline” [R]

Relieves Symptoms of Depression

Due to its ability of preserving serotonin and dopamine, as well as having strong protective and antioxidant effects, those 3 together allow ginkgo to provide an antidepressant effect. [R]

Supports Mitochondrial Health and Longevity

Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents mitochondrial aging by protecting it against oxidative stress. The study suggests that on a rodents experiment, the extract ‘partially’ prevented changes due to oxidative damage [R] and that sounded good enough for me to reach out to my supplements cabinet for a 120mg dose.

Provides Neuroprotection

In a different rodent study where they were fed ginkgo biloba, a reduction in platelet activating factor (PAF) activity was noted. That reduction seems to be one of the leading mechanisms allowing ginkgo to have neuroprotective effects. [R]

Promotes Nerve Repair and Neurogenesis

Ginkgo (bilobalide) appears to promote neuronal proliferation with higher potency than Rolipram. Moreover, this can apply to all neurons of the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to the cognitive function effect, this also underlie its nerve repair benefits. [R]

Promotes Better Sleep Quality

240mg Egb-761 over four weeks to depressed persons currently on therapy (trimipramine) was able to improve sleep efficiency by reducing the frequency of waking and increasing non-REM sleep, although REM sleep was unaffected. [R]

Treats Sexual and Erectile Dysfunction

Some sources indicate that ginkgo may treat sexual dysfunction, such as erectile dysfunction or low libido.

Ginkgo has the ability to improve blood levels of nitric oxide, which improves circulation via the dilation of blood vessels. [R]

As a result, ginkgo may also be useful for treating various symptoms of sexual dysfunction by improving blood flow to those areas of the body.

Some research has investigated using ginkgo to treat sexual dysfunction caused by the use of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs). Results indicated that ginkgo wasn’t any more effective than a placebo in these cases.

Additionally, there may be an interaction between ginkgo and SSRI medications, which could render them less effective.

One study evaluated the use of ginkgo to increase sexual desire and contentment in women who were concurrently undergoing sexual psychotherapy [R]

The combination of ginkgo and therapy were effective over a longer term compared to a placebo, but supplementing with ginkgo alone was not.
The rationale for using ginkgo to treat sexual dysfunction makes sense, but research does not support it at this time.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Ginkgo Biloba Work?

Absorption of oral supplementation allows for a 79% to 88% depending on the variant whether it is ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, or bilabolide [R] which if you try to say out loud would sound in between funny and awkward.

Oral ingestion of ginkgo biloba is thought to increase dopamine concentration levels in the prefrontal cortex. Which is related to the flavonoids rather than terpenoids assuming anyone would care about that comparison. [R] – However, the fact that its neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects may actually be extending its effects to the dopaminergic neurons is sort of interesting. “The key benefits of Ginkgo originate in one’s circulatory system. The most popular and effective nootropics and smart drugs, typically have the ability to enhance circulation. Gingko supports the release of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. These help protect vessel walls, while blocking platelet formation. The end result is improved circulation in all major tissues and organs in the body.

Having excellent brain circulation is critical, because if circulation is poor, it can lead to severe imbalances. In more mild cases, individuals can experience headaches. In more severe cases, individuals could have a stroke. When you have good brain flow, these instances can be prevented.

This increased blood flow helps maintain healthy neural tissues. When neuron and synapse growth are supported, memory formation is enhanced. Gingko works by acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. This aids in the protection of acetylcholine levels. When all these effects are combined, they lead to greater neuroplasticity. This is the brain’s ability to adapt over time, which is key to mental power long-term.

While focusing on neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, Gingko acts as a Monoamine Oxidase inhibitor. Since this chemical generally decreases the amount of these neurotransmitters, Gingko helps to boost mental energy, clarity, and focus (by elevating levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine).”

Dosage

How To Take Ginkgo Biloba?

For its nootropic effect, the recommended dose is 120 to 240 mg, and to be taken 2 hours before the task or performance.

For neuroprotection and preventing cognitive degeneration, the recommended dose is 40 to 120mg, taken three times a day after food.

Ginkgo comes in various forms and seems to be most effective when taken in several doses throughout the day that total 120–240 mg.

Stack

Ginkgo biloba seems to synergize very well with another popular herb and one of my favorite nootropics, Panax Ginseng. The exact synergism isn’t really known or understood, but it is suggested that its synergy is especially effective and beneficial for memory formation and enhancement.

It also goes well with Phosphatidylserine. There are claims of Phosphatidylserine enhancing the efficacy of ginkgo biloba but the study on the subject lacked solid evidence therefore is irrelevant.

If you would like to boost the cognitive effects of Ginkgo, you should stack is with a choline-enhancing supplements. These are known as cholinergics, and include options such as Alpha GPC and Citicoline. By stacking with a choline supplement, you can amplify positive effects.

Side Effects

What Are Ginkgo Biloba Side Effects?

For most adults, the risk associated with taking ginkgo is relatively low, but there are cases in which ginkgo could cause serious harm. If you are allergic to plants that contain alkylphenols or taking certain medications, you should not take ginkgo. Possible side effects include:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Stomach pain

Those taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) as antidepressants should not take ginkgo as it inhibits monoamine oxidase, reducing the effectiveness of the medications.Combining the two may also increase the risk of a potentially fatal condition known as serotonin syndrome. Examples of SSRIs are Prozac, or fluoxetine, and sertraline, also known as Zoloft.

