Anxiety

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OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanisms of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceFAQs

Summary: Agmatine is an amino acid that offers a wide of cognitive boosting benefits. It also has excellent effects on reducing neuropathic pain, as well as drug addiction habits. It is neuroprotectant and can reduce tolerance built to many medications like benzodiazepines, morphine, and other painkillers. It also synergizes with SSRI's & cannabis.

Agmatine Sulfate Youtube Video TTS

Overview

What is Agmatine Sulfate?

Agmatine is a form of amino acid that derives from L-Arginine. It has been shown to inhibit receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays a major role in memory and reasoning.

Agmatine supplement also regulates levels of Nitric Oxide by the affecting nitric oxide synthase enzyme. It controls cellular energy levels by influencing polyamine metabolism and function.

In some studies, it has been shown to enhance the effects of both morphine and fentanyl to increase pain killing, reduce tolerance, and lower addiction, as well as working synergistically with marijuana.

It is also found naturally in every day foods, including beer, wine, coffee, and other fermented foods.

Because it is capable of targeting multiple receptors, agmatine may benefit a spectrum of complex diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, opioid addiction, mood disorders, and even cancer. Furthermore, agmatine may enhance cognitive function, stress resiliency, mood, and athletic performance. The highest levels of agmatine are found in the gut, where it is produced by the microbes living there. It is also found in dietary form, mainly in fermented foods, and in supplemental form like agmatine sulfate. Agmatine is also produced in small amounts within the body by the mitochondria in the liver.

Benefits and Effects

What Are Agmatine Sulfate Benefits?

  1. Reduces Pain Sensitivity
  2. Reduces Symptoms of Anxiety & Depression
  3. Neuroprotection & Longevity
  4. Improves Weight Loss & Prevents Weight Gain
  5. Supports Muscle Growth
  6. Helps Erectile Dysfunction & Infertility
  7. Help with Alzheimer's Disease
  8. Helps Alcohol & Morphine Withdrawal

Supporting research:

Agmatine sulfate benefits the body and mind in many different ways and depending on the method it is taken. Some of the most notable agmatine benefits are:

Reduces Pain Sensitivity

In research studies, Agmatine shows to be an effective way for pain relief. Especially in the case of thermal hyperalgesia, a condition where the body is sensitive to changes in temperatures. The body becomes hypersensitive to heat or cold.

Agmatine improves those pain sensations, which is a result of its pro-circulations effect.

In studies looking at pain reduction in neuropathic conditions or inflammatory pain, agmatine was not found to produce a statistically significant effect. However, anecdotal, first-hand reports show that it actually did work for neuropathic conditions. So in this specific situation, it seems to be subjective to each individual.

Reduces Symptoms of Anxiety & Depression

Agmatine exhibits antidepressant effects and promotes mood improvement as well as anxiety reduction and relief. It helps the brain and body manage and overcome stress by reducing anxiety and promoting a sense of well-being.

By increasing NRF2, agmatine prevents depressive behavior by protecting brain cells from high levels of stress hormone cortisol. [R]

Agmatine increases adenylate cyclase in the prefrontal cortex, and decreases levels of adenylate cyclase which associate with depression. [R, R].

Furthermore, it blocks the NMDA receptor, prevents calcium overloading, as well as reverses the decrease of monoamines such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Depression often associates with a reduction of monoamines in the brain [R, R]

Studies and Research

A small pilot study on three patients suffering depression, Agmatine supplement caused a complete disappearance of depression symptoms in all patients. It most likely did so through NMDA receptor-blocking and not through serotonin pathways. [R]

Agmatine also reduced anxiety in rats when they were put in swimming and maze navigation tests. [R]

Neuroprotection and Longevity

Agmatine acts as an anti-oxidant and is continuously under more research for its anti-aging and longevity potential. It has been found to exhibit neuroprotective effects against oxidative damage and injuries to the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is also believed to limit the activity of glutamate receptors and thus, the over-excitation of neurons within the brain.

Additionally, by inhibiting iNOS and nNOS and increasing eNOS, Agmatine protects against brain damage from stroke. Increasing eNOS protects the brain by dilating the blood vessels to increase blood flow. This prevents damage during times of lack of oxygen from reduced blood flow to the brain (also known as ischemic stroke).

Agmatine decreases iNOS and nNOS, two enzymes that contribute to brain damage from stroke. [R]

A Study on Effects of Agmatine Sulfate on Nerve Injury:
  • OBJECTIVE:
    Evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy.
  • METHODS:
    The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination.
  • RESULTS:
    Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004).
  • CONCLUSION:
    Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration. PMID: 28122652

Improves Weight Loss and Prevents Weight Gain

Individuals who struggle to gain weight can benefit from Agmatine supplements. In some studies, subjects increased food consumption rates by 44% to 54% in 24 hours.

Moreover, in the following studies, Agmatine shows an increase in fat burning, a decrease in fat composition, and an increase in muscle mass [R], which also contributes to the next benefit of Agmatine:

Supports Muscle Growth

Agmatine stimulates the production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Increasing these hormone levels lead to an increase in testosterone levels.

By increasing testosterone levels, Agmatine contributes to an optimal hormonal environment for muscle growth, enhances athletic performance, and fastens recovery. [R]

Agmatine also increases insulin sensitivity and the uptake of glucose into the muscle. Increasing insulin sensitivity results in more effective shuttling of amino acids as well as glucose into the tissues for growth and repair. [R] [R]

Helps Erectile Dysfunction and Infertility

Studies show that L-arginine is involved in the process of cell replication, in addition to enhancing blood circulation, so it can help improve both sperm production and motility.

Men dealing with cardiovascular issues due to low levels of NO in the blood are more prone to experience erectile dysfunction and fertility problems because an erection requires a relaxation of smooth muscles, which Nitric Oxide triggers.

Although it doesn't apply to every person, a significant rate of male infertility cases (92%) is treatable with L-arginine supplements in combination with dilators, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatories. [R]

Research suggests that high-stress levels lower L-arginine levels in the sperm production pathway. Therefore, men with chronic stress specifically can benefit from Agmatine supplement.

According to Dr. Axe, a combination of L-arginine, L-glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride is a common way of treating erectile dysfunction. And it works better than L-arginine alone. [R]

“In fact,” he says, “many of the most frequently prescribed medications for ED work similarly to L-arginine: by increasing nitric oxide production.”

Furthermore, there’s research suggesting treatment with N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and L-arginine together can help balance hormones naturally and restore normal sexual function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and estrogen imbalances.

Other studies suggest that L-arginine with herbs such as chasteberry, green tea extract, and antioxidant supplements improve pregnancy rates in women struggling to conceive. [R]

Help with Alzheimer's Disease

Insulin resistance could cause an increase of plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Agmatine prevents cognitive decline by rescuing insulin signaling and avoiding potential accumulation of those tangles. [R]

Helps Alcohol & Morphine Withdrawal

Agmatine reduces and to an extent, prevents, symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as “wet dog shakes,” anxiety, flashes, and shakings. [R] [R]

Mechanisms of Action

How Does Agmatine Sulfate Work?

Agmatine has several mechanisms. It can inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as activate imidazoline receptors. Agmatine can also inhibit nitric oxide synthase enzymes, which allows it to regulate elevated levels of nitric oxide. Agmatine can inhibit calcium channels and specific serotonin receptors as well. Further research is needed to determine the full extent of agmatine mechanisms. [R]

Agmatine was found to exert modulatory actions directly and indirectly at multiple key molecular targets underlying cellular control mechanisms of cardinal importance in health and disease. It is considered capable of exerting its modulatory actions simultaneously at multiple targets. The following outline indicates the categories of control mechanisms and identifies their molecular targets:

Agmatine sulfate
Agmatine Sulfate Skeletal Structure

Neurotransmitter receptors and receptor ionophores. Nicotinic, imidazoline I1 and I2, α2-adrenergic, glutamate NMDAr, and serotonin 5-HT2A and 5HT-3 receptors. Ion channels. Including: ATP-sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs).

Membrane transporters. Agmatine specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine transporters (ENT), polyamine transporters, and mitochondrial agmatine specific-selective transport system. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis modulation. Both differential inhibition and activation of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms is reported.

Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT), and inducer of antizyme. Protein ADP-ribosylation. Inhibition of protein arginine ADP-ribosylation. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Indirect down-regulation of the enzymes MMP 2 and 9. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Direct blockade of AGEs formation. NADPH oxidase. Activation of the enzyme leading to H2O2 production. Wikipedia

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Dosage

How to Take Agmatine Sulfate?

There is currently no standard dosage for agmatine sulfate because there haven’t been enough human studies for determination. These numbers are rough estimates to give an idea of typical, experimental dosing:

  1. For treatment of neuropathic pain: 1,000 to 2,500 mg of agmatine (daily)
  2. For improving cognitive function: 200 to 500 mg of agmatine (daily)
  3. For vasodilation and enhanced recovery: 500 to 1000 mg of agmatine (30 minutes pre-workout)

Note: Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine

Quoting Examine:

“There are no standard dosages for agmatine because of the lack of human evidence for its effects. However, a single human study used 1,300-2,670mg of agmatine, daily for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The estimated human dose for improving cognition is 1.6-6.4mg/kg of agmatine, taken orally.

This is based off of the 10-40mg/kg dosage range for rats, and is equivalent to 217-435 mg for a 150lb person. Supplementation should not exceed 6.4mg/kg of bodyweight. Studies on agmatine use a daily dosing protocol.

Agmatine is not absorbed well when taken with dietary protein, because it uses the same transporters as arginine. Further research is needed to determine if oral agmatine supplementation provides the same benefits as were observed in animal studies.”

“The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.”

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Side Effects

What Are the Side Effects of Agmatine Sulfate?

According to studies conducted so far, it appears that Agmatine Sulfate is safe even in relatively high doses. While there have been few studies conducted thus far, they have not shown any side effects to be associated with this supplement.

If you follow the recommended Agmatine sulfate dosage protocol and do not have any pre-existing contraindications for use, the risk of serious adverse effects is very low. Minor side effects included nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting in a small percentage of participants, which cleared up after a few days of discontinuing use. [R]

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User Experiences

Reddit Review

“Not only does it have varied anti-addiction properties to Opioids, amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine & alcohol, but it also seems to make other drugs, and medicines more potent in their effects. It also shares the properties of Ketamine's antidepressant effects, via the mTOR AMPA pathway. A small study found a robust antidepressant effect; all patients reported remission of depression. Considering that, shutting down Serotonin production via parachlorophenylalanine, did not reverse the antidepressant effects, shows how punchy this substance is. It's also a painkiller. I'd recommend this be added to everyone's stack, provided they aren't too fond of Alcohol, as I noticed it definitely seems to blunt the good feelings of certain drugs.” Reddit user

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Agmatine Sulfate?

Agmatine Sulfate is a biogenic amine that is derived from the amino acid L-Arginine. This happens by a process called decarboxylation, which is better known as the removal of carboxylic acid group from the amino acid.

Is Agmatine safe?

Yes. And here is a 5 year-long, daily high dosage of Agmatine in order to measure and proof its safety: Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. [R]

How long does Agmatine take to work?

Agmatine starts working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption. Users can expect to experience an increase in muscle pumps, vascularity and muscular endurance within this timeframe. [R]

How much Agmatine should I take?

