Anxiety

This page contains all website entries whether pages, posts, updates, or blog entries that are tagged under Anxiety.

Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Tianeptine is a potent mood brightener and a nootropic, cherished for its effects on wellbeing and cognition, providing immediate and also extended term benefits. Within an hour of use, it gives mental stability and clarity, functioning as a medium duration productivity tool. Additionally, its beneficial effects compound over extended use, resulting in a long-term impact which reduces feelings of stress, sadness, and anxiety.

What is Tianeptine?

Tianeptine, sold under the brand names Stablon and Coaxial among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used mainly in the treatment of major depressive disorder, although it may also be used to treat anxiety, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. Tianeptine has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects with a relative lack of sedative, anticholinergic, and cardiovascular side effects.Wikipedia

It has been found to act as an atypical agonist of the μ-opioid receptor with clinically negligible effects on the δ- and κ-opioid receptors.[16] μ-Opioid receptor agonists typically induce euphoria, as does Tianeptine at high doses well above the usual therapeutic range. There are concerns about the potential for abuse.

Tianeptine was discovered and patented by the French Society of Medical Research in the 1960s. Currently, Tianeptine is approved in France and manufactured and marketed by Laboratories Servier SA; it is also sold in a number of other European countries under the trade name Coaxial as well as in Asia (including Singapore) and Latin America as Stablon and Tatinol, but it is not available in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, or the United States.

Benefits and Effects

Depression

Tianeptine was as effective as several classical antidepressants in patients with major depression, dysthymia, or adjustment disorder. Also, extended treatment with Tianeptine decreased the incidence of relapse/recurrence of depression.

In an open, non-comparative clinical study in patients with Parkinsons' disease (PD), Tianeptine decreased the severity of depression and also improved the quality of life in these patients.

Anxiety, Stress, and PTSD Symptoms

In elderly depressive patients, a drug regimen of Tianeptine or escitalopram improved anxiety symptoms and subjective and objective neurocognitive functions.

In panic disorder patients tianeptine appeared to reduce their reaction to panic challenge.

Additional Benefits

Many studies also show the benefits of Tianeptine in several different areas, most notably on memory, learning, pain relief, irritable bowel syndrome, as well as its anti-inflammatory effects

Dosage

The usual dosage is 12mg 3x a day for a healthy weight individual, but some people go up to 25mg at a time.

Side Effects

Tianeptine's side-effects are similar to the side-effects of other SSRI's. These include nausea, constipation, abdominal pain, headaches, dizziness, and changes in dreaming.

Older patients should take a smaller dosage of Tianeptine, as should patients with renal failure.

Dosage does not need to be adjusted in patients with alcoholism or hepatic impairment, or patients on dialysis.

Tianeptine Decreases Emotional Memory

Healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single dose of Tianeptine (12.5 mg) or placebo, and subsequently completed a battery of tasks measuring emotional processing, including facial expression recognition, emotional memory, and attentional vigilance, as well as working and verbal memory.

Tianeptine-treated subjects were less accurate at identifying facial expressions and showed reduced memory related to emotion and reduced attentional vigilance to positive stimuli.

User Experience

“Tianeptine Sodium and its sibling's Sulfate, Free Acid, and even the new tianeptine oxalate have many more than these 7 benefits, which are just the tip of the iceberg, really. The problem isn't the Tianeptine itself, the problem is finding a reliable vendor to buy tianeptine sodium that doesn't sell it as a chemical for research purpose because those impurities ware hard on your body. I used to get Stablon, but now I only order from Supplements for Work. As good as sodium gets.” – Steven

“I am an evangelist for tianeptine sodium and have personally tested (multiple times) both tianeptine sulfate and Tianeptine in free acid form. Neither two worked as effectively for me as tianeptine sodium. In fact, the free acid was so ineffective I converted it myself to tianeptine sodium.

That said, it's my understanding that tianeptine sulfate is more useful for those who want a steadier, longer lasting effect. What might register as a slight increase in energy and mood in me can be felt as anxiety in others? For them, sulfate is their ideal form.

As for a dose equivalence, if you were used to 15mg Tianeptine sodium 3x/day, you'd want to take roughly 45mg 1x/day to achieve a similar therapeutic effect.

As a side note (to anyone on the fence about trying it), I think Tianeptine is criminally under-appreciated in the US both as a pharmaceutical, and as an antidepressant. But even more than that, Tianeptine is (uniquely) a “pro mood” agent, neuroprotectant, opioid dependence modulator (and my favorite nootropic by far).” – Quora member Christian

Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

Verified by Dr. Sundru M. Devi
M.D. Microbiology, PhD Biotechnology, Mar 1, 2019

Sunifiram is an experimental, potent and powerful nootropic that enhances memory, expands learning capacity, and uplifts mood. A recent addition to the racetam family that seems more than promising. Sunifiram dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

Overview

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam. Although there has not been much evidence about its efficacy, it has been proven to be beneficial for the (many) individuals using it. With research and trials ongoing and growing, its use will increase along as well. Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) has been one of the best nootropics that powerfully influence cognition. It enhances mood, lowers stress, and increases energy and focus.

It is an invention from the year 2000. And although it is very new to the market, it is proving to be effective and useful to individuals both in long and short terms. It is an effective nootropic that improves learning and memory, and furthermore enhances cognitive function. It is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amnesia, like most racetams. There are no reports of any severe side effects from its use, making it effective, useful, and safe.

Although it belongs to the racetam class, Sunifiram has a different structure. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as a piperazine alkaloid rather than racetam. It delivers many of the same memory and learning enhancements as piracetam but is much more potent.

Sunifiram is also an ampakine. It increases the efficacy and activity of neurotransmitter glutamine. This leads to significant changes such as mood and energy improvement along with other cognition benefits.

Sunifiram (developmental codename DM-235) is an experimental drug which has antiamnesic effects in animal studies and with significantly higher potency than piracetam. Sunifiram is a molecular simplification of unifiram (DM-232). As of 2016, sunifiram had not been subjected to toxicology testing, nor to any human clinical trials, and is not approved for use anywhere in the world. Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Sunifiram Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression
  2. Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy
  3. Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation
  4. Enhances Focus and Motivation
  5. Enhances Visual Perception
  6. Increases Libido

Supporting research:

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression

As an antidepressant and anxiety reliever, Sunifiram produces its effects as a mirror image of an ampakine. It reacts with glutamatergic AMPA receptors. That also allows it to act as a mild stimulant.

Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy

Sunifiram is known to increase energy and enhance mood. This is likely due to its antidepressant-like effect.

Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation

Sunifiram is a potent and powerful nootropic. It enhances memory formation and retention as well as expanding the learning capacity. It is in use in case of diseases that cause memory loss or amnesia. Its use is not yet regulated by the FDA, but still widely in use by many individuals for its nootropic benefits. [R] [R]

Appears to promote long term potentiation in the hippocampus with oral ingestion, which should result in an improvement in memory in animals that have otherwise impaired memory. 

Examine.com

Enhances Focus and Motivation

Sunifiram enhances focus and concentration. It is known to improve motivation and enable a person to complete mentally-demanding tasks at ease and comfort. The focus heightening and motivation is due to the increase in the release and utilization of acetylcholine; which has a direct impact on cognitive abilities.

Enhances Visual Perception

Sunifiram keeps you out of stress and negative thinking. It makes you have a confident, better outlook on life. It allows you to look at the future positive and ambitiously. Such useful effects are helpful for people at any and every stage of life.

Increases Libido

Increase in the sex drive is often in anecdotal reports. However, there is no clinical evidence on this specific claim and only anecdotal ones support it.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Sunifiram Work?

Sunifiram is a piracetam derivative. But it often comes as a surprise that it has a different chemical structure from the other racetams. It is basically a piperazine alkaloid which can act as an ampakine that will increase the activity of glutamine receptors and increase the stimulation effects. Or it can serve as a cholinergic that stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine.

Sunifiram Structure

AMPAkine Action

Although no such evidence is still available about its use and its action in humans due to the lack of the trials, the primary factor that drives it to work would be the ampakine factor which allows it to provide the stimulation effects by acting at the glutamate receptors. Ampakines are mild stimulants. They can increase alertness and energy. They do not cause restlessness which like other antidepressants or anxiolytics. The increase the energy levels and the activity factor is also one of the significant roles Sunifiram plays. Due to its effect on the glutamate receptors, it leads to functions such as spatial navigation and the formation and storage of memory, which are crucial for many neurological conditions.

Cholinergic Action

Sunifiram acts as a cholinergic as well. Due to this effect, it leads to the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Acetylcholine increases brain function and cognition abilities. The primary functions are memory enhancement, learning speed and capacity which grow and expand very notably. You can also count on the fluid intelligence or ability to solve unique problems with this supplement. Sunifiram is an essential nootropic to students as well as athletes to increase their performance and achieve better results.

Sunifiram appears to act on the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, which enhances signalling and activates some intracellular proteins (CAMKII and PKCα) which then positively regulate the AMPA receptors. These mechanisms are highly similar to that seen with nefiracetam. Examine.com

The mechanism of action of sunifiram is unknown. Sunifiram, as well as unifiram, were assayed at a wide panel of sites, including the most important receptors, ion channels, and transporters, but showed no affinity for any of the sites. They specifically did not bind to the glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, acetylcholine, or opioid receptors at concentrations of up to 1 μM. In addition, the drugs were tested on recombinant AMPA receptors and showed no potentiation of the receptors, indicating that they do not act as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators. However, they were able to prevent the amnesia induced by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX in the passive avoidance test, suggesting that indirect/downstream AMPA receptor activation may be involved in their memory-enhancing effects. Sunifiram, as well as other nootropics such as piracetam, levetiracetam, and aniracetam are able to antagonize inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital), diazepam, and certain other drugs in human erythrocytes in vitro (Ki = 26.0 uM for sunifiram), and this action has been found to correlate with their potency in reversing scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. However, this action has been regarded as very unlikely to represent the main mechanism of action of sunifiram. – Wikipedia

Dosage

How To Take Sunifiram?

Sunifiram works effectively at a dosage of 5 to 10 mg –  at a maximum of three times per day. This is the safe dose which is often taken sublingual for maximum efficacy and absorption.

It is advised that one starts with the smallest doses to prevent side effects and toxicity. Although it is not in documentation, tolerance can grow with excessive usage, so it is better to take it occasionally instead of daily basis.

only 4-8 mg 2-3 times a day is needed with this ultra potent nootropic. When you’re talking about the Bugatti of the nootropics world, less is more. A little goes all the way!

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For Boosting Cognitive Function

By pairing sunifiram with one or more of the racetams like piracetamoxiracetam, or Noopept, we can achieve this increase which has been the most common and most favorite Sunifiram combo. A choline source like Alpha GPC is an important part of this combo due to the increased choline depletion by the former nootropics.

For Mood Enhancement

Combining Aniracetam with sunifiram is a good option for mood enhancement. You can combine L-theanine, which increases production of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA with sunifiram. Sulbutiamine, which is a potent enhancer of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic functions can be a good combination as well. Choline source should always be present in those combos to prevent getting a headache.

Side Effects

What Are Sunifiram Side Effects?

Due to being fairly new and not as widely popular as the rest of the racetams, no severe side effects of sunifiram have surfaced yet. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still ongoing, and it is yet to get FDA approval. Use with caution.

User Experience

Reddit

On a Reddit user wrote down a thorough experience of sunifiram:

For years I have been a hardcore coffee drinker and other than that I had not used any other substances to enhance my cognition in any way. A few months ago I started a doctor-supervised weight loss program that included the use of 30 mg of Phentermine daily as an appetite suppressant.

Unfortunately, Phentermine is an amphetamine that gave me an extreme energy rush that was affecting my focus and concentration. I could not sit and study because I was getting easily distracted by anything. This was starting to affect my performance in my current classes and at work so I tried using 200 mg of L-Theanine and reduce my caffeine intake with moderately positive effects.

After losing about 100 lbs, I am ready to stop the Phentermine and continue my healthy eating habits for a long-term weight loss maintenance. This Phentermine is addictive so my doctor is reducing the dose gradually to minimize the withdrawal effects. However, I started feeling slightly depressed and foggy. This is when I decided to go on my own and experiment with Noots to see if they would help.

My doctor is not familiar with any nootropics nor did he think anything like that would be appropriate since the effects of phentermine withdrawal would pass in a few weeks.

I did some research about nootropics that would help me with this situation and decided to go shopping. I was low on cash but had a credit on Amazon so the only strong nootropic that I found was Sunifiram. Despite the warnings that there are no sufficient studies on the long-term effects, I decided to assume all risks and give it a try.