Risk of Cancer

Large epidemiologic studies suggest that supplementation with Ginkgo does not affect the risk of cancer.

An analysis of 3069 participants aged 75 or older from the randomized, placebo-controlled Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) Study found no association with the use of Ginkgo extract (120 mg twice daily) and overall cancer incidence. [R]

Conclusion

Ginkgo biloba has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities and an ability to improve circulation.

Together, these characteristics have the potential to affect numerous body systems and diseases, although the science behind it still has some catching up to do.

While ginkgo has been used for centuries, it’s not completely understood how it works. Much of the available research is inconsistent or inconclusive, and it’s important to keep that in mind.

As with any herbal supplement, there are risks involved. Ginkgo could lead to serious health complications if you are allergic or taking certain medications.If you’re thinking of including ginkgo in your regimen, be sure to consult your doctor first.

Frequently Asked Questions

Ginkgo extract has proven benefits to elderly people. This ancient herb acts to enhance oxygen utilization and thus improves memory, concentration, and other mental faculties also to significantly improve long-distance vision and may reverse damage to the retina of the eye. Studies have also confirmed its value in the treatment of depression in elderly people. The ginkgo extract may provide relief for those who suffer from headaches, sinusitis, and vertigo. It may also help relieve chronic ringing in the ears known as tinnitus.

Healing properties:
Germany and France have run literally hundreds of studies on the leaf extract. These studies along with similar studies in America, have shown significant results. The extract of ginkgo biloba has been studied for its effectiveness in the treatment of acrocyanosis, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral atherosclerosis, cerebral insufficiencies, cochlear deafness, dementia, depression, menopause, peripheral and cerebral circulatory stimulation, peripheral vascular disease, Raynaud's syndrome, retinopathy, senility, short-term memory loss, tinnitus, vascular diseases, and vertigo. It is said to be effective in improving the blood flow to the hands and the feet as well as stimulating the brain and reducing short-term memory loss. It increases blood flow to the brain, the uptake of glucose by brain cells, and has been said to improve the transmission of nerve signals.

Depression:
Patients suffering from varying degrees of vascular insufficiency also noted an improvement in mood while taking ginkgo biloba extract. This has prompted a surge of interest in its use as a treatment for depression, especially in the elderly. Those under the age of fifty may also benefit from ginkgo biloba's antidepressant effects. So far though, the greatest level of improvement has been noted with older patients.

Alzheimer's & mental function:
As more than 300 studies demonstrate, ginkgo facilitates better blood flow through out the body, most notably the brain, where it both protects and promotes memory and mental function, even for people with Alzheimer's disease.

Antioxidant Properties:
As an antioxidant, ginkgo biloba combats free radicals and repairs molecular damage. A great deal of research suggests that antioxidants such as GBE may play important roles in preventing or delaying heart disease, cancer and other ills. Antioxidants may even halt the damage to cells, thereby slowing the effects of aging.

Impotency:
Another use for ginkgo biloba is in the treatment of impotency. The main cause of male impotence is poor circulation and impaired blood flow through the penis, which is often the result of atherosclerosis. Since ginkgo biloba increases blood flow, it's been found to help up to fifty percent of patients after six months of use.

Raynaud's disease:
Raynaud's disease is believed to be caused by blood vessels that over react to the cold and spasm, reducing blood flow and there by depriving extremities of oxygen. Ginkgo biloba may help this condition by widening the small blood vessels, which would keep these spasms from completely blocking the blood flow.

Parkinson's Disease:
Ginkgo biloba may help symptoms by increasing the brain's blood flow and thereby allowing more of the depleted dopamine to be circulated to the areas that need it most.

Other Conditions:
Other uses for which ginkgo biloba extract is often recommended include depression, diabetes related nerve damage and poor circulation, allergies, vertigo, short-term memory loss, headache, atherosclerosis, tinnitus, cochlear deafness, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and PMS.

Strokes:
Scientists continue to study the prevention and treatment benefits, ginkgo biloba may help stop strokes from occurring. It's also believed that the herb inhibits free-radical damage of brain cells after a stroke.

You have to understand that Ginkgo biloba is the world's oldest living plant. It is called a living fossil because it has no close living relatives and also appears to be the only plant species dating back 270 million years (Permian) in the fossil record. However, it is also one of a rare few (6%) dioecious flowering plants, meaning it has distinct male and female organisms. Not only has this exceptionally hardy species survived three mass extinction events over the past quarter of a billion years, but it was found to be the only surviving plant species near the epicenter of the August 6th, 1945 Hiroshima atomic bomb blast.

Yes. Scientific research support that it improves memory and cognitive thinking. But remember, just because it’s natural doesn’t mean it’s not harmful. Some people are allergic to Ginkgo biloba. They can also interfere with other medications, boasting or decreasing their effects. If you take other medications, always ask your physician if it’s safe to take a new one.

There is no standard dose of ginkgo. Most studies have used a standardized extract of ginkgo, to 24% flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones. For improving cognitive function, studies have used between 120 milligrams to 600 milligrams of the extract daily. The dose given to people with dementia is 40 milligrams of that extract three times daily. No matter why are you using ginkgo, you better start at a low dose (120 milligrams daily) and increase this level gradually while observing your body and its response to the supplement. 

In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia running over the course of 52 weeks and involving 309 patients, it was concluded that it is “capable of stabilizing improving the cognitive performance and the social functioning of demented patients for 6 months to 1 year.

A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. New York Institute for Medical Research, Tarrytown 10591, USA
PMID: 9343463