The generally accepted daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate is between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. Avoid taking higher than necessary dosages to reduce the risk of side effects.

Can you take Agmatine with creatine?

This is the reason creatine and protein work so well together, in a nutshell. Bodybuilders can cut out the creatine middle man by supplementing with agmatine sulfate directly. … You take creatine to improve the protein effects. You take nitric oxide to improve the creatine effects.

Further and Related Readings

  1. Agmatine – Wikipedia
  2. Agmatine – Scientific Review – Examine
  3. Nootropics FAQs

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Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceF.A.Q.

Summary: Noopept is one of the most potent nootropics available. It boosts overall cognition with a slight psychostimulatory effect. Effects kick-in within minutes of consumption, making it a handy choice right when dealing with or getting to mentally-demanding tasks.

Noopept Video TTS

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Overview

What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that's been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.

Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action. But when it comes to noopept, results are usually felt minutes after ingestion. It shares similar onset of action as somewhat related racetam phenylpiracetam.

“N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester is promoted as a nootropic and is a prodrug of cycloprolylglycine. Other names include the brand name Noopept, developmental code GVS-111; proposed INN omberacetam. Its synthesis was first reported in 1996. Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question.” – Wikipedia

In Russia and a few of the surrounding countries, Noopept is prescribed for its nootropic qualities. The demand for it is dramatically rising and is currently retailing worldwide, amongst the best selling nootropics on the major vendor websites.

It also acts similar to the way Piracetam does – however, it is said to be somewhere over 1,000 more potent. That is why people tend to reach desired effect or outcome from as little as 10 mg and usually not exceeding 30 mg as total, per day. It smoothly settles itself onto the brain’s receptors.

Even with a dose as small as 10mg, many report it to be quite comparable, and many (myself included) actually favor it over Piracetam.

Noopept is also inexpensive comparing to other nootropics because of its high potency.

Its effectiveness and inexpensive price led to it being a classic, very popular, and in many case, a favorite, amongst the nootropic community.

According to Nootropics City:

Noopept is a very potent Ampakine nootropic drug, and the nootropics brand name for the research peptide “N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethyl ester.” Noopept capsules is an entirely synthetic molecule, and has a similar effect to Piracetam, though its effects are quoted as up to 1000 times stronger. Effects are very much like a “mega dose” of piracetam (when a nootropic is taken in dosages up to 8 times the usual amount) and even provides a slight psycho stimulatory effect when taken in low to moderate dosages. Typical dosages of Noopept range from 10mg at the lower end, to a maximum effective dosage of 30mg per day. When higher dosages are taken then this, tiredness can result, negating many of Noopept’s benefits, alongside tolerance and an increase in Noopept’s negative side effects. Noopept, for best results, should be taken 3 times daily (preferably once with each meal) and should be taken with a choline source (preferably CDP Choline) for maximum results. Noopept, like Piracetam, displayed many neuroprotective effects in rats and mice during testing. More studies are needed to confirm exactly what causes Noopept’s supposed neuroprotective effect.

Take into account with Noopept capsules: Remember, Noopept is entirely a research molecule (as are most nootropics) understand what you are taking, do your own personal research on it, and weigh the positives and negatives before taking Noopept. Take Noopept capsules in a regular, consistent dosing pattern of 10mg per day, and continue to supplement in the form of a U shaped curve, ie: Start off with a low dosage, increase accordingly, then taper back down towards the end of your Noopept regiment. Noopept capsules should be cycled on and off for 1-3 months at a time for best results. Be sure to take Noopept when a particularly rigorous mental task is being performed.

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Benefits and Effects

What Are Noopept Benefits?

  1. Supports Memory and Learning
  2. Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  3. Increases Nerve Growth Factor and BDNF
  4. Improves Association Between Left and Right Brain Hemispheres

Supporting research:

Supports Memory and Learning

Noopept primary interest is how it improves memory and ease the learning process. It helps in memory creation, with additional benefits such as memory consolidation and speed of recall. Noopept helps the correct management of all sorts of stimuli as they are under process by the cerebellum, which permits better memory retrieval. In other terms, signal handling by our sensations is more smooth as they are carrying forward into our memory. Through the continued use of Noopept, individuals report information to be more easily digested and processed, giving them the availability to be ready-for-use in everyday activities. One might remember names, places; maybe a word chatted in contact, a tune thought to be forgotten, and such. Memory failures will diminish or to the least will be kept to a very minimum. [1]

Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)

Studies prove that noopept possesses excellent neuroprotective attributes. The stimulation of the neurons produced by the supplement blocks oxidative damage in the human brain. Many patients dealing with cognitive impairment can benefit from a consistent dosage of noopept to avoid further cognitive decline. [2]

Increases Nerve Growth Factor and BDNF

NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) is a protein in the body that is involved in the growth, preservation, and continuation of nerve cells, including brain cells. Nerve growth factor is also deemed to be very important in neurogenesis; the body’s ability to generate new cells. By raising NGF levels in the cerebellum, it allows for new neural connections. The result indicates potentially improved mental skills in nearly all areas of cognition. [3]

BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) is another protein in the body that has s role to the NGF mentioned above. BDNF is one of the most critical molecules that associate with memory, playing an essential role in both short and long-term memory formation. [4, 5]

Improves Association Between Left and Right Brain Hemispheres

Both the right and left hemispheres of the brain to have their localized functions. Through the use of noopept, each of those functions is developing through the synthesis of various memories, ideas, and stimuli. There are nuances among these functions that improve the way we think. That is why many people have claimed that their quality of life had a significant improvement when taking noopept on a regular basis.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim.

Noopept review
Noopept Skeletal Structure

“Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”

Examine.com

Noopept users report results of improved clarity, better memory, and focus. More studies are undergoing to determine precisely how it provides those privileges to the brain. Studies on animals have shown that Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity in all brain areas (R).

Noopept’s mechanism of action is similar to the other racetams. Noopept works on the AMPA and NDMA receptor sites and their pathways of function. It also has an affinity for the Acetylcholine system and the ACh receptor sites. Both of these factors contribute to Noopept’s array of nootropic benefits. Like Aniracetam, Noopept appears to produce an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) response in animal and human models. This is not a guaranteed result and seems to vary widely between subjects. Like with Aniracetam, Noopept seems stimulate Dopamine receptor sites (D2 and D3) as well as the ACh nicotinic receptor sites. Noopept also seems to stimulate certain Serotonin receptors and this may also contribute to its mood boosting qualities.

Nootropics City

On Memory and Cognitive Decline

Noopept seems to be especially effective, and demonstrates the greatest benefits to patients with mild cognitive decline. It is now undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cognitive deficiency of post-traumatic origin and cerebrovascular cause.

The cerebellum benefits include antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory qualities,  along with repression of toxicity by the removal of excessive glutamate, and calcium. Similarly, blood rhythm and flow signifies further improvement. Two possible mechanisms of action for enhancing cognition are a sensitizing effect on acetylcholine processes or induction of neurotrophin production, both of which theoretically enhance memory formation.

Noopept absorption is a process by the digestive system and succeeding to cross the blood-brain barrier readily. The brain utilizes it almost entirely, very little goes to waste.

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning. It works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes.

Anecdotal reports often recall the “sudden abundance of clarity and precision” delivered by the immediate advantage of added oxygen to the brain and enhanced glucose use. Furthermore, its frequently reported that it also improves eyesight and perception, expanding one's awareness to his or her surroundings and perceiving colors and objects to be more alive, vibrant, and vivid.

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Dosage

How to Take Noopept?

If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, the recommended Noopept dosage would be to take it in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

  • 10 mg: divide into three doses throughout the day
  • 15 mg: divide into two doses twice a day
  • 30 mg: one dose per day

Do not exceed the 30mg Noopept dosage in one day – and ideally, no longer than 60 days cycle if taken everyday. After that, allow yourself some time off before you start another cycle. Alternatively, you can take it on and off as needed. Experimenting is the best way to find out what works for your own body.

Given how fast the body metabolizes it, and due to its rather short half-life, it is best to take small doses multiple times a day instead of a large one at once; thereby prolonging the effects. In the beginning, it is wise to start with the smallest effective dose with careful observation, before progressing into a higher dose.

Noopept Powder Form

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately. According to the label, take Noopept for 1.5 to 3 weeks and then, if necessary, to begin another cycle after a 1-month break. Alternatively, many users follow 56 days on and four days off. Do not take Noopept late in the evening as its energizing effects may interfere with sleep.

And furthermore; “to supplement Noopept, take 10 – 30 mg, once a day, for up to 56 days at a time. More research is needed to determine the optimal human dose for Noopept.” again, quoting Examine.

Noopept Nasal Spray (Intranasal)

Many people seem to discuss different mixtures to getting the most ideal ratio for a Noopept Nasal spray, but there isn't any solid information that I could put on here. If you're interested in user experiments and anecdotal experiences, there are a couple different threads you can find by searching ‘Noopept Nasal' on reddit nootropics subreddit here.

Best Noopept Stack

Alpha-GPC or Citicoline (or whatever your choline preference may be). This will massively potentiate the effect, and will prevent the occasion occurrence of Noopept's headaches.

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Side Effects

What Are Noopept Side Effects?

These side effects of Noopepts are mostly occurring when higher doses are consumed:

  • Headache
  • Restlessness (or overstimulation)
  • Dizziness
  • Irritability

Some studies suggest that it magnifies the effects of stimulants such as amphetamines, so caution is advisable for individuals using ADHD medication. I can personally advise that as well. I've felt that sense of overstimulation in a couple different occasion when taking a 30 mg dose of Noopept shortly after taking my ADHD medication. I now find that a 15 mg dose works best for me whether once or twice per day.

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User Experience

My Personal Experience

Noopept was amongst the very first nootropics I got to try. I was taking it in a one dose of 30 mg in the early afternoon with 300mg of Alpha-GPC.

I think it was the most effective, and most profound feeling I ever got off a nootropic to this day. I really thought I hit the jackpot. I was able to sit throughout the day at work fully engaged and focused on my whatever I was working on, without any sort of complaining whatsoever. And that was at my corporate job, not at my home office. I was amazed by that.

I had to see if it was in my head or if it had been really that effective, and so I had both my best friend and my sister to try it out on different occasions – both of them ended up asking me to try it a few more times. My friend went on to buy her own while doing her finals at an international affairs academy programme and I never heard her talk so positively about any supplement or nootropic whatsoever the way she talked and liked Noopept.

Unfortunately though, today, after quite a long time since I first discovered it, it seems to have half the effect it had on me back in the day even if I don't take it for a month or so. But it makes complete since due to the similarities of other racetams that I supplement with frequently – mostly Aniracetam. But the feeling I experienced in the very first few times of Noopept was something I had never felt with any other nootropic.