The Experience

I started five days ago with 10mg of Sunifiram administered sublingually. Approximately 10-15 minutes after the first dose I felt what others have called “sunny”. It is hard to explain but it was somewhat overwhelming and the effect did not last long.

The following day I took the same dose and got the same but short effect. I did have a mild headache after waking up but nothing unbearable. I started to get the full effect on Day 3. Suddenly I was able to focus on whatever I wanted and the ideas flowed easily. I had struggled to finish a paper for days but this time I finished it in less than an hour.

Today is Day 5 of using Sunifiram and I have to say it has been a positive experience so far. I wish I could explain better my experience but I have not used anything with comparable results. It is not an extreme rush of energy nor a sedative effect. I just feel a sense of clarity that I had not felt before.

I don't want to take the risk of using Sunifiram for long-term cognition enhancement given the unknown effects of continued use, so I will stop taking it as soon as I finish this class. Once I have some cash to spend, I might look into other alternatives like PiracetamNoopept or something similar.

TLDR

Sunifiram was my first experience with a “smart drug”. During the first two days the effects were mild and nearly unnoticeable. After the third day I felt a positive improvement in my mood and focus. Since there are no sufficient studies on the long term use of this substance, I will discontinue its use and seek other Nootropics with better background research.

Conclusion

Sunifiram is one of the nootropics having huge and fast-growing demand, so its not easily accessible. Its potency, efficacy, and effectiveness have been superb. Although it does not have a lot of trials under its belt, it is nevertheless one which has been encouraging and promoted as a safe and effective nootropic.

Not for everyday use, but it can be a good companion to have in your stack. Increasing energy, cognitive abilities, and physical performance are the prime features of this product which make it one worth trying out.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is an experimental, potent racetam. It shares most of racetams benefits and effects. The dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

What is Sunifiram Legal Status? Is Sunifiram legal?

In the US, Sunifiram is unscheduled, and not FDA approved.

How To Take Sunifiram?

Being an ‘experimental’ drug, and a very potent one, its important to take very low doses (5 mg, 10 mg tops) and do your research to find news and updates on the matter. You can find the post I cited from Nootropics City under Conclusion which has more information regarding that.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

I have found a few different vendors, none of which I tried, rather, only listing for research purpose. Nootropics City, Nootropics Retail, as well as NewMind – all offer Sunifiram in powder as well as capsules.

What is Sunifiram Dosage?

Unless you are quite experienced in racetams, I wouldn’t recommend anything over 5 mg as a starting point. People reported side effects after deciding to increase the dose for more results.

What is Sunifiram half-life?

Sunifiram has a half-life of 1-2 hours

Is sunifiram stimulating like Adderall?

Not really at all. Adderall (amphetamine) causes release of dopamine and norepinephrine to increase focus and cause physical and mental stimulation. Sunifiram is a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA channels (increases the activity when a glutamate molecule is bound, but not when nothing is bound), which are a subtype of glutamate receptors. The effect of this is to increase memory formation via long term potentiation, which occurs when NMDA and AMPA (both subtypes of glutamate receptors) channels are both activated in the same neuron. When this happens more glutamate receptors are put into the neuron to make it more likely to fire in the future. Sunifiram increases AMPA firing so increases the odds of a long term potentiation event happening, and therefore memory formation. It does not act as a CNS stimulant like adderall though, and those two drugs really serve different purposes.

Further Readings

  1. Coluracetam 
  2. Fasoracetam
  3. Phenylpiracetam
  4. Pramiracetam
  5. Alpha-GPC
  6. Citicoline (CDP)
  7. Choline
  8. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ
  9. Nootropics 101

Noopept is one of the most potent nootropics available. It boosts overall cognition with a slight psychostimulatory effect. Effects kick-in within minutes of consumption, making it a handy choice when dealing with or getting to mentally-demanding tasks.

Overview

What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that's been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics, known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function and their neuroprotective qualities.

Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions, which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action. But when it comes to noopept, results are usually felt minutes after ingestion. It shares a similar onset of action as somewhat related racetam phenylpiracetam.

“N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester is promoted as a nootropic and is a prodrug of cycloprolylglycine. Other names include the brand name Noopept, developmental code GVS-111; proposed INN omberacetam. Its synthesis was first reported in 1996. Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question.” – Wikipedia.

In Russia and a few of the surrounding countries, Noopept is prescribed for its nootropic qualities. The demand for it is dramatically rising and is currently retailing worldwide, amongst the best selling nootropics on the major vendor websites.

It also acts similar to Piracetam's way; however, it is said to be somewhere over 1,000 more potent. That is why people tend to reach the desired effect or outcome from as little as 10 mg and usually not exceeding 30 mg as total per day. It smoothly settles itself onto the brain's receptors.

Even with a dose as small as 10mg, many reports it to be quite comparable, and many (myself included) actually favor it over Piracetam.

Noopept is also inexpensive comparing to other nootropics because of its high potency.

Its effectiveness and low price led to its being a classic, very popular, and in any case, a favorite amongst the nootropic community.

According to Nootropics City:

Noopept is a very potent Ampakine nootropic drug, and the nootropics brand name for the research peptide “N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethyl ester.” Noopept capsules is an entirely synthetic molecule and have a similar effect to Piracetam. However, its effects are quoted as up to 1000 times stronger. Effects are very much like a “mega dose” of Piracetam (when a nootropic is taken in dosages up to 8 times the usual amount) and even provides a slight psycho stimulatory effect when taken in low to moderate dosages.

Typical dosages of Noopept range from 10mg at the lower end, to a maximum effective dosage of 30mg per day. When higher dosages are taken, tiredness can result, negating many of Noopept's benefits, alongside tolerance and an increase in Noopept's harmful side effects. Noopept, for best results, should be taken 3 times daily (preferably once with each meal) and should be taken with a choline source (preferably CDP Choline) for maximum results. Noopept, like Piracetam, displayed many neuroprotective effects in rats and mice during testing. More studies are needed to confirm precisely what causes Noopept's supposed neuroprotective effect.

Take into account with Noopept capsules: Remember, Noopept is entirely a research molecule (as are most nootropics). Understand what you are taking, do your own personal research on it, and weigh the positives and negatives before taking Noopept. Take Noopept capsules in a regular, consistent dosing pattern of 10mg per day, and continue to supplement in the form of a U shaped curve, i.e., Start off with a low dosage, increase accordingly, then taper back down towards the end of your Noopept regiment.

Noopept capsules should be cycled on and off for 1-3 months at a time for best results. Be sure to take Noopept when a particularly rigorous mental task is being performed.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Noopept Benefits?

  1. Supports Memory and Learning
  2. Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  3. Increases Nerve Growth Factor and BDNF
  4. Improves Association Between Left and Right Brain Hemispheres

Supporting research:

Supports Memory and Learning

Noopept primary interest is how it improves memory and ease the learning process. It helps in memory creation, with additional benefits such as memory consolidation and speed of recall. Noopept helps correct all sorts of stimuli as they are under process by the cerebellum, allowing better memory retrieval.

In other words, our sensations' signal handling is more smooth as they are carrying forward into our memory. Through the continued use of Noopept, individuals report information to be more easily digested and processed, giving them the availability to be ready-for-use in everyday activities. One might remember names, places, maybe a word chatted in contact, a tune thought to be forgotten, and such. Memory failures will diminish or, to the least, will be kept to a very minimum. [1]

Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)

Studies prove that noopept possesses excellent neuroprotective attributes. The stimulation of the neurons produced by the supplement blocks oxidative damage in the human brain.

Many patients dealing with cognitive impairment can benefit from a consistent dosage of noopept to avoid further cognitive decline. [2]

Increases Nerve Growth Factor and BDNF

NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) is a protein in the body involved in the growth, preservation, and continuation of nerve cells, including brain cells. The nerve growth factor is also deemed very important in neurogenesis, the body's ability to generate new cells.

By raising NGF levels in the cerebellum, it allows for new neural connections. The result indicates potentially improved mental skills in nearly all areas of cognition. [3]

BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) is another protein in the body that has s role in the NGF mentioned above. BDNF is one of the most critical molecules associated with memory, playing an essential role in short and long-term memory formation. [45]

Improves Association Between Left and Right Brain Hemispheres

Both the right and left hemispheres of the brain have their localized functions. Through the use of noopept, each of those functions is developing by synthesizing various memories, ideas, and stimuli. There are nuances among these functions that improve the way we think. That is why many people have claimed that their quality of life had a significant improvement when taking noopept regularly.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer-lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works similarly and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole-brain function. The research available, along with the anecdotal reports, seem to strongly support this claim.

Noopept review
Noopept Skeletal Structure

“Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).” – Examine

Noopept users report results of improved clarity, better memory, and focus. More studies are undergoing to determine precisely how it provides those privileges to the brain. Studies on animals have shown that Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity in all brain areas (R).

Noopept's mechanism of action is similar to the other racetams. Noopept works on the AMPA and NDMA receptor sites and their pathways of function. It also has an affinity for the Acetylcholine system and the ACh receptor sites. Both of these factors contribute to Noopept's array of nootropic benefits. Like Aniracetam, Noopept appears to produce an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) response in animal and human models. This is not a guaranteed result and seems to vary widely between subjects. Like with Aniracetam, Noopept seems to stimulate Dopamine receptor sites (D2 and D3) as well as the ACh nicotinic receptor sites. Noopept also seems to stimulate specific Serotonin receptors, and this may also contribute to its mood-boosting qualities.

On Memory and Cognitive Decline

Noopept seems to be incredibly useful and demonstrates the most significant benefits to patients with mild cognitive decline. It is now undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of mental deficiency of post-traumatic origin and cerebrovascular cause.

The cerebellum benefits include antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory qualities and repression of toxicity by removing excess glutamate and calcium. Similarly, blood rhythm and flow signifies further improvement. Two possible mechanisms of action for enhancing cognition are a sensitizing effect on acetylcholine processes or induction of neurotrophin production, both of which theoretically strengthen memory formation.

Noopept absorption is a process by the digestive system and succeeding to cross the blood-brain barrier readily. The brain utilizes it almost entirely; very little goes to waste.

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibits breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning. It works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes.

Anecdotal reports often recall the “sudden abundance of clarity and precision” delivered by the immediate advantage of added oxygen to the brain and enhanced glucose use. Furthermore, it frequently reported that it also improves eyesight and perception, expanding one's awareness of their surroundings and perceiving colors and objects as more alive, vibrant, and vivid.

Dosage

How to Take Noopept?

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, the recommended Noopept dosage would be to take it in three doses of 10mg, two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

  • 10 mg: divide into three doses throughout the day
  • 15 mg: divide into two doses twice a day
  • 30 mg: one dose per day

Do not exceed the 30mg Noopept dosage in one day – and ideally, no longer than 60 days cycle if taken every day. After that, allow yourself some time off before you start another cycle. Alternatively, you can take it on and off as needed. Experimenting is the best way to find out what works for your own body.

Given how fast the body metabolizes it and its relatively short half-life, it is best to take small doses multiple times a day instead of a large one at once, thereby prolonging the effects. It is wise to start with the smallest effective amount with careful observation, before progressing into a higher dose.

Noopept Powder Form

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately. According to the label, take Noopept for 1.5 to 3 weeks and then, if necessary, to begin another cycle after a 1-month break. Alternatively, many users follow 56 days on and four days off. Do not take Noopept late in the evening as its energizing effects may interfere with sleep.

And furthermore, “to supplement Noopept, take 10 – 30 mg, once a day, for up to 56 days at a time. More research is needed to determine the optimal human dose for Noopept.” again, quoting Examine.

Noopept Nasal Spray (Intranasal)

Many people seem to discuss different mixtures to getting the most ideal ratio for a Noopept Nasal spray. Still, there isn't any reliable information that I could put on here. If you're interested in user experiments and anecdotal experiences, there are a couple different threads you can find by searching ‘Noopept Nasal' on the Reddit nootropics subreddit here.

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Alpha-GPC or Citicoline (or whatever your choline preference maybe). This will massively potentiate the effect and will prevent the occasional occurrence of Noopept's headaches.

Side Effects

What Are Noopept Side Effects?

These side effects of Noopepts are mostly occurring when higher doses are consumed:

  • Headache
  • Restlessness (or overstimulation)
  • Dizziness
  • Irritability

Some studies suggest that it magnifies the effects of stimulants, such as amphetamines. Hence, caution is advisable for individuals using ADHD medication. I can personally advise that as well. I've felt that sense of overstimulation on a couple different occasions when taking a 30 mg dose of Noopept shortly after taking my ADHD medication. I now find that a 15 mg dose works best for me, whether once or twice per day.

User Experience

My Personal Experience

Noopept was amongst the very first nootropics I got to try taking it in one dose of 30 mg in the early afternoon with 300mg of Alpha-GPC.

Probably the most effective and most profound feeling I ever got off a nootropic to this day. I really thought I hit the jackpot. I was able to sit throughout the day at work, fully engaged. I focused on whatever I was working on, without any sort of complaining whatsoever. And that was at my corporate job, not at my home office. I was amazed by that.

I had to see if it was in my head or if it had been really that effective. So I had both my best friend and my sister try it out on different occasions – both of them ended up asking me to try it a few more times. My friend went on to buy her own while doing her finals at an international affairs academy program. I never heard her talk so positively about any supplement or nootropic whatsoever the way she spoke and liked Noopept.

Unfortunately, though, today, after quite a long time since I first discovered it, it seems to have half the effect it had on me back in the day, even if I don't take it for a month or so. But it makes complete sense due to the similarities of other racetams that I supplement with frequently – mostly Aniracetam. But the feeling I experienced in the first few times of Noopept was something I had never felt with any other nootropic.

Reddit

On Reddit's nootropics sub, a user wrote:

“Noopept: Probably the most potent memory and cognition enhancing nootropic I've tried besides Phenylpiracetam…noopept really makes a huge difference for me in terms of mental clarity, memory recall, and fluid thinking. I'll be on this for life 100%.”

Another Reddit user wrote his experience titled: ‘My Experience with Noopept and Adderall' and it says:

Before the downvote brigade comes out and downvotes me to hell, I am prescribed Adderall, it works wonders for me, and no nootropic could ever replace Adderall for me. I've been on it for probably 15 years. It does its job, but I still have issues with performance anxiety. If I start thinking about my performance, it slowly spirals into being so anxious about not doing well that I can't even retain the information in a sentence. CBD oil helps a little bit.

My focus has never really been mine to ‘give'; it's more at the whim of when and where it works, no matter how hard I may try to concentrate. Noopept is changing that.

Anywho, WOW is all I have to say. I have tried noopept many times, but never did I do it consistently. I hate that I hadn't before because this is borderline life-changing. Here's what happened:

My friend ordered some Russian noopept for the both of us, as he's from Russia and wanted to try it out. I had tried the sublingual and powdered versions of it. They had always given me brain fog, so I was a bit wary, but his dad had said that he had used it in college and that you have to keep taking it to get over that sickening feeling. So I figured I'd give it a shot; it was the original stuff after all. So I took he threw me a box of it in class the day it came in, and we took some right there.

Day 1: The first dose in the morning didn't kick in until about an hour, took it on an empty stomach. It was the same sickening, brain foggy stuff I was used to, but he was so excited about it I was gonna give it a few days before I was gonna stop and tell him. We took a second dose a few hours later and felt noticeably worse. We kinda brushed it off and hoped his dad's advice was correct.

Day 2: Same thing, took it in the morning and at lunch, but couldn't concentrate at all. Except for later that day, I got this burst of clarity around the time I was expecting it to wear off, which was unusual. But before the clarity happened, I felt downright awful, enough so that I wasn't going to take another dose. It felt like nicotine poisoning almost. I told him about it, and he said he felt similarly. But then this clarity, it was like I had a cup of coffee, but I hadn't. It was weird.

Day 3: I take it with breakfast, and holy crap, I feel great. It's like I can just read a sentence without my eyes jumping around the page!!! (Something that I would consider quite the feat!) It was like my focus was mine to give like I could read an entire line of code and actually process it without having to re-read it at all!

Day 4 and 5: I continue taking it with food, and now I understand why people say its effects compound. I still have plenty of focus to give, more so, and I feel like some of my anxiety has gone. Very satisfied.

Now here it is on Day 7 on a Sunday, I didn't take it yesterday, and I feel like the effects are still there. I had the focus to give yesterday and today, and I haven't taken it. Like I don't know what to say, except that I wonder if this is how neurotypical people feel regularly. It's nuts.

My only concern I have here is its interaction with Adderall tolerance. I haven't noticed anything yet, but has anybody that has taken these 2 together experienced any effects on their Adderall/amphetamine tolerance? (Vyvanse, Dexedrine, etc.) That would be the only thing that would stop with noopept if it severely affects tolerance.

Anyway, I just wanted to share my experience with the two, and I hope it's helpful! I also wasn't on any other nootropics this week to test this out.

UPDATE: I have been taking 10mg twice a day on weekdays and the only physical side effect I've noticed is I'm more sensitive to temperature and I've been sweating more, even sitting still. Off of it my pits don't sweat but on it they do.

Conclusion

The benefits of Noopept are numerous, but the best thing about it is that its effects are cumulative.

Noopept has quickly grown in demand and has earned its space within people's nootropic stacks due to its impressive results, ease of small doses, and reasonable, affordable cost.

Whether an expert nootropic user or merely getting to learn about it all, noopept is an excellent choice for an overall cognitive function boost.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that's been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics, known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function and their neuroprotective qualities.

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibits breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning.

What Does Noopept Do?

Noopept is a powerful Nootropic compound. It protects your brain from stresses and toxins (neuroprotection). It is excellent at improving cognitive performance and memory. Furthermore, it shields from degenerative brain disorder relating to aging.

How Long Does Noopept Take to Work?

Noopept works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes. Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions, which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action.

How to Take Noopept Capsules?

10 mg – divide into three doses throughout the day
15 mg – split into two doses twice a day
30 mg – one amount per day

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, take Noopept in three doses of 10mg, two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

How to Take Noopept Powder?

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately.

How to Take Noopept Sublingually?

There's no “right way” to do it. Place under the tongue, close mouth, and rest tongue gently on the Noopept. Just hold it there for a while. Once it's mostly gone, swoosh it around a bit and swallow the rest. Try not to swallow the saliva that builds up in your mouth because you are most likely swallowing some of the drugs that haven't been absorbed yet.

What is the Half-Life of Noopept?

Noopept's half-life depends on the individual. The duration of Noopept is around 3 – 6 hours. Effects of Noopept increase after using it for a few days.

Where Can I Buy Noopept in Dubai & UAE?

If you are in Dubai, you can buy Noopept 30mg capsules and many other nootropics online from Nootropix

Further Readings

Racetams

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Piracetam
  3. Phenylpiracetam
  4. Pramiracetam
  5. Oxiracetam
  6. Fasoracetam
  7. Sunifiram
  8. Coluracetam

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Studies

  1. Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation
  2. Neuroprotective and nootropic drug noopept rescues α-synuclein amyloid cytotoxicity
  3. The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer's disease model

Verified by Dr. Sundru M. Devi
M.D. Microbiology, PhD Biotechnology, Mar 1, 2019

Ashwagandha is a powerful and popular natural nootropic offering many health benefits. Especially on its ability to eliminates stress, anxiety, and reducing depression symptoms. It boosts testosterone levels, supports muscle mass, reduces body fat and increases strength and performance.

Overview

What is Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha (also known as Withania somnifera) is an excellent herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It has become a popular nootropic due to its multiple health benefits.

It is able to eliminate stress and anxiety. And research suggests it also helps in improving depression symptoms.

It also increases testosterone levels and significantly boosts sperm quality and fertility in men. Furthermore, it increases muscle mass, reduces body fat and increases strength.

Current users are rediscovering the traditional herb as a valuable brain-booster that improves cognition by combating the impacts of stress and helping mood enhancement.

Recent research confirms it as a promising adaptogen helping prevent the consequences of recurring anxiety.

Users find that it's also a powerful anxiolytic; reducing stress and thereby enhances mood, decreases restlessness, insomnia, and sleep issues alike.

Withania somnifera, known commonly as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, or winter cherry is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family. – Wikipedia

Ashwagandha is a herb that belongs to the night shade family of plants. The nightshade family of plants is a very interesting one and includes a lot of vegetables that make up large parts of many diets. Notable nightshade members are potatoes, tomatoes, chili peppers, goji berries and even tobacco! Another name for the nightshade family is Solanaceae. 

This is where Ashwagandha gets its Latin name from; Withania somnifera. Ashwagandha is a short perennial shrub, with a large root system that develops small deep orange fruits. The fruits resemble a small cherry and the leaves look frosty due to the many tiny hairs that are on them. This one of the reasons why Ashwagandha is also referred to as ‘winter cherry’. 

Traditionally, the Ashwagandha root is used, however new research has found high concentrations of key components in the leaves too. 

Various manufacturers have taken notice of this. One of the most notable being Natreon who produce a specialized extract of Ashwagandha called Sensoril. 

Sensoril is made from the leaves of Ashwagandha, giving it a unique chemical composition, which produces noticeable calming effects.

Sensoril Ashwagandha

Sensoril Ashwagandha is standardized to 10% glyco withanolides making it a potent and calming extract. Sensoril is made from a blend of Ashwagandha root and leave extracts, which is part of the reason why it is so potent. Sensoril is best taken during periods of high stress, or to help enhance sleep quality.

Ashwagandha KSM-66

Ashwagandha KSM-66 is extracted using milk. Traditionally, Ashwagandha root powder is mixed with milk to enhance absorption, and thus  Ixoreal Bioscience decided to use milk as its extraction solvent. The end result is an Ashwagandha root only extract that is very well balanced. Effect-wise, KSM-66 is very uplifting and can help support healthy stress levels.

Basic Ashwagandha

Basic Ashwagandha is made from both Ashwagandha root and leaves, and is standardized to 4-5% withanolides. Effects wise, it appears to be a perfect blend of both KSM-66 and Sensoril. This Ashwagandha extract is uplifting and calming without being too calming or too energizing. Many people tend to prefer this Ashwagandha extract because it is so well balanced. In a blind test we did around the office, a vast majority of us preferred the regular Ashwagandha. However, if you are looking for specific effects, such as an extract that is very calming or an extract that is very uplifting, then this is not the Ashwagandha extract for you. – Nootropics Depot

Benefits and Effects

What Are Ashwagandha Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Improves Depression
  2. Reduces Cortisol Levels
  3. Improves Cognitive Function
  4. Reduces Arthritis Symptoms
  5. Reverses Deficits Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease
  6. Helps in Weight Loss and Weight Control
  7. Improves Muscle Strength
  8. Treats Male Sexual Dysfunction
  9. Decreases Blood Pressure
  10. Combats Chemotherapy Fatigue
  11. Rejuvenation and Overall Health Improvement

Supporting research

Reduces Anxiety and Depression

Ashwagandha is best known for its ability to fight stress and to ease different types of anxieties (R) by eliminating stressors. It serves the body's overall health, and empowers the immune system. Thereby preventing the damage of excessive cortisol. It enhances mood, sense of well-being, and all-around cognition.

Clinical trials verify Ashwagandha possess robust anxiety relief capabilities. As well as reducing symptoms of generalized & social anxiety.  Particularly useful for those suffering chronic stress (R).

Another study further reveals its potential as a treatment for mild depression and panic disorder (R).

Reduces Cortisol Levels

A 60-day regimen of Ashwagandha seems to efficiently decrease levels of serum cortisol in individuals with chronic stress. The finding is significant because high cortisol levels lead to health complications. Those range from immune system weakness to bone density. In many cases it further extends to weight gain, high blood pressure, and heart disease.

Improves Cognitive Function

Studies on Ashwagandha enhancing memory and intelligence are few. However, at the same time, studies are confirming that anxiety is a significant cause of cognitive decline, impairing memory and attentiveness. Stress deregulates the body and brain natural processes. Normalizing those functions is, therefore, the critical element to restoring optimal cognition (R).

Individuals who frequently worry, stress out, or suffer from depression are the ones to benefit most from Ashwagandha.