Reddit User Experience

On reddit's nootropics sub, a user wrote:

“Noopept: Probably the most potent memory and cognition enhancing nootropic I’ve tried besides Phenylpiracetam…noopept really makes a huge difference for me in terms of mental clarity, memory recall, and fluid thinking. I’ll be on this for life 100%”

Another reddit user wrote his experience titled: ‘My Experience with Noopept and Adderall' and its as follows:

Before the downvote brigade comes out and downvotes me to hell, I am prescribed adderall, it works wonders for me, and no nootropic could ever replace adderall for me. I've been on it for probably 15 years. It does its job, but I still have issues with performance anxiety where if I start thinking about my performance it slowly spirals into being so anxious about not being able to do well that I can't even retain the information in a sentence. CBD oil helps a little bit. My focus has never really been mine to ‘give', its more at the whim of when and where it works, no matter how hard I may try to concentrate. Noopept is changing that.

Anywho, WOW is all I have to say. I have tried noopept many times, but never did I do it consistently. I hate that I hadn't before because this is borderline life changing. Here's what happened:

My friend ordered some Russian noopept for the both of us, as he's from Russia and wanted to try it out. I had tried the sublingual and powdered versions of it and they had always given me brain fog, so I was a bit wary, but his dad had said that he had used it in college and that you have to keep taking it to get over that yucky feeling. So I figured I'd give it a shot, it was the original stuff after all. So I took he threw me a box of it in class the day it came in, and we took some right there.

Day 1: The first dose in the morning didn't kick in until about an hour, took it on an empty stomach. It was the same yucky, brain foggy stuff I was used to, but he was so excited about it I was gonna give it a few days before I was gonna stop and tell him. We took a second dose a few hours later and felt noticeably worse. We kinda brushed it off and hoped his dad's advice was correct.

Day 2: Same thing, took it in the morning, and at lunch, but couldn't concentrate at all. Except later that day, I got this burst of clarity around the time I was expecting it to wear off, which was unusual. But before the clarity happened, I was feeling downright awful, enough so that I wasn't going to take another dose. It felt like nicotine poisoning almost. I told him about it and he said he felt similarly. But then this clarity, it was like I had a cup of coffee but I hadn't. It was weird.

Day 3: I take it with breakfast and holy crap, I feel great. It's like I can just read a sentence without my eyes jumping around the page!!! (Something that I would consider quite the feat!) It was like my focus was mine to give, like I could read an entire line of code and actually process it without having to re-read it at all!

Day 4 and 5: I continue taking it with food and now I understand why people say its effects compound. I still have plenty of focus to give, more so, and I feel like some of my anxiety has gone. Very satisfied.

Now here it is on Day 7 on a Sunday, I didn't take it yesterday and I feel like the effects are still there. I had focus to give yesterday and today and I haven't taken it. Like I don't know what to say, except that I wonder if this is how neurotypical people feel on a regular basis. It's nuts.

My only concern I have here is its interaction with adderall tolerance. I haven't noticed anything yet, but has anybody that has taken these 2 together experienced any effects on their adderall/amphetamine tolerance? (vyvanse, dexedrine, etc.) That would be the only thing that would get me to stop with noopept is if it has a severe effect on tolerance.

Anyway, I just wanted to share my experience with the two, and I hope it's helpful! I also wasn't on any other nootropics this week to test this out.

UPDATE: I have been taking 10mg twice a day on weekdays and the only physical side effect I've noticed is I'm more sensitive to temperature and I've been sweating more, even sitting still. Off of it my pits don't sweat but on it they do.

Last but not least, again from reddit: ‘Nootropic report by a total Newbie'

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Conclusion

The benefits of Noopept are numerous, but the best thing about it is that its effects are cumulative. Noopept has quickly grown in demand and has earned its space within people’s nootropic stacks due to its impressive results, ease of small doses, and its reasonable, affordable cost. Whether an expert nootropic user or merely getting to learn about it all, noopept is an excellent choice for an overall cognitive function boost.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Noopept?

Noopept is a nootropic that's been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning.

What Does Noopept Do?

Noopept is a powerful Nootropic compound. It protects your brain from stresses and toxins (neuroprotection). It is great at improving cognitive performance and memory. Furthermore, it shields from degenerative brain disorder relating to aging.

How Long Does Noopept Take to Work?

Noopept works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes. Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action.

How to Take Noopept Capsules?


10 mg – divide into three doses throughout the day
15 mg – divide into two doses twice a day
30 mg – one dose per day


If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, take Noopept in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.

How to Take Noopept Powder?

In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately.

How to Take Noopept Sublingually?

There's no “right way” to do it. Place under tongue, close mouth and rest tongue gently on the Noopept. Just hold it there for a while. Once it's mostly gone, swoosh it around a bit and swallow the rest. Try not to swallow the saliva that builds up in your mouth because then you are most likely swallowing some of the drug that hasn't been absorbed yet.

What is the Half-life of Noopept?

Noopept's half-life depends on the individual. The duration of Noopept is around 3 – 6 hours. Effects of Noopept increase after using it for a few days.

Where to Buy Noopept?

I have only bought Noopept from Nootropics Depot, so I can't recommend or suggest any other vendor. If ND is an option for you, then get it from them. I tried it myself, and they are quire reputable.

Where to Buy Noopept in Dubai?

Go to Nootropics in Dubai for more information. Update: for those in the UAE, check out the shop too where you can get Noopept Capsules, amongst other Nootropics!

More FAQs on Nootropics can be found here [link]

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Further and Related Readings

Racetams

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Piracetam
  3. Phenylpiracetam
  4. Pramiracetam
  5. Oxiracetam
  6. Fasoracetam
  7. Sunifiram
  8. Coluracetam

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Studies

  1. Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation
  2. Neuroprotective and nootropic drug noopept rescues α-synuclein amyloid cytotoxicity
  3. The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer's disease model

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Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsLegal StatusUser Experience


Summary: Phenibut is a a GABAergic agent that works on the GABA neurotransmitter distinctly reducing anxiety. It also lessens depression, and PTSD symptoms, improving sleep, and providing an overall feeling of ease and well-being. Due to the euphoric-like effects it offers, users prefer to stick to occasional use rather than frequent in respect of its abuse and addiction risk potential.

Phenibut Video TTS

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Overview

What is Phenibut?

Phenibut might not have as widespread use as other nootropics on the market. However, it has demonstrated numerous benefits over tens of decades through both formal studies and anecdotal documentation. It's a nootropic designed to simulate the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that acts on the central nervous system. It marketed as a psychotropic with a positive effect on mental capability and improved neurological functioning. The anxiety diminishing effects of phenibut are the most praised of all its attributes. Once anxiety is resolved, natural sleep patterns and enhanced cognitive processes shortly start following.

Phenibut was invented in the Soviet Union almost half a century ago. A fascinating, documented anecdote reveals that Russian cosmonauts were supplementing with phenibut especially during the 1975 mission Apollo-Soyuz at the joint of the USSR and US. It remains in use to date in Russia as a treatment and remedy to many conditions including anxiety, depression, prevention of motion sickness, even alcohol withdrawal syndrome, to name a few. Not to mention, of course, its nootropic attributes.

Phenibut dosage
Phenibut Skeletal Structure

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.

Wikipedia


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Phenibut Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress Levels
  2. Increases Sociability
  3. Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality
  4. Improves Symptoms of ADHD
  5. Promotes better sleep quality
  6. Neuroprotective: it prevents damage to neuronal cells under stress
  7. Increases Sociability and Enhances Mood

Supporting Research:

Reduces Anxiety and Stress Levels

Anyone who suffers from anxiety knows that it can be extremely hard to control, it’s not just something that can simply be ‘switched’ off. When taking Phenibut, you will be able to gain more control. Once administered, you can expect to feel more relaxed and composed.

This attribute is the most appreciated benefit of phenibut which is documented by Izyaslav Lapin (R). Anxiety is often the result of overactivity in brain's concentration and overthinking and analyzation of unnecessary, or irrelevant matters; often with the inability to realize the direction to which the train of thought is heading. Turning down and resting the continuous and distracting neuron processing frees the negative thought preoccupation which in turn opens a fresher, vibrant, and often productive range of possibilities.

Increases Sociability

The anxiolytic effect leads to openness towards social interaction which by itself is an issue almost always associating with anxiety disorders. Studies suggest phenibut to be a promoter of enhanced cognitive processing, but the fundamental reason practically still due to the anxiety relief. Those seeking to improve interaction in social settings report better results with the supplement in comparison with alcohol or prescription medication such as benzodiazepines. While attempted anxiety-reduction using traditional tranquilizers often lead to drowsiness and reduction in motor skill and cognitive ability, phenibut seems to mitigate the feelings, except without the associating and undesired side effects that associate with traditional prescription medication. [R]

Promotes Healthy Sleep Patterns and Quality

People living through the depression, anxiety, stressful life events, while going through hormonal changes such as menopause, often report degenerating sleep quality, sleep disturbance, and insomnia. While melatonin is a remarkable and beneficial supplement to consider, some require pharmaceutical sleep aid for more sedating and sleep-inducing effects. Lack of continuous quality sleep can cause an impairment in cognitive processing, opening the way to more anxiety and more sleep disturbance. Used consciously, Phenibut an excellent supplement that can restore significant, natural sleep patterns, duration, and quality. The ability to fall asleep, remain asleep, maintaining an extended period of healthy, rejuvenating deep sleep is attainable with phenibut. [R] [R]

May Improve ADHD

Since phenibut improves attention, it may also help with ADHD symptoms. In one clinical trial of 50 children with ADHD, it improved cognition, self-control, sustained, attention, and memory after 1 month (500-700 mg/day). One month is a short time for evaluating ADHD effects; long-term studies need to determine if the beneficial effect can be sustained. – Selfhacked

My Thought on That

Well I am ADHD and have taken Phenibut and similar “GABA-acting” drugs, such as gabapentin for about a year. Its interesting that, at the time, I had not been diagnosed with ADHD yet and was not aware nor had a clue what ADHD is. I self-medicated with gabapentin and phenibut along the way, and now years later, looking back at how routinely I was taking it, I realize the reason I was hooked and amazed by it was its effect on me as an ADHD, prior to any anxiety triggers that might associate. It was a transformative medication – but overtime, mister W (withdrawals) had been sitting and just waiting for me to get off it in order to introduce himself – and that horrible experience was almost equally as transformative.


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Phenibut Work?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (also known as GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in our central nervous system.The blood-brain barrier makes supplementing with GABA close to being ineffective due to its inability to bypass the blood-brain barrier. However, phenibut crosses the barrier due to the addition of the phenyl group molecule. Once in the brain, it slows the neuronal excitability, resulting in the effects as mentioned earlier.

GABA frees up channels in the neurons, reduces the function of other neurotransmitters, and diminish collective fears and anxieties in the neuron. It remains vague whether or not phenibut binds to the GABA receptor, although some studies suggest that it only does so in high concentrations.

Lapin’s research found that phenibut increases the levels of dopamine as well. Dopamine is another vital neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It regulates emotions and creates the reaction of what we call motivation.

More from the Web

In order to affect one’s cognitive functioning, mood, and overall relaxation levels, this supplement needs to cross the blood-brain barrier. GABA cannot effectively do this, while Phenibut can. This is due to a phenyl group that is attached to GABA’s structure.

Naturally, GABA balances out the effects of chemicals that stimulate neurons. When neurons are overstimulated, this can lead to feelings of anxiety and restlessness. Since Phenibut works like GABA, it helps to restore this balance.

The result is neurons firing only when they’re supposed to. Once Phenibut reaches the brain, it targets GABA receptor sites.

It is believed that Phenibut is non-selective, as it stimulates both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors. This allows you to feel a sense of relaxation, lessening anxiety. This is fairly different than other nootropic supplements, which is why it’s beneficial in a stack.

Phenibut also stimulates dopamine receptors, which is key in terms of your mood. Once dopamine is increased, you will experience a more positive mood. Users also tend to experience high levels of motivation, allowing them to achieve more.


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Dosage

How to Take Phenibut?

Phenibut is a potent compound. Start at the lowest effective dose and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs. A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers with no tolerance. 500 mg would be ideal in my opinion.

Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.

Phenibut is GABA (the major calming neurotransmitter in your brain) with a phenyl ring attached, which allows the molecule to pass your blood-brain barrier and reach receptors in your brain. Phenibut was originally developed for Russian astronauts, to ease the stress of flight and help them sleep in space. It relieves anxiety and drives you into deeper sleep. Phenibut is also a nootropic: it boosts cognition, giving you relaxed clarity of thought.

For people trying to figure out which capsules to buy, here's how much phenibut I can pack into each capsule size (using liftmode fine crystals phenibut HCL powder):

Terms:

“Packed body” is when you press as much powder as you can into the long inner portion of the capsule.

“Entirely packed capsule” is when you pack the cap (top) of the capsule and the body of the capsule as tightly as you can while still being able to close it to the point of “popping” together.

Size 000

Packed body: ~1100-1150
Entirely packed: ~1200-1250

Size 00

Packed body: ~800 mg
Entirely packed: ~850 mg

Size 1

Packed body: ~410mg
Entirely packed: ~430mg

Dave Aspey on Phenibut

Phenibut can be addictive, so it’s very important to take it correctly. The two common mistakes people make are taking phenibut daily and increasing the dose over time. Phenibut’s effects last for 48-72 hours, so you only want to take it once every three days (twice a week max).

You also want to cycle it to avoid tolerance. Go two weeks on phenibut, two weeks off. Don’t go past 250 mg doses; if you stop feeling the effects at 250mg, cycle off for a couple weeks. Don’t mix phenibut with alcohol, either. It amplifies the effects, which can be dangerous.

Dose: 250 mg (never higher)

Time: Anytime, but only twice a week max (Monday and Thursday, for example).

Do two weeks on phenibut, two weeks off.

Dave Asprey


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Side Effects

What Are Phenibut Side Effects?

Like anything we put inside our body, the best source of measurement and criticism is the human body itself. To avoid adverse effects, start at a low dose and see your body's reaction and adaptation to it.

Often individuals report dizziness and drunk-life sensation as a side effect. On the other hand, many people use to supplement with phenibut for the very same impact.

The experience is entirely subjective. Rarely users report fatigue, nausea, and stomach discomfort. People on epilepsy medication or MAO inhibitors are advised to consult a professional doctor before taking phenibut. Alcohol should be consumption should cautiously within reasonable limits ion due to the synergistic effects of alcohol and phenibut.

Avoid taking on a daily basis.

Phenibut has high abuse potential. If taken regularly, be mindful of possible withdrawal effects upon discontinuation. It's wise to limit intake to once or twice a week. Thereby maintain a low tolerance, enjoy its benefits, and avoid building a destructive habit of use. Do not underestimate the power of phenibut and do your research if you decide to include it in your stack.


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Phenibut Withdrawals

Important and useful resource on phenibut usage, abuse, withdrawals, and much more can be found on reddit's phenibut sub. Please use with caution.

It is very important to be aware of the possible withdrawal effect upon discontinuation of phenibut which can be mild to wild, depending on whether or not it has been abused or not, the dosage, period of use, amongst other things. An example from the wilder end is the following opinion, from a long-time, high-dose phenibut (ab)user:

In my experience it is the worst feeling ever. If you had problems in your life anyway, and were using Phenibut to mask them, then they will come back twenty times as bad. Withdrawal strips away any optimistic delusions the Phenibut might have given you, and puts you into a state of intense ‘depressive realism'. You see things seemingly for how they are, and find it physically impossible to believe in potential hope of a miracle happening. You are forced to confront the crushing hopelessness of your situation. Any optimism you remember from your Phenibut days seems like meaningless self-delusion. Regrets and doubts multiply. You start planning for the worst, expecting the worst.

Waking up at 3am every morning after ultra-depressing dreams, your energy reserves are depleted. Your range of vision widens so you can see out of the corners of your eyes, like a prey animal. It feels like there are cold, damp, grey clouds above your eyes. Vision becomes blurry and you feel old. Smiling becomes physically impossible and fake. Breathing is difficult, you can hold your breath for a long time before having to force yourself to take a big, stressful gulp of air. You may get audible hallucinations, such as hearing a chorus of a particular song repeated over and over again, almost mockingly loudly, when you lie in bed. Things like tooth pain that were masked with GABA are felt again. If you were worried about balding, your scalp will feel cold. Your worst fears will be played upon, as if by a demon, and exaggerated. You find it easy to believe in Hell, but impossible to believe in Heaven.

It gets worse for the first three days, then stays bad, becomes manageable by the end of the first week of cold turkey, though you stay melancholy for about two more weeks. This is based on having taken a relatively high dose daily for several months. With more sensible dosage, the withdrawal will be far milder.


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Phenibut Warnings

The following reddit page is valuable for anyone using or planning to use or stop phenibut:

  1. Phenibut Warnings
  2. Phenibut Dependence
  3. Phenibut Overdose

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Legal Status

Is Phenibut Legal?

Australia and Hungary

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary.

In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential.

In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose. [R]

As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list. [R]

Dubai, Abu Dhabi, UAE

While the subject on nootropics is quite a grey area, Phenibut as per the law is unregulated. This means that it is not illegal to posses for personal use, however, it is not permitted for retail sale. If you order Phenibut from oversees, if has a chance of being siezed by customs, but that won't be an issue of serious importance where customs will be on the lookout for the person who ordered Phenibut to Dubai/Abu Dhabi/UAE. That wouldn't be something to worry about as far as you are placing an order (aside from the risk of losing your money due to siezing), however, it is an issue for companies importing the product from manufacturers for reproduction and sale. We have had a handful of manufacturer shipments siezed by customs in Dubai which caused us to remove Phenibut from our inventory. However, every now and then, we do manage to restock it, so if you are looking to order phenibut within the UAE, shipped locally which guarantees the delivery of product as well as cash on delivery to eliminate risk, you can check our store for Phenibut 250mg capsules availibility.

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User Experience

This is one of the most interesting user experiences I've read on Phenibut. It was posted by on Phenibut sub-reddit:

Reddit Review

We all love phenibut. It removes our social anxiety (which everybody has nowadays), removes inhibitions we have as humans, removes a mental condition we didn't know we had before the use of this substance, makes us more motivated so we can focus on tasks.

Phenibut is a substance which is very handy to treat all of this. You can use it for the rest of your life. You will have continuous anxiolysis, but the motivational aspects will disappear. This is because of a down-regulation of GABA-B on the lesser hand and especially down-regulation of your dopamine receptors. It's called tolerance.

I was 3 years addicted and I have a long road of nootropic use behind me. Herbal extracts, synthetic nootropics, soft- and hard drugs… Some to get high, others to make me smarter and others to remove phenibut tolerance. But 99% of these maybe 100+ compounds I used really helped.

However I discovered 2 very useful substances on my long road.

First of all, memantine. It's an Alzheimer's medication. It works as an NMDA-antagonist. NMDA receptors are receptors in your brain part of the glutamate system, used for learning and memory. These are said to reverse tolerance for stimulants such as caffeine and amphetamine. Phenibut can be classified as a relaxant and stimulant, and while it has like all the other stimulants tolerance problems, NMDA antagonists come in handy to reduce this. Various reports of people you can find on the internet indeed back this claim up. Other compounds who work in this system are ketamine, DXM (cough surpressant), MXE and N20. We also call these compounds dissociatives. Memantine is dissociative in higher doses as a recreational drug but for Phenibut it's more suited in 1-10mg doses for tolerance reduction. It's also a dopamine agonist. You read that good: an NMDA-antagonist (reduces tolerance for dopaminergic stimulants) and dopamine antagonist. So memantine is a stimulant while reducing tolerance for stimulants. In my use of this substance I learned this: start low – with 1 mg to begin with. Because memantine is also a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, it can have anti-nootropic effects the first week while starting. This may contribute to initial worsening of cognitive function during early memantine treatment and is the reason why many people don't take memantine for longer than I week and why you can't find many succesful reports on the internet. I was very succesful in doing this but had to way for minimum 2 weeks. Memantine is also the best in the 2 chemicals I describe in the post when comparing price/efficacy. You can find 10 grams for €75 on the internet (contact me when interested).

The other succesful substance I used is fasoracetam. It's a nootropic in the racetam family. Some other nootropics in this family are piracetam and aniracetam. 2 famous nootropics known for there ability to increase blood flow in your brain and make you more sharper. But only fasoracetam has the ability to increase GABA-B receptors in the brain. It's no GABA-B agonist and no GABA-B antagonist. This is good to know because GABA-B antagonists have a negative on your ability to relax in the beginning and are dangerous in general (because they can damage your nervous system). GABA-B antagonists don't know as far as I know, so this is purely hypothetical. Just wanted to say fasoracetam is an ideal substance. Fasoracetam is more expensive compared to memantine, I can find 10 grams on the internet for €60. Since you need to use higher doses (10-50mg) it will cost you more.

Because of my discovery of these substances and success with it, I decided to be a social butterfly and highly motivational person for the rest of my life. I decided it long before I discovered this, but I couldn't make it true because of the disappearment of phenibut's effects. I hope I stay them for the rest of my life.

My current method? I make 000 capsules which hold approximately 800mg powder. With a weighing scale I weigh 100g phenibut, 2.5g fasoracetam and 0.5g memantine. Then I mix it. By doing this I get a nice mixture of these powders. Be aware, people will say this is not 100% mixed because you do it manually. But this is not a huge problem, it's not really a bad thing if you get sometimes 1 mg memantine and other times 3 mg memantine. If you want to do it more precisely, you can buy a super accurate weighing scale and put 1mg memantine every morning under your tongue. But you lose the comfort of easy dosing.

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Conclusion

Phenibut is a useful anxiety-relieving supplement that does not cause the infamous drowsiness often accompanying anxiety medication. It is well-studied and standing amongst the top in line when it comes to anxiety relief, sleep regulation, and cognitive improvement.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Phenibut?

Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and stimulant effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.

Where can I buy Phenibut?

Based off my experience, I'd only only tried and therefore recommend Nootropic Depot's Phenibut. But you can simply search online and make your choice from the different vendors. And make sure you research those vendors too, before actually making a purchase.

Is Phenibut Legal?

As of 2018, Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country apart from Australia and Hungary.

In 2015, it was suggested that the legal status of phenibut in Europe should be reconsidered due to its recreational potential.

In February 2018, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration declared it a prohibited (schedule 9) substance, citing health concerns due to withdrawal and overdose.

As of 14 November 2018, Hungary added phenibut and 10 other items to its New Psychoactive Substances ban list.

How long does the effect of Phenibut last?

The average half-life of phenibut is around 5.3 hours. The peak effects of phenibut can take four to six hours to appear when it's taken orally, although the effects are felt on average around two hours after it's taken and usually you will feel it for more than 6 hours.