Reduces Arthritis Symptoms

A 2015 Indian study comprising more than 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that after using Ashwagandha for several weeks, more than half those participants had a notable reduction in arthritic symptoms, including pain, movement difficulties, sore and swollen joints. (R)

Reverses Deficits Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer's is the continuous impairing in memory and cognitive functions. After a 30-day course treatment using Ashwagandha, a complete reverse of the behavioral deficits is marked. This result shows how ashwagandha reverses the behavior of Alzheimer’s disease. It is achievable by the improvement of low-density lipoprotein protein in liver. (R)

Helps in Weight Loss and Weight Control

A study of 52 people diagnosed with chronic stress revealed that two daily doses of 300 mg of Ashwagandha resulted in a significant reduction in stress and food cravings, along with a decrease in serum cortisol and body mass. (R)

Improves Muscle Strength

A series of studies on healthy men reveal that using 300 mg to 1250 mg of Ashwagandha on a daily basis show a measurable increase in muscle strength and intensity. In comparison to participants receiving a placebo, those on the Ashwagandha were able to increase their bench press and leg extension. Moreover, notable increases in muscle mass, testosterone, and muscle recovery. (R)

Treats Male Sexual Dysfunction

A pilot study of 46 men suffering weak sperm production found a remarkable result when using 675 mg of Ashwagandha daily for two weeks. Another finding from that clinical trial is an impressive rise of 167% in sperm count, a 53% rise in semen mass, and a 57% rise in sperm fluidity. Animal studies similarly confirm Ashwagandha enhance sexual performance, improve testicular sperm production, and boost serum testosterone levels. [R]

Decreases Blood Pressure

Studies indicate that Ashwagandha leads to a measurable decrease in blood pressure. In research involving 100 participants using Ashwagandha for about six months, an average 1.6% decrease in systolic pressure and 5.6% decline in diastolic pressure is witnessed, along with a minor reduction in heart rate.

Combats Chemotherapy Fatigue

A 2013 trial involving more than 100 breast cancer individuals in all stages of the disease revealed that Ashwagandha efficiently reduced fatigue and weakness caused by chemotherapy. It also enhanced the quality of living. Even though it is not a treatment for cancer, it is a genuinely useful addition to the therapy for cancer patients. [R]

Rejuvenation and Overall Health Improvement

A comprehensive analysis of studies, data, and research on Ashwagandha confirm that it provides a variety of therapeutic effects without toxicity. The review concludes that Ashwagandha possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-stress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and rejuvenating qualities. It can exert a positive impact on the central nervous system. [R]

Mechanism of Action

How Ashwagandha Works

The exact mechanisms by which Ashwagandha works remain non-entirely understood, but it appears that the active components are alkaloids and steroidal lactones that are collectively known as withanolides.

It is this combination of elements that are thought to have the potential for physiological action.

Effect on GABA

One of the acknowledged mechanisms of the withanolide components of Ashwagandha is the modulation of circulating levels of MAO and GABA in the cerebellum. GABA is an amino that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, countering to some extent the effects of the stimulatory neurotransmitter glutamate and therefore helping as a natural tranquilizer. Animal studies show that Ashwagandha further indicates GABA-like attributes and improves calmness without producing drowsiness. It has also been revealed to possess anti-depressant effects (R). It appears to work exceptionally well in combination with  SSRIs for compulsion-related mental disorders. As well as with GABAergic anxiolytics, including alcohol.

As An Antioxidant

The active withanolides in Ashwagandha are also thought to produce stable antioxidant properties, which makes them a helpful brain protectant. Antioxidants are chemical molecules that restrict conceivably damaging oxidizing causes from harming cells in the cerebellum and body. Cells remained influenced by oxidation can convert to free radicals, particles that harm circling cells. The free radicals triggers a series response of cellular damage that affects the aging process and a variety of complications.

As An Anti-inflammatory

Ashwagandha seems to be a powerful anti-inflammation tool. Inflammation is a response of the body’s immune system; however, when the immune system is pushed to overactivity, inflammation converts into a health obstacle. Inflammation is correlating with a variety of disorders. From arthritis and joint discomfort to obesity, heart disease, fatigue, blood vessel damage, and even cancer. The anti-inflammatory attributes of Ashwagandha are at the core of many of its benefits. That includes shielding as well as enriching the immune system. Furthermore enhancing memory, improving the learning experience and reaction time, and preventing brain cell degeneration.

On Dendrite Development

Ashwagandha promotes the development of dendrites, branching neuronal extensions that carry and generate electrochemical stimulation from cell to cell. Increasing dendrite development is a marker of connectivity improvement in the cerebellum.

Dosage

How To Take Ashwagandha?

Typically, Ashwagandha dose ranges between 300 mg to 600 mg as the highest. Its not advisable to take more than 600mg when using on daily basis.

Take Ashwagandha with food and divide into two doses per day. If you prefer once a day, do so in the morning after breakfast.

It is not-advisable to use Ashwagandha in combination with JK inhibitors or MAO inhibitors.

There is not one universal Ashwagandha dosage due to the different levels of standardization. However, in general, an Ashwagandha powder extract dosage is going to be around 300-500 mg. This general Ashwagandha dosage falls in line with the various extracts we carry. For example, the Ashwagandha dosage for KSM-66 is 300 mg and the Ashwagandha dosage for our basic Ashwagandha powder extract is 500 mg. The Ashwagandha dosage for Sensoril is a little bit of an outlier, at 125 mg, but this is due to the fact that it is such a potent extract. – Nootropics Depot

Side Effects

What Are Ashwagandha Side Effects?

The most common side effects of Ashwagandha include:

  1. Indigestion
  2. Diarrhea
  3. Gastric discomfort
  4. Drowsiness

Ashwagandha is safe and digests well in reasonable doses. No severe side effects report using high doses over a short period. These side effects are brief; if they grow in severity or persist over a long time, discontinue using it and seek medical advice.

Conclusion

Ashwagandha is both a potent adaptogen that supports the brain and body in handling and managing stress. It's a safe, well-tolerated anxiolytic proven to relief anxiety.

In addition to mood enhancement, it assists in regulating the sleep cycle, and improve memory. It further increases brain signaling by promoting neuronal vitality. It is efficient and with no record of severe side effects or toxicity; all while at an affordable price. This makes it a very worthwhile nootropic.

User Experience

Reddit

“Ashwaganda seems to have reduced my social anxiety. In a v subtle way as well – I don’t find Ashwaganda mood altering, it’s rather there’s just an absence of anxiety. So subtle I only reflected on it & then realised I’d had reduced social anxiety. I’m using KSM 66 & using a high dose – 600mg/day.”

Nootropics Depot

“This was my first experience with Ashw. and it has been an excellent one. I take it before bedtime and it provides me with a better night of REM sleep, including dreams that are sometimes extremely involved. I love the stuff and have recommended it to my coworkers who have sleep difficulties.”

“I've tried all three versions of ashwagandha that ND sells, and this is my favorite. It just also happens to be the cheapest! Sensoril is great for bed, but makes me sleepy during the day. KSM 66 works well during the day, but isn't as calming as I would like. This version provides that nice balance between them.“

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the benefits and side effects of Ashwagandha?

Benefits:
– Reduces Anxiety and Improves Depression Symptoms
– Reduces Cortisol Levels
– Improves Cognitive Function
– Reduces Arthritis Symptoms
– Reverses Deficits Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease
– Helps in Weight Loss and Weight Management
– Improves Muscle Strength
– Treats Male Sexual Dysfunction
– Decreases Blood Pressure
– Combats Chemotherapy Fatigue
– Rejuvenation and Overall Health Improvement

Side effects of Ashwagandha (although not necessarily):
– Indigestion
– Diarrhea
– Gastric discomfort
– Drowsiness

Does Ashwagandha cause weight gain?

Ashwagandha leaf extract helps to manage your weight by lowering the level of stress hormones called Cortisol. Elevated cortisol levels increase hunger and craving for sweets, fried food, and soft drinks. These cravings result in increased calorie consumption leading to weight gain. Ashwagandha reduces the level of cortisol and decreases stress-induced cravings. This helps in better weight management. Tip: Take Ashwagandha leaf extract in churna form. Take 1-2gm churna twice a day with lukewarm water after taking a light meal.

Can Ashwagandha be consumed for months regularly?

It can be consumed regularly for months because of its health benefits. It helps gaining weight to o if consumed with milk at night..but as too much of anything can also be dangerous so one should consume in restricted quantity.

Where can I buy Ashwagandha in Dubai, UAE?

You can buy Ashwagandha KSM-66 as well as many other nootropics in Dubai by going to the shop page.

Further Readings

  1. MelatoninAgmatine Sulfate
  2. PhenibutFasoracetamBacopa MonnieriLion's Mane Mushroom
  3. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ Page

Verified by Dr. Sundru M. Devi
M.D. Microbiology, PhD Biotechnology, Mar 1, 2019

Bacopa monnieri is a powerful natural herb nootropic used for ages for its memory enhancing and anti-aging effects. It reduces anxiety and improves memory formation. It also expands learning capacity, decreases stress and even offers neuroprotection.

Overview

What is Bacopa Monnieri?

Bacopa monnieri (also known as Brahmi) is one of the most acknowledged and widely respected nootropics. A traditional Ayurvedic medicine that has a good reputation of being a potent cognitive enhancerstress and anxiety reliever, and brain protector. It improves memory formation and recall speed, it stimulates learning, enhances thought clarity, and increase brain function.

It acts as a brain protectant, and studies confirm it as a potential remedy for dementia and similar conditions. Furthermore, it reduces anxiety and provides a feeling of calm and tranquility, all while eliminating stress.

Users report it an excellent relaxant that improves sleep quality, leading to rejuvenating and refreshing rest. Its nootropic effects are comparable to those of Piracetam, one of the most popular smart drugs in the world. The supplement is produced from the plant extracts.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Bacopa Monnieri Benefits?

  1. Enhances Memory Formation
  2. Improves Learning and Cognition
  3. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  4. Neuroprotective and
  5. Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  6. Reduces Symptoms of Depression

Supporting research:

Enhances Memory Formation

Enhancement in memory formation, as well as recall speed, is one of Bacopa's primary benefits. Studies show that it significantly enhances memory in older people, and ongoing research is investigating its potential as a treatment of memory issues relating to neurological disorders.  

(J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0342.)

Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. [1]

Improves Learning and Cognition

Bacopa Monnieri improves cognitive processing, making learning new things faster and easier. Studies show that it significantly enhances spatial learning, and it has also been confirmed to improve learning capacity in subjects under stress. Most users say that taking bacopa while studying makes it easier to understand and process new information. Reports carried out by clinical trials at India’s Central Drug Institute (CDRI) in Lucknow state that children taking bacopa show improved academic skills.[2]

Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Bacopa Monnieri is effective in reducing anxiety and stress. Clinical trials show that it significantly decreases anxiety and depression in volunteers, and animal studies compare bacopa to other plant extracts for the effective treatment of anxiety and similar disorders. [3] [4]

Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)

Bacopa is effective in reducing oxidative stress effects on the brain. It possesses potent antioxidant properties that protect the brain against environmental stressors associated in the cognitive decline relating to aging and associated with Alzheimer’s and other neurological diseases.[5]

Reduces Symptoms of Depression

In a study of individuals over 65 years old receiving 300mg dosage, the results show a notable decrease in depression symptoms as well as anxiety. [6]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Bacopa Monnieri Work?

Bacopa's nootropic and anxiolytic effects are due to its capability of enhancing neural communication as well as modulating the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and GABA.

Memory and Cognition

Although it works over time by a variety of functions, bacopa improves memory and cognitive abilities by increasing synaptic communication. It promotes dendrites generation, thereby enhancing neural signaling. The improvement in neural impulse transmission is key to cognitive enhancement. The active ingredient in Bacopa monnieri extract (Bacoside-A) has been shown to stimulate nerve cells and cause synapses to be more receptive to nerve impulses. Studies show that Bacoside-A can prevent dopamine receptor dysfunction. Dopamine is a powerful neurotransmitter responsible for the brain’s reward and pleasure systems.

It also improves production of the enzyme Tryptophan Hydroxylase (TPH2); vital to many central nervous system actions such as the biosynthesis of serotonin. Furthermore, Bacopa stimulates activity in the hippocampus by increasing the activity of kinases, which are proteins that regulate cellular pathways. Because the hippocampus is involved in almost all cognitive activity, this is one of the main methods that allows bacopa to boost brain function.

Anxiety and Stress Relief

Bacopa monnieri produces its unique calming effects through several actions. One of the most crucial anxiety reduction effects is within its power to modulate the activity of certain neurotransmitters like those that regulate the uptake of serotonin, which is connecting to mood and anxiety.

Another active ingredient in bacopa is hersaponin, an alkaloid that provides a relaxing and soothing effect. Bacopa’s active ingredients also support the activity of GABA, another major neurotransmitter that acts to prevent anxiety by restricting the signaling of neuron over-excitement due to stress.

Dosage

How To Take Bacopa Monnieri?

The minimum effective dose of Bacopa Monnieri is 300mg, taken with food or fat source. Some people, myself included, find it more effective at a higher dosage.

I take 300 to 600mg depending on the purpose, while people like Dave Asprey recommend a daily dose of 750mg.

Note: the dosage mentioned here is to the BaCognize® Bacopa Monnieri Extract (standardized to 12% SABG)

Side Effects

What Are Bacopa Monnieri Side Effects?

Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.

Bacopa side effects range from minor (digestion issues and fatigue) to severe (thyroid disorders and urinary tract complications). Minor side effects usually disappear as the body adapts to the herb.

Rodent studies suggest bacopa may reduce sperm count, so it's wise to avoid it if you are planning to conceive. However, it didn't have any impact on sex drive nor testosterone. Moreover, sperm count returns to normal once supplementation stops. [7]

Severe side effects may include thyroid disorders, urinary tract problems, gastrointestinal blockage, adverse impact on ulcers and lung conditions, and bradycardia.

So start with the lowest effective dose, and observe your body's reaction to it. If adverse effects occur, stop use.

Conclusion

Bacopa monnieri enhances cognitive abilities, reduces anxiety, and treats a variety of conditions. Although it works over time, the anxiety-relieving effects are immediate.

Its a precious addition to nootropic stacks. If you’re looking for a natural nootropic to boost your cognition, relieve anxiety, and protect your brain against oxidative stress, Bacopa would make an excellent choice.

Frequently Asked Questions

Does the smart drug Bacopa Monnieri work?

Yes it does and it is great. You can even grow it yourself on the balcony. It does bring more oxygen to the brain hence you feel stimulated. But can’t compare to synthetic nootropics.
If you want a good harmonizing (stress relief) with energizing stack. Take
1x Bacopa 300mg
1x Rhodiola rosea 300mg
1x Alpha-GPC 300mg
You can 1x 5-HTP 50mg (optional)
And throughout your day, if you drink coffee add 1x L-theanine 100-200mg in it.

How much Bacopa Monnieri should I take?

The minimum effective dose of Bacopa Monnieri is 300mg, taken with food or fat source. Some people, myself included, find it more effective at a higher dosage.

I take 300 to 600mg depending on the purpose, while people like Dave Asprey recommend a daily dose of 750mg.

Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.

How long does it take Bacopa Monnieri to work?

The acute relaxation effects of Bacopa Monnieri start working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption.

The potential benefits of Bacopa Monnieri for improving memory and cognition will generally take effect within 4-6 weeks.

What are some uses of a Bacopa monnieri?

Enhance Memory Formation
Improve Learning and Cognition
Reduce Anxiety and Stress
Neuroprotective and Promote Longevity
Reduce Symptoms of Depression

Bacopa monnieri commonly called as ‘Brahmi’ is a perennial herb belonging to Plantaginaceae family of the flowering plants. In India it has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine as memory enhancer. It is also used in treatment of anxiety, digestive disorders, asthma, bronchitis and heart problems.

Where can I buy Bacopa Monnieri in Dubai, UAE?

You can buy Bacopa Monnieri in Dubai – as well as many other nootropics from Nootropix.

Further Readings

  1. Ashwagandha
  2. Ginkgo biloba
  3. Lion’s Mane Mushroom
  4. Rhodiola Rosea
  5. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

Sulbutiamine is a nootropic that boosts energy levels and reduces fatigue. It's an ideal choice on days when you're feeling tired, slow, or hungover. Furthermore, Sulbutiamine elevates mood and has a substantial impact on memory.

Overview

What is Sulbutiamine?

Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion) is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). In France, it is used to treat symptoms of weakness or fatigue. It also sells as a dietary supplement. 

A discovery from Japan as part of an effort to develop useful thiamine derivatives. [R]

It is an upgraded version of vitamin B1. Japanese researchers developed it in the 1960s while trying to address a growing vitamin B1 deficiency in the Japanese population. [R]

Sulbutiamine supplement is unusually bioavailable — in other words, you absorb it very well, and unlike standard vitamin B1, sulbutiamine passes through your blood-brain barrier, supplying your brain with the precious B vitamin.[R]

Benefits and Effects

What Are Sulbutiamine Benefits?

  1. Decreases Fatigue and Improves Mood
  2. Relieves Anxiety, Depression
  3. Boosts Motivation
  4. Enhances Memory
  5. Improves Sexual Health & Performance

Supporting research:

Decreases Fatigue, Improves Mood

Several extensive studies have found that sulbutiamine significantly increases energy in people who are feeling fatigued. Sulbutiamine benefits Increase energy & stamina.

Enerion was used in the treatment of 40 patients with psychovegetative syndrome and asthenia. Before treatment, the patients have pronounced asthenia appearances, anxiety disorders, relevant autonomic disorders, mild depression and decrease of working capacity, attention concentration and memory. The treatment conducted as monotherapy during 28 days with enerion dosage 400 mg/day. After treatment, expression of autonomic and asthenic disorders was reduced significantly, along with improvement of psychometric and neurophysiological indices. High efficacy of the medication was in 75% of the patients and moderate one–in 25%.

PMID: 14628585

Relieves Anxiety, Depression, and Social Avoidance

Sulbutiamine has no antidepressive effect but it can hasten the resorption of psycho-behavioural inhibition occurring during major depressive disorder and thereby facilitate the rehabilitation of patients in their social, professional and family life functioning. [R]

Boosts Motivation

There is also some evidence that sulbutiamine increases dopamine and glutamate in your prefrontal cortex, which links to increased motivation and good mood. [R]

It has a growing number of fans in the nootropic community, many of whom report improved mood and heightened mental endurance.

Impact on Memory

Sulbutiamine is made up of two vitamin B1 molecules attached together, which could explain its effect on memory. Vitamin B1 plays an essential role in acetylcholine synthesis in your brain. In fact, it’s the only vitamin that regulates acetylcholine levels, keeping them from getting too low or too high. [R]

What is Acetylcholine?

Acetylcholine is a substance found throughout your nervous system, that acts as a neurotransmitter. Your brain uses most of its acetylcholine to control your muscles, which could explain why taking sulbutiamine helps so much with fatigue. But acetylcholine also plays a key part in memory; it helps you consolidate new memories and remember old ones.” [R]

Improves Sexual Performance

Sulbutiamine treatment for 30 days restored sexual performance in 16 patients out of 20 (open-label) with erectile dysfunction (caused by psychological issues) [R]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Sulbutiamine Work?

Sulbutiamine is a molecule which is two Thiamine (B1) molecules linking together, similar to how Pyritinol is two Pyridoxine (B6) molecules link together.

Sulbutiamine is a isobutyryl thiamine disulfide and sometimes goes by its brand names of Ereon or Arcalion. It is most commonly in use for Asthenia, or weakness (part neurological and part myopathic) as well as treatment of somatic and psychic inhibition. It doesn't possess psychostimulant properties, although it is designed to act centrally (in the brain). [1]

Sulbutiamine synthesizes from Thiamine, where after the opening of the thiazole ring of Thiamine and dimerization to a disulfide compound it is then esterified. [2]

Sulbutiamine is a fat-soluble molecule that crosses the blood-brain barrier more readily than thiamine. Once in your brain, it increases levels of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is directly involving in the citric acid cycle in the brain.

This cycle breaks fatty acids, amino acids, and monosaccharides into smaller molecules that produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy for your mitochondria. And provide the building blocks of the electrons needed to generate brain cells. 

Dosage

How To Take Sulbutiamine?

Sulbutiamine supplement recommendation dose is 400mg. However, caution is necessary in regards to cycling sulbutiamine and not supplementing on daily basis.

Sulbutiamine dosage: 200-600 mg/day, taken in the morning. Sulbutiamine is fat-soluble (in fact, that’s the reason it can pass the blood-brain barrier and have all these nootropic properties), so be sure you take it with a fat source; otherwise, you won’t absorb it. [R]

Stack

Effective Sulbutiamine Stack

It’s quite rare to find recommendations of stacking sulbutiamine and out of all that I have come across, I think the best stack, or at least one that I would personally consider, is sulbutiamine, aniracetam, and choline stack. For example:

Sulbutiamine 200mg
Aniracetam 750mg
Alpha-GPC 300mg

Aniracetam & choline stack has been one of the most effective I have ever tried. Sulbutiamine supposedly stacks well with racetams and is a common choice due to similarities of effects on cognitive function. [R]

Side Effects

What Are Sulbutiamine Side Effects?

At standard doses (200-1000 mg), side effects could include a headache, nausea, and trouble sleeping.

People doing self-experiments with sulbutiamine, though, occasionally report anxiety and negative thoughts from taking higher doses (most of these side effects showed up around 1000-2000 mg). Others say they feel anxiety from taking sulbutiamine for too long without a break. [R]

User Experience

Reddit

Here is a sulbutiamine Reddit user experience from someone who's ADD (high five!) and prescribed Adderall:

…I only heard about nootropics for the first time around 9 months ago. Used to take Adderall for many years, but quit over 5 years ago because it was causing daily headaches and I suspected it was causing my chronic insomnia.

I have legit ADD, as well as what I would call brain fog, low level depression, lack of motivation. I've taken sulbutiamine a few times, and I have really good results with it. I only take it occasionally, when I have a big project I need to get done (because I don't want it to stop working, like I've read that it will if you take it often). I took it today because I had a lot of organization tasks I needed to do, and since I hate these kinds of tasks, I often lack motivation to start or complete them.

When I take my capsule, I can actually feel it start to kick in around 20-30 minutes after taking it. It reminds me a lot of how Adderall worked/felt but without that unexplainable “buzzy” feeling. I felt motivated and energized, and really got into my work. Just thought I'd share for any other noobs out there who haven't tried it yet.

Conclusion

If you decide to use sulbutiamine, be sure to cycle it. When you don’t take the occasional day off from sulbutiamine, it’s likely you’ll build a tolerance to its effects, and the sulbutiamine will stop working unless you increase the dose. [R]

Experiment is key to finding the dosage and cycle that's just right for you and your body composition.

Its a great choice to consider on days where you need extra mental functionality.

Sulbutiamine is becoming more and more popular in the biohacking community. If you’re curious, give it a try and see how you feel.

Further Readings

  1. Agmatine Sulfate
  2. Bacopa Monnieri
  3. Melatonin

Rhodiola Rosea is a naturally growing flower plant from the wild Arctic regions of Europe, widely used in Chinese, Scandinavian and Russian traditional medicine. It is believed to be the perfect remedy for fatigue and burnouts. Moreover, Rhodiola is useful for the brain; protecting it from toxin damage as well as boosting memory and productivity.

Overview

What is Rhodiola Rosea?

Rhodiola Rosea is thought to be the perfect remedy for fatigue and burnout. It is useful for the brain, protecting it from toxin damage, and boosting memory capacity as well as productivity. Recent research confirms that this high-altitude herb prevents the harmful effects of stress by restoring energy, improving mood, and enhancing cognition. Furthermore, Rhodiola seems to promote longevity, combat fatigue, reduce anxiety, in addition to serving as a general neuroprotectant.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Rhodiola Rosea Benefits?

  1. Minimizes Fatigue
  2. Promotes Cognitive Enhancement
  3. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  4. Reduces Symptoms of Mild Depression
  5. Neuroprotective

Supporting research:

Minimizes Fatigue

Rhodiola is an excellent fatigue fighter. Typically decreasing the harmful physical and mental consequences of minor physical exhaustion (R). It is most useful in combating the kind of fatigue produced by prolonged repetitive low-intensity exertion or extended periods of stress (R). It is observed to increase the length of active exercise time [R], but opinions vary on whether it improves athletic performance from intense exertion.

While Rhodiola may be minimally competent as a performance enhancer for athletes [R], it can be extremely of use for students, late workers, and individuals who need to keep going with everyday life after fatigue gets the best of them. Rhodiola relieves many physical symptoms of fatigue, even diminishing them. Of such example are muscle aches, soreness, feelings of exhaustion, headaches, and sleepiness (R).

Promotes Cognitive Enhancement

Rhodiola is proven to address many of the cognitive symptoms of fatigue; including irritability, impaired judgment or decision-making ability, and declining brain capacity (R). A vast number of clinical trials continuously indicate this herb notably increases cognitive skills. It improves the memory, increases motivation, and also increase the capacity to endure more challenging work (R).  Many consider Rhodiola a powerful fatigue-independent nootropic, and its potential cognitive benefits remain under a lot of clinical trials.

The most intriguing trials involved a group of healthy physicians on night duty over a period of six weeks (R). The double-blind placebo-controlled study revealed that the participants receiving Rhodiola outscored those receiving placebo on several complex mental capabilities. That included associative thought, short-term memory, calculation, concentration, keen speed, and overall level of mental fatigue. (R)

Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Recent studies on Rhodiola add to its well-earned reputation as an excellent adaptogen aiding the body to achieve systemic balance and restore itself to normal function after exposure to stress (R). This therapeutic process is a valuable benefit for users who frequently deal with intense situations, hectic schedules, and high expectations, which seems to describe the average 9 to 5 person in most developing cities today.