How to take Phenibut?

Start at the lowest effective dose (250mg) and monitor your response to it, then adjust according to your needs. A dose of 250 mg is a good starting point for first-timers with no tolerance. 500 mg would be the ideal in my opinion.

Phenibut effects build up gradually, so avoid taking a second dose without a reasonable timeframe in between. Initial kick-in is around 45 minutes after consumption, and optimal peak effect is usually 2 hours later.

How long does it take Phenibut to kick in?

Phenibut has a long onset time of around 1.5 – 2 hours until its peak effect, for most people. The time that it takes to kick in depends on the amount of food in your stomach, your metabolism, the dosage, and how you took it. Taking Phenibut sublingually results in a faster onset time that taking it with water or juice.

How much Phenibut should I take?

For first-time, 250mg, If you're experienced and know well enough about it, you can take 500mg. The best approach is to start low and see how you react to it, and increase accordingly if needed. But keep in mind that it takes around an hour and a half to be felt, so make sure you keep about 2 hours interval between doses.

How can I buy Phenibut in Dubai?

If you'd like to buy phenibut in dubai or abu dhabi, as well as get more information about nootropics, availibility, and more, go to the “Nootropics in Dubai” page under the resources tab on the menu. Alternativley, you can click here

Is Phenibut Legal in Dubai, UAE?

White the subject on nootropics is quite a grey area, Phenibut as per the law is unregulated. This means that it is not illegal to posses for personal use, however, it is not permitted for retail sale. If you order Phenibut from oversees, if has a chance of being siezed by customs, but that won't be an issue of serious importance where customs will be on the lookout for the person who ordered Phenibut to Dubai/Abu Dhabi/UAE. That wouldn't be something to worry about as far as you are placing an order (aside from the risk of losing your money due to siezing), however, it is an issue for companies importing the product from manufacturers for reproduction and sale. We have had a handful of manufacturer shipments siezed by customs in Dubai which caused us to remove Phenibut from our inventory. However, every now and then, we do manage to restock it, so if you are looking to order phenibut within the UAE, shipped locally which guarantees the delivery of product as well as cash on delivery to eliminate risk, you can check our store for Phenibut 250mg capsules availibility.

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Further and Related Readings

  1. If you're intrigued by Phenibut, you might like and find Fasoracetam quite interesting too due to the two nootropics interaction. You may also find Agmatine Sulfate & Sunifiram worth exploring.
  2. Reddit's Phenibut Endless Information (from first-hand experiences)
  3. PhenibutWikipedia
  4. Nootropics Information Frequently Asked Questions

FDA on Phenibut

Phenibut is a substance that does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) defines a dietary ingredient as a vitamin; mineral; herb or other botanical; amino acid; dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of the preceding substances. Because phenibut does not fit any of the categories of dietary ingredients under the FD&C Act, any dietary supplements that declare phenibut as a dietary ingredient are misbranded.

Phenibut is also known as:

  • fenibut
  • phenigam
  • PhGaba
  • Phenigamma
  • Phenygam
  • 4-Amino-3-phenylbutanoic acid
  • β-(aminomethyl)benzenepropanoic acid
  • beta-(Aminomethyl)hydrocinnamic acid
  • β-phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid

Phenibut in Dietary Supplements

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Back to Nootropics Information homepage.

OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsFAQ

Summary: L-theanine is a natural amino acid, often called the “natural xanax”. It almost only exists in green tea leaves. It works brilliantly in unwinding and relaxing the body and brain without causing drowsiness, while reducing stress and increasing cognitive function. Due to not causing drowsiness, it is the perfect choice to combine with stimulants of any sort to take the edge off.

L-theanine Video TTS

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Overview

What is L-Theanine?

L-theanine is a relaxing, non-sedating amino acid that is synergistic with stimulants to ‘take the edge off.' Especially with coffee, it synergizes so well resulting in clean energy, furthermore preventing the nasty caffeine crash that many people experience after caffeine intake. It is also useful on its own, promoting relaxation and minimizing stress without causing drowsiness. A combination of L-theanine with caffeine at a 2:1 ratio is increasing in popularity as a remarkably synergetic combination that boosts cognition and attention.

It is an amino acid that naturally exists in green tea leaves as its main active ingredient, and that is the only source that provides it. It is famous for its fantastic nootropic features such as improving memory, expanding learning capacity, as well as providing a calming, zen-like effect.

L-Theanine, for the most part, is a relaxing but not sedating amino acid that is synergistic with stimulants such as caffeine as it can ‘take the edge off'. It is effective by itself in the standard supplemental dosages as well, and although it can be attained via a diet high in green tea ingestion that is the only dietary source of L-Theanine.

Examine.com

L-Theanine has also been in the list of 6 best natural nootropics as second to caffeine.


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Benefits and Effects

What Are L-Theanine Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety & Stress
  2. Improves Memory, Attention, and Cognition
  3. Enhances Sleep Quality
  4. Promotes Longevity and Increases Lifespan
  5. Reduces Symptoms of Depression
  6. Promotes Relaxation without causing Drowsiness
  7. Significantly Reduces Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  8. Enhances Blood Flow and Stimulates Nitric Oxide Production
  9. Reduces Negative Effects of Caffeine & Improves Cognitive Boosting Effects
  10. Additional Benefits

Supporting Research:

Reduces Anxiety & Stress

A review by researchers of a small set of trials concluded that there are benefits of L-theanine in reducing acute stress and anxiety in people with stressful conditions. [R]

Oral intake of L-theanine in rats at feasible dosages reduces circulating biomarkers of stress with or without an actual stressor being present. Therefore, it reduces the adverse effects of stress such as memory impairment. Reductions of perceived stress reported in human subjects given oral theanine at the standard dosages. [R] [R] [R]

Improves Memory, Attention, and Cognition

In a 16-week long study on individuals with mild cognitive impairment, supplementing with l-theanine shows an improved delayed recognition as well as immediate recall comparing to those receiving a placebo during a mental exercise. Furthermore, attention span and alertness levels increased during the memory test. [R]

Enhances Sleep Quality

Theanine enhances sleep quality. In a study measuring sleep time with individuals supplementing with L-theanine, sleep time increases by 11 and up to 21%, therefore making it a valuable compound for achieving better nighttime sleep. (R)

Promotes Longevity and Increases Lifespan

In a study using the model organism C. elegans, L-theanine shows to promote longevity and promote healthy and increased lifespan. Due to those findings, the study suggests that the compound might have similar effects on mammals and humans (R)

Reduces Symptoms of Depression

L-Theanine intake for a period of eight weeks during an open-label study helped easing depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep disturbance, as well as cognitive impairments in subject suffering major depressive disorder. (R)

Promotes Relaxation without causing Drowsiness

Theanine is proving to be a great agent in promoting relaxation without the accompanying effect of drowsiness. The company developing ‘suntheanine', l-theanine supplement, won the 1998’s Food Ingredient Research Award for the outstanding research and findings. (R)

Significantly Reduces Symptoms of Schizophrenia

In persons diagnosed schizophrenia receiving 400mg L-theanine in addition to antipsychotic medication for eight weeks were able to reduce anxiety as well as psychopathology symptoms significantly. (R)

Enhances Blood Flow and Stimulates Nitric Oxide Production

Theanine appears to promote nitric oxide formation at relatively low concentrations and is likely practically relevant following oral ingestion. (R)

Reduces Negative Effects of Caffeine & Improves Cognitive Boosting Effects

Theanine and caffeine are typically found together in tea. A combination of caffeine and theanine together significantly improves alertness, reduce fatigue, and improves task-switching accuracy.

High dose caffeine (250 mg, equivalent to 2.5 cups of coffee) has some negative effects, such as jitters and increased blood pressure. Theanine was able to mitigate the increase in blood pressure.

“L-Theanine decreases the negative and jittery effects of caffeine in rats.

However, human studies found that L-Theanine helps reduce caffeine jitters, although the changes were not significant.

L-Theanine changes the pharmacological profile of caffeine in humans, as the combination of caffeine and L-Theanine have somewhat different cognitive enhancement effects. ” – Selfhacked

Additional Benefits

Large studies in humans have not been undertaken; however, several smaller-scale studies (fewer than 100 participants) have shown increased alpha wave generation and lowered anxiety, along with benefits to sleep quality in people with ADHD. [R]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does L-Theanine Work?

L-theanine has a comparable chemical composition to glutamate, an amino acid that assists in the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain. Thereby, providing a host of benefits for the mind. It has a remarkable ability of crossing the blood-brain barrier, which means that it reaches the brain directly. Furthermore, it has positive effects on stress levels proving to increase both dopamine and serotonin levels in brain; which are two of the brain’s feel-good chemicals. Green tea is known to be effective at helping people relax due to the positive impact on those neurotransmitters.

L-Theanine dosage
L-theanine skeletal structure

Theanine is an antagonist of the NMDA receptors (albeit with fairly weak efficacy) and can inhibit synaptic release of glutamate via blocking the transporter competitively. Theanine may also reduce glutamate levels, but this is also a fairly weak mechanism requiring a high concentration of theanine – Examine


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Dosage

How to Take L-Theanine?

The effective l-theanine dose is 200mg. For optimal nootropic results, take l-theanine with caffeine (coffee or supplement, whatever suits you) at a 2:1 ratio. As a stack, it would be:

  1. L-Theanine 200mg
  2. Caffeine 100mg

For those interested, you can actually purchase a supplement pre-made that has 200 mg Theanine & 100 mg Caffeine pressed into one capsule. I've personally used and still use Nootropic Depot's.

Note: if you have anxiety or hypertension, you may want to skip caffeine entirely as it aggravates the symptoms.

Experimenting is the best way to find out how you react to it.


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Side Effects

What Are L-Theanine Side Effects?

L-theanine is very safe as very high doses have failed to cause toxicity. However, that doesn't mean you should go for such high dosage. (R)

L-theanine is exceptionally reliable. Furthermore, it is classified Generally Recognized as Safe by the Fraud and Deception FDA in the US.


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Conclusion

L-Theanine is a natural safe amino acid offering many benefits. It's a popular choice for individuals wanting a simple and effective way to boost their mental performance. Alone, with caffeine, or even with an advanced nootropic stack; L-theanine is worth trying.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What is L-Theanine and how does it work?

L-theanine is one of the main psychoactive constituents of green tea (camellia sinensis) generally used as a dietary supplement to promote relaxation, lift mood, and reduce anxiety without sedation. Beyond that, it's been shown to generate creativity and higher learning via the ability to ignore distracting information during complex tasks. Now the science: L-theanine induces a calm state of mind by promoting alpha waves in the brain, and has been shown to increase dopamine, GABA, and glycine levels in various areas of the brain, as well as modulate BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor) and NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) levels. In fact, in one recent animal study l-theanine consumption was associated with about a 25% increase in BDNF and about a 100% increase in NGF in the hippocampus. L-Theanine has structural similarities to glutamine and both neurotransmitters that are produced from it (GABA and glutamate) help balance and maintain stress levels while maintaining a state of wakeful relaxation. Lately, L-theanine has been growing in popularity due to its synergistic effects with caffeine to help boost focus. Systematic reviews show that L-theanine significantly mitigates the anxiety inducing side-effects of caffeine to create a balanced focus.

Should I take L-Theanine every time I drink coffee? Are there any adverse effects from long-term L-Theanine usage?

Yes, and no. Let me explain. L-Theanine is a phenomenal compound when mixed with coffee, due to the stacking of effect, as well as the reduction in some of the negative effects of caffeine itself. For example, in my biohacking course The Alchemist’s Guide To Biohacking, I talk about how I stack coffee blended with grass-fed butter, coconut oil, MCT, L-Theanine, macadamia or almond butter, and sometimes raw honey almost every single morning. It’s a part of my daily routine, and probably my most favourite (and definitely tastiest) part of it, if I have to choose one. However, like all compounds I take on a regular basis, I try to observe a 6/1 or 6/2 cycle with them, meaning six weeks on, then one or two weeks off, depending on the compound. This is to reduce dependency, as well as ensure my body isn’t getting used to the effects, resulting in me possibly having to take more. I’m currently in an off phase now with pine pollen, one of my go-to herbal supplements to boost my testosterone levels. With L-Theanine, I tend to take a week off at the same time I give myself a week off from coffee/caffeine, as it helps to do both at the same time for me.

Has anyone used L-Theanine as a meditation aid?

When you take L-theanine your thinking will seemingly slow down considerably, but you are not fully conscious when L-Theanine is in your bloodstream. It shuts off certain areas of the brain and limits the bandwidth of brain waves to predominantly alpha waves (1). Full meditative consciousness requires great brain wave bandwidth from delta – to high gamma waves and full activity of the neurotransmitter systems. It is best to meditate completely sober, then your brain will adapt properly to fully receive consciousness. Theanine is beneficial though, after it has metabolized by the body. It acts like an adaptogen and increases strength of brain. Your alertness increases 24 h after consumption and meditation is easier for 48 h. This is because brain have adapted to the presence of L-theanine, and once it has been metabolized, the brain neurons will fire with greater intensity, until brain is again adapted to absence of L-Theanine. L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state.

Further and Related Readings

  1. L-Theanine & Caffeine Stack: Making the Best of Both Worlds
  2. Acetyl-L-Carnitine aka ALCAR
  3. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine aka NALT
  4. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ List

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Summary: Bacopa monnieri is a powerful natural herb nootropic used for ages for its memory enhancing and anti-aging effects. It reduces anxiety and improves memory formation. It also expands learning capacity, decreases stress and even offers neuroprotection

Bacopa Video TTS

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Introduction

What is Bacopa Monnieri?

Bacopa monnieri (also known as Brahmi) is one of the most acknowledged and widely respected nootropics. A traditional Ayurvedic medicine that has a good reputation of being a potent cognitive enhancer, stress and anxiety reliever, and brain protector. It improves memory formation and recall speed, it stimulates learning, enhances thought clarity, and increase brain function. It acts as a brain protectant, and studies confirm it as a potential remedy for dementia and similar conditions. Furthermore, it reduces anxiety and provides a feeling of calm and tranquility, all while eliminating stress. Users report it an excellent relaxant that improves sleep quality, leading to rejuvenating and refreshing rest. Its nootropic effects are comparable to those of Piracetam, one of the most popular smart drugs in the world. The supplement is produced from the plant extracts.


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Benefits & Effects

What Are Bacopa Monnieri Benefits?

  1. Enhances Memory Formation
  2. Improves Learning and Cognition
  3. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  4. Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
  5. Reduces Symptoms of Depression

Supporting research:

Bacopa Monnieri Enhances Memory Formation

Enhancement in memory formation, as well as recall speed, is one of Bacopa's primary benefits. Studies show that it significantly enhances memory in older people, and ongoing research is investigating its potential as a treatment of memory issues relating to neurological disorders.  (J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0342.)

Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. [1]

Improves Learning and Cognition

Bacopa Monnieri improves cognitive processing, making learning new things faster and easier. Studies show that it significantly enhances spatial learning, and it has also been confirmed to improve learning capacity in subjects under stress. Most users say that taking bacopa while studying makes it easier to understand and process new information. Reports carried out by clinical trials at India’s Central Drug Institute (CDRI) in Lucknow state that children taking bacopa show improved academic skills.[2]

Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Bacopa Monnieri is effective in reducing anxiety and stress. Clinical trials show that it significantly decreases anxiety and depression in volunteers, and animal studies compare bacopa to other plant extracts for the effective treatment of anxiety and similar disorders. [3] [4]

Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)

Bacopa is effective in reducing oxidative stress effects on the brain. It possesses potent antioxidant properties that protect the brain against environmental stressors associated in the cognitive decline relating to aging and associated with Alzheimer’s and other neurological diseases.[5]

Reduces Symptoms of Depression

In a study of individuals over 65 years old receiving 300mg dosage, the results show a notable decrease in depression symptoms as well as anxiety. [6]

Bacopa Monnieri waterhyssop
Bacopa is a genus of 70–100 aquatic plants belonging to the family Plantaginaceae. It is commonly known as water hyssop.

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Bacopa Monnieri Work?

Bacopa's nootropic and anxiolytic effects are due to its capability of enhancing neural communication as well as modulating the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and GABA.

Memory and Cognitive

Although it works over time by a variety of functions, bacopa improves memory and cognitive abilities by increasing synaptic communication. It promotes dendrites generation, thereby enhancing neural signaling. The improvement in neural impulse transmission is key to cognitive enhancement. The active ingredient in Bacopa monnieri extract (Bacoside-A) has been shown to stimulate nerve cells and cause synapses to be more receptive to nerve impulses. Studies show that Bacoside-A can prevent dopamine receptor dysfunction. Dopamine is a powerful neurotransmitter responsible for the brain’s reward and pleasure systems.

It also improves production of the enzyme Tryptophan Hydroxylase (TPH2); vital to many central nervous system actions such as the biosynthesis of serotonin. Furthermore, Bacopa stimulates activity in the hippocampus by increasing the activity of kinases, which are proteins that regulate cellular pathways. Because the hippocampus is involved in almost all cognitive activity, this is one of the main methods that allows bacopa to boost brain function.

Anxiety and Stress Relief

Bacopa monnieri produces its unique calming effects through several actions. One of the most crucial anxiety reduction effects is within its power to modulate the activity of certain neurotransmitters like those that regulate the uptake of serotonin, which is connecting to mood and anxiety.

Another active ingredient in bacopa is hersaponin, an alkaloid that provides a relaxing and soothing effect. Bacopa’s active ingredients also support the activity of GABA, another major neurotransmitter that acts to prevent anxiety by restricting the signaling of neuron over-excitement due to stress.


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Dosage

How To Take Bacopa Monnieri?

The minimum effective dose of Bacopa Monnieri is 300mg, taken with food or fat source. Some people, myself included, find it more effective at a higher dosage.

I take 300 to 600mg depending on the purpose, while people like Dave Asprey recommend a daily dose of 750mg.


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Side Effects

What Are Bacopa Monnieri Side Effects?

Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.

Bacopa side effects range from minor (digestion issues and fatigue) to severe (thyroid disorders and urinary tract complications). Minor side effects usually disappear as the body adapts to the herb.

Rodent studies suggest bacopa may reduce sperm count, so it's wise to avoid it if you are planning to conceive. However, it didn't have any impact on sex drive nor testosterone. Moreover, sperm count returns to normal once supplementation stops. [7]

Severe side effects may include thyroid disorders, urinary tract problems, gastrointestinal blockage, adverse impact on ulcers and lung conditions, and bradycardia.

So start with the lowest effective dose, and observe your body's reaction to it. If adverse effects occur, stop use.


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Conclusion

Bacopa monnieri enhances cognitive abilities, reduces anxiety, and treats a variety of conditions. Although it works over time, the anxiety-relieving effects are immediate.

Its a precious addition to nootropic stacks. If you’re looking for a natural nootropic to boost your cognition, relieve anxiety, and protect your brain against oxidative stress, Bacopa would make an excellent choice.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Does the smart drug Bacopa monnieri work?

Yes it does and it is great. You can even grow it yourself on the balcony. It does bring more oxygen to the brain hence you feel stimulated. But can’t compare to synthetic nootropics.

If you want a good harmonizing (stress relief) with energizing stack. Take

1x Bacopa 300mg
1x Rhodiola rosea 300mg
1x Alpha-GPC 300mg

You can 1x 5-HTP 50mg (optional)

And throughout your day, if you drink coffee add 1x L-theanine 100-200mg in it.

How much Bacopa Monnieri should I take?

The minimum effective dose of Bacopa Monnieri is 300mg, taken with food or fat source. Some people, myself included, find it more effective at a higher dosage.

I take 300 to 600mg depending on the purpose, while people like Dave Asprey recommend a daily dose of 750mg.

Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.

How long does it take Bacopa Monnieri to work?

The acute relaxation effects of Bacopa Monnieri start working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption.

The potential benefits of Bacopa Monnieri for improving memory and cognition will generally take effect within 4-6 weeks.

What are some uses of a Bacopa monnieri?

It can:

Enhance Memory Formation
Improve Learning and Cognition
Reduce Anxiety and Stress
Neuroprotective and Promote Longevity
Reduce Symptoms of Depression

Bacopa monnieri commonly called as ‘Brahmi’ is a perennial herb belonging to Plantaginaceae family of the flowering plants. In India it has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine as memory enhancer. It is also used in treatment of anxiety, digestive disorders, asthma, bronchitis and heart problems.

Further & Related Readings

  1. Ashwagandha
  2. Ginkgo biloba
  3. Lion’s Mane Mushroom
  4. Rhodiola Rosea
  5. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ

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OverviewBenefitsMechanisms of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperiencesFAQs

Summary: Piracetam is a designer nootropic made to enhance brain function. It's the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.

Piracetam Video TTS

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Overview

What is Piracetam?

Piracetam is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It's been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.

Nootropics such as Aniracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Fasoracetam, Sunifiram and Pramiracetam are all derivatives of this compound.

“Synthetic molecule designed to enhance brain function. Piracetam is the basic ‘racetam' molecule of a family of related compounds”

Examine

Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.

“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.”

Wikipedia


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Piracetam Benefits

What Are Piracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory
  2. Enhances Cognitive Function
  3. Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
  4. Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
  5. Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
  6. Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
  7. Helps with Schizophrenia

Supporting Research

Improves Memory

Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result. [1] [2]

Enhances Cognitive Function

There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits. [3] [4] [5]

Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration

Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. Prevention is of often the best medicine there is. [6] [7]

Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought

There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. [8]

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression

In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. Use with caution. With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social [9] [10] – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)

Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics

Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time. [11] [12]

Helps with Schizophrenia

Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus. [13] [14]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does Piracetam Work?

Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. Piracetam' mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.

“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).

Piracetam review
Piracetam Skeletal Structure

The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.

Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine

Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.


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Dosage

How to Take Piracetam?

Typically, the Piracetam dosage for adults is between between 1,200 to 4,800 mg per day.

The most effective and agreed upon Piracetam dose is 1,600 mg. It can be taken once per day, or up to three times per day, totaling a maximum of 4,800 mg per day.

If new to Piracetam and taking it for the first time, start with 1,600 mg and wait and observe your reaction to it. Few hours later, you can choose whether you want to take another dose, or if one is enough for your needs.