Furthermore, clinical trials involving participants with chronic stress symptoms exhibit measurable improvements in all stress marks across the board; low energy, headache, muscular aches and discomfort, depression, mood swings, and sleep disorders (R).

In another double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of students taking exams; Rhodiola shows to considerably improve general well-being and physical fitness, reduce mental fatigue, and improve scores on a battery of neuro-motoric tests (R). The students taking Rhodiola were scoring  8.4% higher on their exams in comparison to students on placebo. (R)

Reduces Symptoms of Mild Depression

Rhodiola has potential as a reliable and efficient treatment for mild depression (R). Research remains ongoing, but clinical trials indicate that twice-daily doses of Rhodiola resulted in a significant lessening of depression, insomnia, emotional instability and other symptoms in patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression. (R)

Neuroprotective

Many enzymes in Rhodiola have potent antioxidant properties (R). Not only do these enzymes guard neurons against oxidative damage and prolong cell life, but they also represent a potential therapy for neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease, which is defined by significant oxidative stress and neuronal damage[R]. Animal studies show that Rhodiola can reduce oxidative damage to the cellular mitochondria and therefore has the potential to of being a decent addition to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. [R]

Though research is ongoing and results remain uncertain, Rhodiola still has the possibility of being a remedy for a broad scope of conditions, including high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, heart disease, cancer, and longevity.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Rhodiola Rosea Work?

It seems to act primarily by modulating a variety of signaling pathways and molecular networks in the brain. It affects this modulation to no small extent via many phytochemical components.

These components help to prevent the removal of serotonin and dopamine; primarily chemicals associated with making us feel happy. It also increases the availability of epinephrine and norepinephrine, compounds related to giving us drive and energy. Through these alterations, Rhodiola positively impacts mood, reduces fatigue perception, and enhances cognitive abilities.

Rhodiola promotes movements for chemicals in our brain, improving processing and reaction time. It also helps with stress system by suppressing the cortisol (stress-inducing hormone) and promoting beta-endorphins and opiate peptides (stress reducing hormones).

Dosage

How To Take Rhodiola Rosea?

Safe and effective at doses ranging from 50 mg to 680 mg daily. It is best to take on an empty stomach, in a periodic cycle, thereby preventing tolerance build up.

A 100 mg dose effectively improves memory and focus, but a 400 mg is more effective at relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Side Effects

What Are Rhodiola Rosea Side Effects?

Rhodiola is generally safe and non-addictive at moderate doses (50 mg – 680 mg daily) for a period up to 10 weeks. The most common side effects are mild to moderate dizziness, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, nausea, restlessness, and increased libido. Those side effects exist in consuming high doses. Therefore, it is essential to start with the minimum effective dose and increase as needed.

Conclusion

Rhodiola as a tonic has become a tradition at this point after maintaining its reputation for generations. Moreover, it is still growing in popularity today as we learn more about its potential uses and capabilities. It is a powerful adaptogen and reliable neuroprotectant that help manage the adverse effects of stress. Therefore, it is a great supplement to consider for individuals interested in pushing up mental and physical performance to the optimum.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Rhodiola the best adaptogen nootropic?

Rhodiola rosea has a large number of beneficial qualities that make it an excellent herb for you to use to aid your health. It is one of the best herbs for stress. It is not only an adaptogen, but it is also an antidepressant and an antioxidant, as well as being one of the herbs to aid a viral infection.
It is the rhodiola rosea root that is used to make herbal remedies, that are powerful aids for heart problems. Its active ingredients are cardio-protective and anti-arrhythmic, meaning that it protects you from irregular heart beats.
The root of this plant has been in use in Siberia, Russia and China for around two thousand years. It is one of the adaptogenic herbs that only grows in certain locations at high elevations in mountainous regions.
It has an excellent action to aid mental alertness and to help fatigue. It is also helpful to stimulate your memory and to help protect your liver from chemical damage.

Can Rhodiola Rosea be taken while taking antidepressants or SSRI's like Sertraline (Zoloft, etc.)?

Rhodiola Rosea does seem promising, but as there is still insufficient evidence on the safety of this combination, I would strongly advise you to consult your psychiatrist first, before combining Zoloft with it. There is a potential for adverse drug interactions when combining SSRI antidepressants with Rhodiola, the latter of which has strong MAOI effects.
It should also be noted that Rhodeola Rosea can inhibit the CYP3A4 enzyme in the liver; although these were in-vitro studies, the potential exists for in-vivo inhibitions. Whilst this enzyme plays a minor role in the metabolism of Zoloft, it plays a large role in the metabolism of many other psychotropics.

Further Readings

  1. Bacopa Monnieri
  2. Cordyceps Mushroom
  3. Lion's Mane Mushroom
  4. Melatonin

Pramiracetam drew a lot of attention after a study showing an outstanding success rate of 96% in reversing amnesia, surpassing Piracetam. It boosts cognition and improves memory, increases concentration, learning capacity, and supports engaging in – and maintaining – prolonged focus.

Overview

What is Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is one of the best-selling nootropics today due to being the highest in potency out of all racetam nootropics.

It has a distinctive mechanism of action that allows for efficient utilization of brain capabilities, thereby improving memory recall, learning capacity, concentration, and focus. Serves as an excellent supplement on its own and furthermore, a powerful potentiator to other nootropics, intensifying as well as prolonging effects. It is quickly rising towards a well-deserving reputation for its profound effects.

A synthetic derivative of piracetam, Pramiracetam is an invention of Parke-Davis from the 1970s. It is a highly effective nootropic, up to 30 times more potent than piracetam. It is marketed in Europe under brand names Neupramir, Pramistar, and Remen; often as a prescription for individuals with dyslexia, ADHD, dementia, and memory impairment due to neurodegenerative conditions. It was a patent in the US in 1979 but without the support nor the approval of the US FDA.

Regardless, it is popularly used off-label as a different approach to cognitive challenges and memory impairments. Its also undergoing further trials as a potential treatment for a variety of nervous system disorders.

Pramiracetam is a central nervous system stimulant and nootropic agent belonging to the racetam family of drugs. It is marketed by Menarini under the brand name Pramistar as a treatment for memory and attention deficits in aging people with neurodegenerative and vascular dementias in Italy and some Eastern European countries. – Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Benefits?

  1. Enhances Overall Cognitive Function
  2. Enhances and Supports Memory
  3. Reduces Depression and Anxiety
  4. Increases Learning Capacity
  5. Increases Sense of Clarity
  6. Promotes Social Fluency
  7. Enhances Sensory Perception
  8. Aids Memory Restoration

Supporting research:

Enhances Overall Cognitive Function

Pramiracetam optimizes brain performance and produces noticeable cognitive enhancement, especially regarding memory, in both formation of as well as consolidation. Due to the euphoric-like focus, it induces along with a sense of “emotional blunting,” users report the feel of it being comparable to Ritalin.

Enhances and Supports Memory

Due to stimulating the hippocampus, the section of the cerebellum that's accountable toward the formation of new memories, pramiracetam is raising in acknowledgment as a sharp memory enhancer. Users report significant improvement in memory formation and speed of recall; a claim confirmed by animal studies. (R)

Additionally, extensive studies find that it significantly improves long-term memory, and able to reverse amnesia to surprising levels. The findings of that study led to the synthesizing and production the drug.  (R) (R)

Reduces Depression and Anxiety

Pramiracetam reports show it improves cognitive deficits associating with traumatic brain injuries. Studies demonstrate and confirm its neuroprotective effects. Studies show that its overall impact on lowering symptoms of depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. Nevertheless, it was beneficial for both. (R)

Increases Learning Capacity

Users allegedly report pramiracetam makes learning faster, more efficient, as well as more pleasant. Such finding can be explained, at least in part, by pramiracetam facilitation of higher neuroplasticity and support of long-term memory. The latter seems to be more accurate as per the following study: (R)

Increases Sense of Clarity

Anecdotal reports from the nootropic community tell that pramiracetam provides them with a strong sense of mental awareness, clarity, with a deeper understanding of life; similar to many of those reporting the same effects from piracetam.

Promotes Social Fluency

Furthermore, a lot of people taking pramiracetam report enjoying socializing whereas before, they avoided social settings for lack of interest. This could be due to the cognitive boost or the emotional blunting effect, which is likely to reduce social anxieties. (R)

Enhances Sensory Perception

Another report backed by a clinical study shows that pramiracetam indeed enhances sensory perception and heightens observation. That is including amplified and more vibrant sound and more precise, richer visual perception with distinct color contrast. (R)

Aids Memory Restoration

In clinical experiments, pramiracetam has been noted to be an efficient remedy approach for memory impairment and other cognitive difficulties caused by brain injuries(R). It is also one of the various nootropics that are carried out to examine in the US as a potential treatment for memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease amongst other neurological disorders. There is a study that shows it to be capable of reversing chemically produced amnesia in healthy volunteers of 18-65 years of age. (R)

Mechanism of Action

How Does Pramiracetam Work?

Similar to several nootropics, pramiracetam affects the release of neurotransmitters, brain chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. Though pramiracetam performs it indirectly, in different fashion than that of other racetams, and it excites the brain in different methods as well. Pramiracetam is fat-soluble which means the bloodstream absorbs it via fatty acids. It reaches peak concentrations and highest bioavailability, usually within 30 minutes, and has a somewhat long half-life of 4 to 6 hours.

Racetams work by directly stimulating neurotransmitter receptor sites, thus increasing production and release of specific neurotransmitters. However;  pramiracetam doesn't directly produce alterations in neurochemical levels, neither does it seem to possess an affinity for any vital neurotransmitter.

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter thoroughly engaging in cognitive processes including learning pace, thought recall, and attention. By inciting choline uptake, it indirectly modulates the release of acetylcholine and triggers increased activity within the hippocampus. Due to this part of the brain being crucial to revival function, the generalized stimulation that pramiracetam formulates can enhance both the creation of new memories and the retention of reference or long-term memories.

Cerebral Blood Flow

The improving action in the hippocampus also improves cerebral blood flow, which enhances attentiveness and boosts cognitive capabilities. Besides, Pramiracetam has additional mechanisms of action. Neuroscientists hypothesize that in addition to influencing the brain, pramiracetam serves outer sections that rely upon the adrenal glands. (R)

Concerning Membrane Fluidity

Animal studies imply that pramiracetam may additionally improve or repair brain membrane fluidity, which promotes cell signaling (R). Pramiracetam does not seem to alter either alertness or emotional states actively. This advantage is understandable by pramiracetam low impact on the generation and release neurotransmitters that possess the most notable results on tranquility, stress, and anxiety levels such as serotonin, GABA, and dopamine.

Dosage

How To Take Pramiracetam?

Recommended Pramiracetam dosage is 1200 mg per day, split into two 600 mg or three 400 mg doses throughout the day.

This is the lowest effective dose. On an individual level, it should be adjusted as required to accomplishing the desired effect.

Currently, the evidence using pramiracetam in humans uses either 400mg thrice daily or 600mg twice daily; both of these dosing regimens totals 1,200mg of pramiracetam daily.

It is unsure if pramiracetam should be taken with meals, and it is not clear if 1,200mg is the optimal dosage or not. This does, however, does appear effective. – Examine

Side Effects

What Are Pramiracetam Side Effects?

Studies testing Pramiracetam doses found it to be safe and not causing any side effects at doses of 400 mg and up to 1,600 mg (R).

Furthermore, a study concerning Alzheimer's disease shows it's safe even at doses as high as 4,000 mg. (R)

Headache may occur due to low acetylcholine levels in the brain. Therefore, it is wise to pair racetams drugs with a choline source (such as Alpha-GPC).

Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, they will furthermore work synergistically together firing cognitive function. [R]

Conclusion

Pramiracetam is a powerful nootropic that is relatively new to many of the nootropics community.

Yet is rapidly attaining a well-deserved recognition. Due to having more complications in synthesizing, it costs more than most other racetams.

Users often complain about that, however, the distinct potency proposes that lower doses are required to achieve the results.

Users also have mixed reactions to the Ritalin-like emotional blunting outcome of the supplement. For some, it creates refreshing objectivity and easing of social anxiety, while others find it makes them feel somewhat disengaged.

Pramiracetam is generally unique nootropic, notably enhancing memory creation and recollection, learning pace, and overall mental clarity. It's usually a worthy addition to nootropic stacks.

Often existing there as an agent for prolonging their effects. Pramiracetam is safe, effective, fast-acting, and reasonably long-lasting.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where to Buy Pramiracetam?

Pramiracetam is available on many vendors if you simply do a quick Google search. If I had to pick one of the many choices, I would recommend Nootropics Depot because I have personally used almost every racetam they offer, and I trust their product quality.

Where Can I Buy Pramiracetam in Dubai?

You can buy Pramiracetam 300mg Capsules as well as many other nootropics in Dubai from Nootropix.

Can You Snort Pramiracetam?

Although it is reportedly possible, it’s not recommended due to the large powder amount required as well as the associated pain. Unlike certain substances that yield results with small amount, snorting Pramiracetam wouldn’t be worth the effort.

How Long Does Pramiracetam Last?

Pramiracetam reaches its peak concentration in about 30 minutes after ingestion and has an average half-life of 5 hours.

What Does Pramiracetam Do?

Pramiracetam enhances memory formation and memory recall, increases learning ability, reduces social anxiety, and could potentially treat amnesia as well as prevent neurodegeneration.

When to Take Pramiracetam?

Ideally, the best timing to take Pramiracetam would be once after breakfast, and another dose after lunch, keeping a 5-hour time interval between the two dosages.

How to Take Pramiracetam?

Although it is recommended to take Pramiracetam after food for optimal absorption, it can still be taken without food. So if absorption is your concern, it does not matter much. It depends on your personal preference.v

How Long Does Pramiracetam Last?

On average, Pramiracetam effect lasts somewhere between 4 to 6 hours.

How Much Choline to Take with Pramiracetam?

Personally, I would take and recommend 300 mg of Alpha-GPC with each Pramiracetam dose. If you prefer Citicoline instead (as the choline source) then the recommended dosage would be 250 mg.

For more Frequently Asked Questions, check out the following pages:

  1. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ List
  2. Racetams 101: Guide & FAQs

Further Readings

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Sunifiram
  3. Oxiracetam
  4. Fasoracetam
  5. Coluracetam
  6. Citicoline (CDP-choline)
  7. Noopept

Piracetam is a designer nootropic that enhances cognitive brain function. It's the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.https://youtu.be/3A2yTpzFirU

Overview

What is Piracetam?

Piracetam (also known as Nootropil) is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It's been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.

Nootropics such as AniracetamPhenylpiracetam, FasoracetamSunifiram and Pramiracetam are all derivatives of this compound.

“Synthetic molecule designed to enhance brain function. Piracetam is the basic ‘racetam' molecule of a family of related compounds” Examine

Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. 

It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. 

Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.

“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.” Wikipedia

Benefits and Effects

What Are Piracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Enhances Cognitive Function
  3. Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
  4. Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
  5. Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
  6. Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
  7. Helps with Schizophrenia

Supporting research:

Improves Memory

Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. 

In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. 

However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. 

Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result. [1] [2]

Enhances Cognitive Function

There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. 

Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. 

While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. 

Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits. [3] [4] [5]

Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration

Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. 

In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. 

Prevention is of often the best medicine there is. [6] [7]

Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought

There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. 

In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. 

Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. [8]

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression

In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. 

It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. 

However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. 

Use with caution. 

With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social [9] [10] – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)

Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics

Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. 

In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. 

Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time. [11] [12]

Helps with Schizophrenia

Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. 

Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus. [13] [14]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Piracetam Work?

Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. 

Piracetam' mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. 

Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. 

Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.

“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).

Piracetam Nootropic
Piracetam Skeletal Structure

The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.

Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. 

It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine

Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. 

Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. 

Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. 

Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.

Dosage

How to Take Piracetam?

Typically, the Piracetam dosage for adults is between between 1,200 to 4,800 mg per day.

The most effective and agreed upon Piracetam dose is 1,600 mg. It can be taken once per day, or up to three times per day, totaling a maximum of 4,800 mg per day.

If new to Piracetam and taking it for the first time, start with 1,600 mg and wait and observe your reaction to it. 

Few hours later, you can choose whether you want to take another dose, or if one is enough for your needs.

For optimal results pair it with 300mg of Alpha GPCCDP-choline, or your choline source of choice.

Side Effects

What Are Piracetam Side Effects?

Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. [15]

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them.

Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-GPC, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.

Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. [16]

User Experience

Reddit

A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:

So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i've never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions.

I've lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i'ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety.

With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me.

Now I focus on what is important and I don't care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I've started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions.

I've also noted i'm more honest and don't feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour.

I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i've been an asshole my whole life) Even so I'm still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they're only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself.

Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don't have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.

Reddit II

So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.)

But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn't expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.

Conclusion

Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.

Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Piracetam Legal in the US?

It’s legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.

What's the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”

Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”

What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?

Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked’ in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.

What is the correct way to take Piracetam?

“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”

Why does piracetam take so long to act?

Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down’s syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.

Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?

The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:

1. Enhance some form of cognition.
2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

For the first Qualifier:

Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.

Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focusmemory, and learning.

Second Qualifier:

Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]

Where can I buy Piracetam and Nootropil in Dubai, UAE?

Nootropix offers 30 & 60ct jars of Piracetam capsules in Dubai, and the UAE.

All products are lab-tested and verified for both product purity and identity. If you buy Piracetam capsules from our shop, expect it to ship within 24 hours for orders placed within Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and the UAE.

Phenylpiracetam is a potent and fast-acting racetam type nootropic. It enhances cognitive abilities and boosts physical strength, stamina, energy, as well as reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety. Being stimulatory, it is banned by the Olympics Anti-Doping committee to the participating athletes.

Overview

What is Phenylpiracetam?

Phenylpiracetam (also known, and sold under the brand name Phenotropil) is one of the most effective, most efficient and most potent racetam nootropics which is widely used, and have been available on the market for many years. With the safe and effective use, many regards Phenylpiracetam a “lifesaver” and “faithful companion” in times of need. Quite dramatic descriptions.

Although it is a new nootropic in comparison to classic racetams such as Piracetam, over the past few years, it gained popularity due to its practical use.

Phenylpiracetam – as the name indicates, is a derivative of piracetam, with the phenyl addition. Which is why it shares so many properties with piracetam. However, it seems to be much more powerful. It is anywhere between 30 to 60 times more potent, and therefore effective, in its action.

Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil, Carphedon) is a scarcely studied piracetam derivative. It's notable for its stimulatory subjective effects. It appears on the list of banned substances for Olympic sports. In-vitro experiments suggest phenylpiracetam binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In animal models phenylpiracetam seems to increase NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density, which may suggest it has potential as a cognitive enhancer.[204] Similarly, in animal experiments phenylpiracetam seems to exert anti-depressant effects. [111] No studies have been done to show phenylpiracetam improves cognitive performance in otherwise healthy individuals. Phenylpiracetam seems to be the most stimulatory piracetam derivative.

Reddit's Begginer Guide

Piracetam vs Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam is the same chemical structure of Piracetam, but with the addition of a large phenyl grouping off the 4 position of the pyrrolidone ring that all racetams share. Phenylpiracetam has very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble. The LogP of Phenylpiracetam is .16, and its solubility in water is 1-2mg/ml at 25 Celsius. The melting point of phenylpiracetam is 149-152 Celsius. Phenylpiracetam also has a stereocenter, meaning it can come in both R and L enantiomers. All phenylpiracetam available is racemic, or a 50/50 mixture of both enantiomers.

For the sake of illustration, and to paint the idea well, look at the two following picture. First comes the piracetam skeletal formula, or chemical structure:

phenylpiracetam piracetam
Piracetam skeletal formula

Second is Phenylpiracetam skeletal formula, in which you see Piracetam above the red line, and under the line is the phenyl addition, making it into phenylpiracetam:

phenylpiracetam piracetam
Phenyl-piracetam skeletal formula

The phenyl addition on its own:

phenylpiracetam piracetam

phenyl-phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam is quite popular for its neuroprotective properties which are the dominant feature of many racetam nootropics. But in comparison to piracetam, its neuroprotective attributes are more effective.

It is also psychostimulatory, in other words, it is a stimulant. For that reason, Phenylpiracetam enhances physical performance, which is the primary reason behind its increased consumption among athletes.

Due to these attributes, Phenylpiracetam has become a favorite amongst other nootropics, and its sales have also increased over the past few years due to the positive response it keeps receiving.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Phenylpiracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Cognitive Function, Memory, and Attention
  2. Reduces Anxiety and Depression
  3. Boosts Energy and Increases Physical Mobility
  4. Enhances Physical Performance
  5. Additional Benefits of Phenylpiracetam

Supporting research:

Improves Cognitive Function, Memory, and Attention

In studies of subjects with cognitive impairment, phenylpiracetam improves cognitive function and enhances overall memory impressively after a month of treatment. The study's abstract notes:

“Ninety-nine patients with encephalopathy developed in the remote period after acute lesions of cerebral blood circulation, brain traumas and cerebral gliomas surgery have been studied. Phenotropil was used in a dosage of 200 mg per day during one month.

A CT survey revealed that in a stable state of brain changes phenotropil exerted the mostly pronounced influence on movement disturbances: decreased an extent of pareses in limb and face muscles, improved motor coordination, higher brain functions, memory, attention, counting.” [1]

Reduces Anxiety and Depression

In the same study, one of the revelations in the state of brain changes that Phenylpiracetam caused were:

  • Higher mobility and daily activity
  • Lower and less feelings of discomfort
  • Lower anxiety
  • Reduction depression

“Patients exhibited higher mobility and daily activity, along with lower discomfort, anxiety and depression. EEG study showed more intensive alpha- and beta-rhythms, a decrease of paroxysmal activity and slow waves as well as a general tendency to its normalization.” [2]

Boosts Energy and Increases Physical Mobility

A study patient with chronic fatigue syndrome finds that a one-month treatment of phenylpiracetam reduces fatigue notably.

The study included 1170 patients with brain ischemia, aged 45-65 years, treated with phenotropil in dose 100 mg during 2 and 3 months. Clinical examination and MFI-20 subscales were administered.

The results of the study:

“The high incidence of asthenic syndrome was observed across all MFI-20 subscales. The decrease in asthenic syndrome severity was significant already in the end of the first month of treatment with phenotropil. Such dynamics maintained to the end of the second and third month of treatment. More than 2-fold decrease in the severity of asthenia symptoms was achieved in all subgroups 3 months after treatment. More rapid and apparent decrease in asthenic syndrome was observed in younger patients.” [3]

Furthermore, a notable increasing of movement and physical activity is seen in this study, though it is conducted on rodents. The abstract of the study reads:

“Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil).” [4]

Enhances Physical Performance

Here is another very interesting rodent study in which Phenylpiracetam was found to increase the speed and distance traveled during an open-race test. Some of the highlights of that study:

“After a single administration, it increased locomotor and antidepressant activity in the open‐field and forced swimming tests, respectively, as well as enhanced memory in the PAR test. Racemic phenotropil and S‐phenotropil also stimulated locomotor activity and induced some antidepressant effect after acute administration.”

It's quite an interesting, and extensive study. You may find the study here: [5]

Additional Benefits

Anecdotal reports claim It was used by Russian soldiers and astronauts to achieve high physical strength and mental abilities. Although it makes sense and I do believe it personally, those studies are very hard to find due to having taken place a very long time ago, and in another period of time, and another language (Russian).

Mechanism of Action

How Does Phenylpiracetam Work?

Phenylpiracetam is a piracetam which comes with a phenyl group attached to it. It has similar functions and potency as that of piracetam, which is its parent molecule. However, the addition of the phenyl group has increased its effectiveness in many ways which have led to the increased usage and exposure of Phenylpiracetam in the market.

Furthermore, it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Thus it has CNS effects. Most users compare its impact to that of Adderall and modafinil. It is more potent than other racetams and has a high bioavailability, making it a great first line agent to take in case if you are having an exhaustive day ahead.

Its half-life is about 3-5 hours.

No mechanism is in the documentation for the action it produces and the way it processes them and makes them work. However, it has energy and performance boosting properties, and it has a close resemblance to phenyl-ethylamine, which has stimulatory effects. Phenylpiracetam has a close affinity with neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

Dosage

How To Take Phenylpiracetam?

The general Phenylpiracetam dose is usually 100 to 200 mg per dose, and can be taken in up to 2 to 3 doses per day at max. Although I wouldn't go that far myself. The higher end is often for specific conditions and are less frequent than the lower end dosage.

Personally, I prefer taking one 200 mg dose, once only. The effects are much more present and pleasing at that dosage. I feel like anything more than 200mg would be too stimulatory for me, especially given that I often take it along with other nootropics as part of a stack.