For optimal results pair it with 300mg of Alpha GPC, CDP-choline, or your choline source of choice.


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Side Effects

What Are Piracetam Side Effects?

Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. [15]

Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-Gpc, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.

Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. [16]


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User Experience

Reddit

A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:

So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i've never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions. I've lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i'ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety. With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me. Now I focus on what is important and I don't care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I've started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions. I've also noted i'm more honest and don't feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour. I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i've been an asshole my whole life) Even so I'm still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they're only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself. Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don't have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.

Another Reddit review

So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.) But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn't expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.


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Conclusion

Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.

Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Is Piracetam Legal in the US?

It's legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.

What's the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?

Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”

Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”

What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?

Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked' in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.

What is the correct way to take Piracetam?

“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”

Why does piracetam take so long to act?

Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down's syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.

Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?

The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:

1. Enhance some form of cognition.
2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.

For the first Qualifier:

Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.

Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focus, memory, and learning.

Second Qualifier:

Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]

Check out the Ultimate Nootropics Information FAQ for more FAQs


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Summary: Ashwagandha is an excellent herb in Ayurveda medicine. It has become a popular nootropic due to its numerous health benefits. It is able to eliminate stress and anxiety. Research suggest that it helps in improving depression symptoms.

It also increases testosterone levels and significantly boosts sperm quality and fertility in men. Furthermore, it increases muscle mass, reduces body fat and increases strength.

Ashwagandha KSM-66 is the best form of Ashwagandha to supplement with for nootropic purposes.

Ashwagandha Video TTS

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Overview

What is Ashwagandha?

Ashwagandha (also known as Withania somnifera) is an excellent herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It has become a popular nootropic due to its multiple health benefits.

It is able to eliminate stress and anxiety. And research suggests it also helps in improving depression symptoms.

It also increases testosterone levels and significantly boosts sperm quality and fertility in men. Furthermore, it increases muscle mass, reduces body fat and increases strength.

Current users are rediscovering the traditional herb as a valuable brain-booster that improves cognition by combating the impacts of stress and helping mood enhancement.

Recent research confirms it as a promising adaptogen helping prevent the consequences of recurring anxiety.

Users find that it's also a powerful anxiolytic; reducing stress and thereby enhances mood, decreases restlessness, insomnia, and sleep issues alike.

Withania somnifera, known commonly as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, or winter cherry is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family.

Wikipedia

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Ashwagandha is a herb that belongs to the night shade family of plants. The nightshade family of plants is a very interesting one and includes a lot of vegetables that make up large parts of many diets. Notable nightshade members are potatoes, tomatoes, chili peppers, goji berries and even tobacco! Another name for the nightshade family is Solanaceae. This is where Ashwagandha gets its Latin name from; Withania somnifera. Ashwagandha is a short perennial shrub, with a large root system that develops small deep orange fruits. The fruits resemble a small cherry and the leaves look frosty due to the many tiny hairs that are on them. This one of the reasons why Ashwagandha is also referred to as ‘winter cherry’. Traditionally, the Ashwagandha root is used, however new research has found high concentrations of key components in the leaves too. Various manufacturers have taken notice of this. One of the most notable being Natreon who produce a specialized extract of Ashwagandha called Sensoril. Sensoril is made from the leaves of Ashwagandha, giving it a unique chemical composition, which produces noticeable calming effects.

Sensoril Ashwagandha

Sensoril Ashwagandha is standardized to 10% glyco withanolides making it a potent and calming extract. Sensoril is made from a blend of Ashwagandha root and leave extracts, which is part of the reason why it is so potent. Sensoril is best taken during periods of high stress, or to help enhance sleep quality.

Ashwagandha KSM-66

Ashwagandha KSM-66 is extracted using milk. Traditionally, Ashwagandha root powder is mixed with milk to enhance absorption, and thus  Ixoreal Bioscience decided to use milk as its extraction solvent. The end result is an Ashwagandha root only extract that is very well balanced. Effect-wise, KSM-66 is very uplifting and can help support healthy stress levels.

Basic Ashwagandha

basic Ashwagandha is made from both Ashwagandha root and leaves, and is standardized to 4-5% withanolides. Effects wise, it appears to be a perfect blend of both KSM-66 and Sensoril. This Ashwagandha extract is uplifting and calming without being too calming or too energizing. Many people tend to prefer this Ashwagandha extract because it is so well balanced. In a blind test we did around the office, a vast majority of us preferred the regular Ashwagandha. However, if you are looking for specific effects, such as an extract that is very calming or an extract that is very uplifting, then this is not the Ashwagandha extract for you. – Nootropics Depot

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Ashwagandha Benefits

  1. Reduces Anxiety
  2. Improves Depression Symptoms
  3. Reduces Cortisol Levels
  4. Improves Cognitive Function
  5. Reduces Arthritis Symptoms
  6. Reverses Deficits Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease
  7. Helps in Weight Loss and Management
  8. Improves Muscle Strength
  9. Treats Male Sexual Dysfunction
  10. Decreases Blood Pressure
  11. Combats Chemotherapy Fatigue
  12. Rejuvenation and Overall Health Improvement

Supporting research:

Reduces Anxiety and Improves Depression

Ashwagandha is best known for its ability to fight stress and to ease different types of anxieties (R) by eliminating stressors. It serves the body's overall health, and empowers the immune system. Thereby preventing the damage of excessive cortisol. It enhances mood, sense of well-being, and all-around cognition.

Clinical trials verify Ashwagandha possess robust anxiety relief capabilities. As well as reducing symptoms of generalized & social anxiety.  Particularly useful for those suffering chronic stress (R).

Another study further reveals its potential as a treatment for mild depression and panic disorder (R).

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Reduces Cortisol Levels

A 60-day regimen of Ashwagandha seems to efficiently decrease levels of serum cortisol in individuals with chronic stress. The finding is significant because high cortisol levels lead to health complications. Those range from immune system weakness to bone density. In many cases it further extends to weight gain, high blood pressure, and heart disease.

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Improves Cognitive Function

Studies on Ashwagandha enhancing memory and intelligence are few. However, at the same time, studies are confirming that anxiety is a significant cause of cognitive decline, impairing memory and attentiveness. Stress deregulates the body and brain natural processes. Normalizing those functions is, therefore, the critical element to restoring optimal cognition (R).

Individuals who frequently worry, stress out, or suffer from depression are the ones to benefit most from Ashwagandha.

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Reduces Arthritis Symptoms

A 2015 Indian study comprising more than 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that after using Ashwagandha for several weeks, more than half those participants had a notable reduction in arthritic symptoms, including pain, movement difficulties, sore and swollen joints. (R)

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Reverses Deficits Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer's is the continuous impairing in memory and cognitive functions. After a 30-day course treatment using Ashwagandha, a complete reverse of the behavioral deficits is marked. This result shows how ashwagandha reverses the behavior of Alzheimer’s disease. It is achievable by the improvement of low-density lipoprotein protein in liver (R).

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Helps in Weight Loss and Weight Control

A study of 52 people diagnosed with chronic stress revealed that two daily doses of 300 mg of Ashwagandha resulted in a significant reduction in stress and food cravings, along with a decrease in serum cortisol and body mass. (R)

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Improves Muscle Strength

A series of studies on healthy men reveal that using 300 mg to 1250 mg of Ashwagandha on a daily basis show a measurable increase in muscle strength and intensity. In comparison to participants receiving a placebo, those on the Ashwagandha were able to increase their bench press and leg extension. Moreover, notable increases in muscle mass, testosterone, and muscle recovery. (R)

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Treats Male Sexual Dysfunction

A pilot study of 46 men suffering weak sperm production found a remarkable result when using 675 mg of Ashwagandha daily for two weeks. Another finding from that clinical trial is an impressive rise of 167% in sperm count, a 53% rise in semen mass, and a 57% rise in sperm fluidity. Animal studies similarly confirm Ashwagandha enhance sexual performance, improve testicular sperm production, and boost serum testosterone levels. [R]

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Decreases Blood Pressure

Studies indicate that Ashwagandha leads to a measurable decrease in blood pressure. In research involving 100 participants using Ashwagandha for about six months, an average 1.6% decrease in systolic pressure and 5.6% decline in diastolic pressure is witnessed, along with a minor reduction in heart rate.

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Combats Chemotherapy Fatigue

A 2013 trial involving more than 100 breast cancer individuals in all stages of the disease revealed that Ashwagandha efficiently reduced fatigue and weakness caused by chemotherapy. It also enhanced the quality of living. Even though it is not a treatment for cancer, it is a genuinely useful addition to the therapy for cancer patients. [R]

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Rejuvenation and Overall Health Improvement

A comprehensive analysis of studies, data, and research on Ashwagandha confirm that it provides a variety of therapeutic effects without toxicity. The review concludes that Ashwagandha possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-stress, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and rejuvenating qualities. It can exert a positive impact on the central nervous system. [R]

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Mechanism of Action

The exact mechanisms by which Ashwagandha works remain non-entirely understood, but it appears that the active components are alkaloids and steroidal lactones that are collectively known as withanolides.

It is this combination of elements that are thought to have the potential for physiological action.

Effects on GABA

One of the acknowledged mechanisms of the withanolide components of Ashwagandha is the modulation of circulating levels of MAO and GABA in the cerebellum. GABA is an amino that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, countering to some extent the effects of the stimulatory neurotransmitter glutamate and therefore helping as a natural tranquilizer. Animal studies show that Ashwagandha further indicates GABA-like attributes and improves calmness without producing drowsiness. It has also been revealed to possess anti-depressant effects (R). It appears to work exceptionally well in combination with  SSRIs for compulsion-related mental disorders. As well as with GABAergic anxiolytics, including alcohol.

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As an Antioxidant

The active withanolides in Ashwagandha are also thought to produce stable antioxidant properties, which makes them a helpful brain protectant. Antioxidants are chemical molecules that restrict conceivably damaging oxidizing causes from harming cells in the cerebellum and body. Cells remained influenced by oxidation can convert to free radicals, particles that harm circling cells. The free radicals triggers a series response of cellular damage that affects the aging process and a variety of complications.

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As an Anti-inflammatory

Ashwagandha seems to be a powerful anti-inflammation tool. Inflammation is a response of the body’s immune system; however, when the immune system is pushed to overactivity, inflammation converts into a health obstacle. Inflammation is correlating with a variety of disorders. From arthritis and joint discomfort to obesity, heart disease, fatigue, blood vessel damage, and even cancer. The anti-inflammatory attributes of Ashwagandha are at the core of many of its benefits. That includes shielding as well as enriching the immune system. Furthermore enhancing memory, improving the learning experience and reaction time, and preventing brain cell degeneration.

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On Dendrite Development

Ashwagandha promotes the development of dendrites, branching neuronal extensions that carry and generate electrochemical stimulation from cell to cell. Increasing dendrite development is a marker of connectivity improvement in the cerebellum.

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Dosage

How to Take Ashwagandha?

Typically, Ashwagandha dose ranges between 300 mg to 600 mg as the highest. Its not advisable to take more than 600mg when using on daily basis.

Take Ashwagandha with food and divide into two doses per day. If you prefer once a day, do so in the morning after breakfast.

It is not-advisable to use Ashwagandha in combination with JK inhibitors or MAO inhibitors.