Its also important to note that Phenylpiracetam tolerance builds up quickly. Therefore, minimize your use to when you need it rather than making it a part of a daily stack. Once to twice per week is a good practice.

A little bit more science from Examine.com about recommended dosage, active amounts, and other details:

Phenylpiracetam is taken at a dosage of 100-200mg acutely, and this dose is taken 2-3 times per day (totalling a daily range of 200-600mg). The lower range seems effective, but the optimal dosage is not yet known.

The R-isomer appears to be more active on the common usages of phenylpiracetam (stimulation and cognition) than does the S-isomer, and while the racemic mixture (commonly sold version) is effective for cognitive decline it is not certain if it works for nootropic purposes in youth.

Side Effects

What Are Phenylpiracetam Side Effects?

The major issues and side effects that appear with Phenylpiracetam are the same that occur with other racetams.

The most common side effect of Phenylpiracetam is a headache. which is due to the choline reserves depletion. Using a choline source such as Alpha-GPC or Citicoline would quickly resolve the issue.

Due to that, I try to always pair Phenylpiracetam and a choline source together instead of waiting to see whether or not I am going to have a headache. That, plus I wouldn't mind the potentiating boost of the additional choline.

Rarely reported side effects are related to the GI tract, such as digestion issues, and constipation.

User Experience

Nootropics Depot

“This is a great product, don't get me wrong. Personally, however, my tolerance built up almost instantaneously. First use was wonderful, worked exactly as advertised. Took it a second time 2 days later. Still felt the effects, but was noticeably diminished. Waited a week before taking it again and felt like that first use. Decided to take it the very next day and felt it somewhat, but hardly. Abstained for a week and decided to take 2 in the morning. The effects were comparable to the first time. Took the same dose 3 days later and didn't notice the effects at all. Waited a week before taking it again, took two again and felt the effects like the previous week but it wore off rather quickly. Since then I've only taken it once a week in the latter part of the day when I work a double at my job. This product definitely works, but in my opinion should be used very sparingly. I acknowledge the fact that I tend to develop tolerance to most substances quickly, so if you consider yourself to have that same trait this review would likely apply to you.“

“Phenylpiracetam without a doubt works, and quite well at that. This was my introduction to the racetam family. I’m eager to try the others now, but wanted to start with one that provided an energy boost. I definitely picked the right one. Within an hour after use you will feel the effects, and they last around 5 hours for me. Sometimes I would take 2-3 capsules instead of 1, and it never made me feel jittery or anxious like too much caffeine would. Highly recommend this product if you are looking for a clean boost in energy and motivation. Works well along side caffeine in my opinion as well.“

“This is a great product, don't get me wrong. Personally, however, my tolerance built up almost instantaneously. First use was wonderful, worked exactly as advertised. Took it a second time 2 days later. Still felt the effects, but was noticeably diminished. Waited a week before taking it again and felt like that first use. Decided to take it the very next day and felt it somewhat, but hardly. Abstained for a week and decided to take 2 in the morning. The effects were comparable to the first time. Took the same dose 3 days later and didn't notice the effects at all. Waited a week before taking it again, took two again and felt the effects like the previous week but it wore off rather quickly. Since then I've only taken it once a week in the latter part of the day when I work a double at my job. This product definitely works, but in my opinion should be used very sparingly. I acknowledge the fact that I tend to develop tolerance to most substances quickly, so if you consider yourself to have that same trait this review would likely apply to you.“

Conclusion

Phenylpiracetam has attained the attention and popularity among the nootropic users for its powerful, dynamic impacts and effects. It is a potent activator of the CNS activities. Its ability to increase the energy and physical performance have made it a favorite for many in the field of study and sports as well. As time passes, these highly active ingredients are only going to gain more attention.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Phenylpiracetam used for?

Phenylpiracetam is more potent than piracetam and is used for a wider range of indications. In combination with a vasodilator drug, piracetam appeared to have an additive beneficial effect on various cognitive disabilities. [R]

Does Phenylpiracetam get you high?

Phenylpiracetam boosts memory, cognition level, stamina and energy levels. Having those benefits to someone who has deficiencies in one or more of them would lead him to experiencing a euphoric state, which many people may refer to as being high. Therefore, ultimately, the answer to the question of does phenylpiracetam get you high would be yes.

Is Phenylpiracetam a stimulant?

Phenylpiracetam boosts memory, cognition level, stamina and energy levels. Having those benefits to someone who has deficiencies in one or more of them would lead him to experiencing a euphoric state, which many people may refer to as being high. Therefore, ultimately, the answer to the question of does phenylpiracetam get you high would be yes.

Does Phenylpiracetam get you high?

Yes, in comparison to the general nootropics, Phenylpiracetam is considered to be stimulating nootropic. Moreover, Phenylpiracetam is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (Olympics) due to its reported psychostimulatory and cold resistance properties . But it is not a hard stimulant like amphetamines, methamphetamine, and other pharmaceutical & street drugs. It would be the better alternative – although its not recommended for day to day use due to quick tolerance-building. Ideally, taking Phenylpiracetam once to twice a week is the best way to use it without worrying about tolerance build-up or abuse potential.

Is Phenylpiracetam Legal?

Phenylpiracetam legality status depends on country to country basis. In the US, Phenylpiracetam is uncontrolled, unscheduled compound. Which means it is legal to buy and posses. While in Russia, Phenylpiracetam is a prescription drug (sold under brand name Phenotropil). Therefore, in Russia, you need a prescription to legally posses Phenylpiracetam.

How much Phenylpiracetam should I take?

The general Phenylpiracetam dose is usually 100 to 200 mg per dose, and can be taken in up to 2 to 3 doses per day at max. Although I wouldn’t go that far myself. The higher end is often for specific conditions and are less frequent than the lower end dosage. Personally, I prefer taking one 200 mg dose, once only. The effects are much more present and pleasing at that dosage. I feel like anything more than 200mg would be too stimulatory for me, especially given that I often take it along with other nootropics as part of a stack. It’s also important to note that Phenylpiracetam tolerance builds up quickly. Therefore, minimize your use to when you need it rather than making it a part of a daily stack. Once to twice per week is a good practice.

What is the best way to cycle Phenylpiracetam?

I would say limit the usage to once or twice per week as needed. Anything more than that would start the tolerance build-up. Another individual’s advise, from his personal experience: Avoid taking phenylpiracetam for more than two consecutive days. I’ve found that by day 3 tolerance develops, even if I’m taking low doses (e.g. 50 mg). A solid schedule might be taking phenylpiracetam every other day. Better yet, twice a week only.v

What does Phenylpiracetam stack with?

Aniracetam, low dose of Noopept, Alpha-Gpc, Lion’s Mane Mushroom. Many other nootropics as well if you are only taking one phenylpiracetam capsule of 150mg. But in general Phenylpiracetam stacks well with most nootropics. Though most frequently its stacked with cholinergics.

Why do many people prefer phenylpiracetam over Piracetam?

“It’s no secret that Phenylpiracetam is often preferred to Piracetam by some people. This is largely due to the fact that it is stronger than Piracetam. You see, phenylpiracetam was first synthesized in 1983 as a modification of the nootropic Piracetam. The primary alteration to Phenylpiracetam from its predecessor is the addition of a phenyl group– a small change that has made phenylpiracetam significantly more potent than Piracetam, even at much smaller dosages. Phenylpiracetam cognitive enhancing effects are reportedly achieved by increasing the density and number of acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA, and glutamate receptors in the brain. Through this mechanism, research suggests that Phenylpiracetam increases functional activity at the neurotransmitter binding sites most important for memory and cognition.” Also: The stimulant qualities, which disappear after regular use. I estimate it is at first like one strong cup of coffee, weakening on subsequent doses. I think that is the reason that phenylpiracetam hasn’t replaced piracetam altogether. The advantages of phenylpiracetam have to be weighed against the greater cost. For daily or at least regular use, the price point of plain piracetam is better.

What are Phenylpiracetam capsules?

Phenylpiracetam capsules is a nootropic compound derivative of the parent compound in the Racetam family, Piracetam. It was first created in 1983 by a team of Russian scientists, and has recently become more well-known outside of Russia. Phenylpiracetam differs from Piracetam in the addition of a bulk phenyl grouping off the 4 position on the 2-pyrrolidone base structure. A phenyl grouping is a six-sided cyclic ring consisting of benzene, minus a hydrogen, leaving an open carbon bond available. Phenylpiracetam has very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble. It has a molar mass of 218.3 g/mol and a molecular formula of C12H14N2O2. CAS: 77472-70-9 – IUPAC: (R,S)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide

What's the difference between Phenylpiracetam and Piracetam?

Phenylpiracetam is the same chemical structure of Piracetam, but with the addition of a large phenyl grouping off the 4 position of the pyrrolidone ring that all racetams share. Phenylpiracetam has very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble. The LogP of Phenylpiracetam is .16, and its solubility in water is 1-2mg/ml at 25 Celsius. The melting point of phenylpiracetam is 149-152 Celsius. Phenylpiracetam also has a stereocenter, meaning it can come in both R and L enantiomers. All phenylpiracetam available is racemic, or a 50/50 mixture of both enantiomers.

What is it like to combine modafinil with phenylpiracetam?

“If taken in in doses within the normal range then, anecdotally, you’re not likely to notice the phenylpiracetam. The subjective effects felt from a typically prescribed dose of Modafinil (or recommended dose of it’s alternative pro-drug cousin Adrafinil) are, in my experience, significantly more pronounced than those of any “racetam”. That said, anyone who can get what they need (be it an increase in vigilance and/or cognitive enhancement) from phenylpiracetam alone would do well to consider staying monogamous to that truer “cleaner” class of nootropic.”

How does taking Phenylpiracetam feel different from taking modafinil?

“I can’t disagree more with anyone who suggests the superiority of one over the other. Everyone reacts differently to subtances, even the exact same substance at the same dose delivered to folks of the same gender, body weight, age, whatever. The first rule is to understand this. Personally, I have the choice to take either, and I always take phenyl instead. Modafinil works well for me the first day, maybe the second, but it will burn me out very quickly. It makes me feel terrible fast. Phenyl doesn’t have this effect. Supplement with citicholine (or another choline source like centrophenoxine, alpha-GPC, or dietary choline) and fish oil (or DHA enhanced flax seed oil) to get the best effects. Take the choline source and the DHA source together, and take the phenylpiracetam an hour later. Try both if you can. I really hate provigil and nuvigil, Dexedrine is far more dangerous and unhealthy than pro/nuvigil or any racetam, but if its not going to become a habit it might be worth looking into. Dexedrine is about as strong as you can get without using crystal meth. Again, it may affect you terribly or in a great way. It depends on the brain, not the substance. Experiment responsibly.”

Does eating food effects Phenylpiracetam?

Eating a meal will likely hinder absorption with phenylpiracetam and especially noopept. I would recommend taking phenylpiracetam on an empty stomach (ie first thing in the morning). Noopept can be taken sublingually (under the tongue) and bypass the need to absorb it in your GI. It’s absorbed much more efficiently this way and it does not matter if you’ve recently eaten anything. If you’re asking if eating food while under the effects of phenylpiracetam or noopept, the answer is no.

What does phenylpiracetam synergize with?

Phenylpiracetam stacks well with most other nootropics. The most common type of nootropic that it’s stacked with is the cholinergics. And of the cholinergics, the most common ones taken with phenylpiracetam are Alpha-GPC and CDP-Choline. The reason for this is twofold: First, some people get headaches with phenylpiraceam and other racetams. It is thought that this side effect is caused by reduced acetylcholine levels. Taking a choline source with it increases acetylcholine levels in the brain, eliminating the headaches. The second reason that cholinergics go well with phenylpiracetam is that the latter works (in part) by affecting acetylcholine in the brain. By taking the former, you have more of this neurotransmitter for the phenylpiracatam to work with. This leads to a synergistic effect. Taking phenylpiracetam with either Alpha-GPC or CDP-Choline seems to be more effective than taking either of these by themselves.

Where can I buy Phenylpiracetam in Dubai, UAE?

Nootropix offers 30ct jars of Phenylpiracetam in Dubai, and the UAE.

All products are lab-tested and verified for both product purity and identity. If you buy Phenylpiracetam capsules from our shop, expect it to ship within 24 hours for orders placed within Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and the UAE.

Further Readings

Phenylpiracetam is one of a nootropic-family type called racetams. Some of which are:

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Piracetam
  3. Coluracetam
  4. Fasoracetam
  5. Pramiracetam
  6. Sunifiram

Other nootropics that might be of interest:

  1. Agmatine Sulfate
  2. Bacopa Monnieri