There is not one universal Ashwagandha dosage due to the different levels of standardization. However, in general, an Ashwagandha powder extract dosage is going to be around 300-500 mg. This general Ashwagandha dosage falls in line with the various extracts we carry. For example, the Ashwagandha dosage for KSM-66 is 300 mg and the Ashwagandha dosage for our basic Ashwagandha powder extract is 500 mg. The Ashwagandha dosage for Sensoril is a little bit of an outlier, at 125 mg, but this is due to the fact that it is such a potent extract. – Nootropics Depot

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Side Effects

What Are Ashwagandha's Side Effects?

The most common side effects of Ashwagandha include:

  1. Indigestion
  2. Diarrhea
  3. Gastric discomfort
  4. Drowsiness

Ashwagandha is safe and digests well in reasonable doses. No severe side effects report using high doses over a short period. These side effects are brief; if they grow in severity or persist over a long time, discontinue using it and seek medical advice.

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Conclusion

Ashwagandha is both a potent adaptogen that supports the brain and body in handling and managing stress. It's a safe, well-tolerated anxiolytic proven to relief anxiety.

In addition to mood enhancement, it assists in regulating the sleep cycle, and improve memory. It further increases brain signaling by promoting neuronal vitality. It is efficient and with no record of severe side effects or toxicity; all while at an affordable price. This makes it a very worthwhile nootropic.


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User Experience

Reddit Review

“Ashwaganda seems to have reduced my social anxiety. In a v subtle way as well – I don’t find Ashwaganda mood altering, it’s rather there’s just an absence of anxiety. So subtle I only reflected on it & then realised I’d had reduced social anxiety. I’m using KSM 66 & using a high dose – 600mg/day.”

Nootropics Depot Review

“This was my first experience with Ashw. and it has been an excellent one. I take it before bedtime and it provides me with a better night of REM sleep, including dreams that are sometimes extremely involved. I love the stuff and have recommended it to my coworkers who have sleep difficulties.”

I've tried all three versions of shwagandha that ND sells, and this is my favorite. It just also happens to be the cheapest! Sensoril is great for bed, but makes me sleepy during the day. KSM66 works well during the day, but isn't as calming as I would like. This version provides that nice balance between them.


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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the benefits and side effects of Ashwagandha?

Benefits:
1. Reduces Anxiety and Improves Depression Symptoms
2. Reduces Cortisol Levels
3. Improves Cognitive Function
4. Reduces Arthritis Symptoms
5. Reverses Deficits Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease
6. Helps in Weight Loss and Weight Management
7. Improves Muscle Strength
8. Treats Male Sexual Dysfunction
9. Decreases Blood Pressure
10. Combats Chemotherapy Fatigue
11. Rejuvenation and Overall Health Improvement

Side effects of Ashwagandha (although not necessarily):

1. Indigestion
2. Diarrhea
3. Gastric discomfort
4. Drowsiness

Does Ashwagandha cause weight gain?

Ashwagandha leaf extract helps to manage your weight by lowering the level of stress hormones called Cortisol. Elevated cortisol levels increase hunger and craving for sweets, fried food, and soft drinks. These cravings result in increased calorie consumption leading to weight gain. Ashwagandha reduces the level of cortisol and decreases stress-induced cravings. This helps in better weight management. Tip: Take Ashwagandha leaf extract in churna form. Take 1-2gm churna twice a day with lukewarm water after taking a light meal.

Can Ashwagandha be consumed for months regularly?

It can be consumed regularly for months because of its health benefits. It helps gaining weight to o if consumed with milk at night..but as too much of anything can also be dangerous so one should consume in restricted quantity.

Further Related Readings

  1. Melatonin, Agmatine Sulfate
  2. Phenibut, Fasoracetam, Bacopa Monnieri, Lion's Mane Mushroom
  3. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ Page

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What is Melatonin? Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser Experiences

Summary: Melatonin plays several roles in the body, including helping to regulate blood pressure, boost immune function, antioxidative, and manages cortisol levels, in addition to regulating the body’s circadian rhythm. That’s why melatonin is often referred to as the body’s sleep hormone.

Melatonin Video TTS

Overview

What is Melatonin?

Melatonin is a multitasking hormone produced by the brain’s pinecone-shaped pineal gland. [R]

Melatonin plays several roles in the body, including helping to regulate blood pressure, boost immune function, and manage cortisol levels. [R] [R]

But melatonin is probably best known for its soporific powers. Chief among its responsibilities is regulating the body’s circadian rhythm so it knows when to rest and when to wake up. That’s why melatonin is often referred to as the body’s sleep hormone.

Benefits and Effects

What Are the Melatonin Benefits?

  1. Regulates Circadian Rhythm and Enhances Sleep Quality
  2. Alleviates Anxiety and Depression Symptoms
  3. A Potent Antioxidant
  4. Supports BDNF
  5. Strengthens the Blood-Brain Barrier
  6. Neuroprotective
  7. Replaces Benzos for Sleep

Supporting Research:

Regulates Circadian Rhythm and Enhances Sleep Quality

Melatonin increases the quality of sleep. The Circadian Rhythm influences the body’s sleeping habits. Think of it as a built-in clock that controls our bodies processes 24 hours a day. Scientists have observed that Melatonin normalizes the Circadian rhythm which can sometimes become distorted due to modern lifestyle. [R]

Alleviates Anxiety and Depression Symptoms

Conditions like depression and anxiety usually worsen by a disturbed, intermittent or a lack of a sleeping pattern. Having these disturbances regulated can alleviate the symptoms of these conditions, not mainly offering a cure but by far offering an improvement in the standard of life. [R]

Melatonin is a Potent Antioxidant

Antioxidant enzymes roles within our bodies are to help clean the cells in our bodies and filter our bloodstream from harmful cells. Melatonin increases the rate at which our body produces these enzymes that would be naturally. These molecules in question can also bond to what is called Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) & Reactive Nitrogen Species (NOS) which can decrease the level of damage each of these can cause respectively.

The benefits directly from this are that Melatonin prevents any harm coming to your organ systems or tissues. These advantages combined make Melatonin a very useful protectorate within your body internally. These antioxidants can also have benefits for the most critical organ in our body, our brain. [R]

Melatonin Supports BDNF

Nerve cells are also protected by the increase of these enzymes produced by Melatonin, having a positive onward affect towards the spinal cord including white matter and optic nerves. Its regeneration is down to something called the ‘Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor’ (BDNF); in simple terms, this is a protein responsible for the nerves regeneration and well-being within our brains. [R]

Strengthens the Blood-Brain Barrier

Melatonin strengthens the ever significant barrier between the brain and our blood. If the strength of this barrier were to deteriorate and for example leak, this can lead to cognitive dysfunction (also known as brain fog) and could potentially result in future to conditions such as Alzheimer’s. [R]

Melatonin is Neuroprotectant

In addition to defending against conditions such as Alzheimer’s development, Melatonin can also aid as a coping mechanism for users who have Parkinson’s. Melatonin in tests was shown to prohibit cell death and brain damage, sometimes as a cause of a leaky blood-brain barrier.

Referring back to the regulation of sleep, this can also help people who, however, there is currently no proof it helps with any of the other side-effects of the condition. [R]

Melatonin Replaces Benzos for Sleep

Its widely known that benzos usually depress the natural levels of melatonin within our bodies. Our recommendation is if you are using one of these drugs for sleep, it would be wise to start using melatonin instead. Moreover, start weaning yourself off the benzos. [R]

Mechanism of Action

How Does Melatonin Work?

Melatonin works together with your body’s circadian rhythm. In simple terms, the circadian rhythm is your body’s internal clock. It lets you know when it’s time to sleep, wake and eat. Melatonin also helps regulate your body temperature, blood pressure and hormone levels. [R]

Melatonin levels start to rise in your body when it is dark outside, signaling to your body that it is time to sleep. [R]

It also binds to receptors in the body and can help you relax. For instance, melatonin binds to receptors in the brain to help reduce nerve activity. In the eyes, it can help reduce dopamine levels, a hormone that enables you to stay awake. [R] [R]

Melatonin is controlled by light and darkness. When we’re awake and the sun’s out, we don’t produce any melatonin. But at night, the onset of darkness signals to our pineal gland to release melatonin into the bloodstream. Your melatonin levels begin to increase about two hours before you go to bed, typically around 9 p.m., and peak about five hours later. As melatonin levels rise throughout our body — it’s found in a variety of our organs, including our eyes, bones, ovaries/testes and gut — our body knows it’s time to drift off to Slumber Town. [R]

“The melatonin receptors are named MT1 and MT2, and are G-protein coupled receptors (GPRCs) coupled to Gi proteins (a heterotrimer of α, β, and γ that dissociates into α and βγ when the receptor is activated). These two receptors are quite different from each other, as they structure pharmacological characteristics and chromosomal location, yet both have high affinity for melatonin. A third ‘receptor' exists, known as MT3, but it is not a GPRC like MT1/2. Due to the cytoplasmic protein quinone reductase II having the same melatonin binding properties as ‘MT3', and deletion of quinone reductase II causing ‘MT3' to disappear, MT3 may just be quinone reductase II.” – Examine.com

Dosage

How To Take Melatonin?

You’ll see melatonin recommended in a range of doses, starting at around 0.5 milligrams up to 10 milligrams for people with sleep disorders, with the most common dosage being around 3 milligrams.

But even this is probably way more than you need.

You’re better off basing your melatonin intake on increments that mirror how much melatonin our bodies produce at night. According to clinical studies, the optimal dose is 0.3 milligrams. [R]

Melatonin Overdose

Even though the overwhelming verdict is that melatonin is safe, you can have too much of a good thing. Overdosing on melatonin has not been shown to be fatal, but it can produce the aforementioned side effects, like dizziness and grogginess. In one known case, after taking 24 milligrams of melatonin, a man became lethargic and disoriented, but returned to normal and did not continue to have issues once he lowered his dosage.

In addition, large doses could potentially cause amenorrhea (skipped periods) in women, due to it suppressing gonadotropin-releasing hormones, but if you can easily remedy this side effect by simply stopping your supplements. [R]

Side Effects

Are There Side Effects to Melatonin?

Overall, the side effects of melatonin are pretty harmless. Unlike other sleep aids, like benzodiazepines and z-drugs (think: Ambien and Lunesta), it does not cause dependence or withdrawal symptoms. [R]

The most commonly reported side effect is daytime drowsiness. Other side effects include nausea, headache, and dizziness. [R]

If course, if you’re taking other medications, you should check with your physician before popping a melatonin. It has been known to interact with some antidepressants, blood pressure medications, sedatives, antibiotics, and antihistamines. [R]

Up to 240 mg and 500 mg oral and intravenous injections of melatonin taken acutely is not associated with any toxicological effects. [R]

A handful of large scale, 6-12 month studies, suggest continued administration of melatonin does not result in tolerance. – Examine.com

Conclusion

There's great amount of evidence suggesting as well as proving the benefits of supplementing with melatonin whether for sleep purposes or overall general health. Best practices when supplementing with melatonin for long-term benefits is to take a microdose of 300 mcg on daily basis before bedtime.

This microdose will serve a host of benefits most noteworthy of which is antioxidation and supporting mitochondria and antioxidation.

Many Nootropic focused companies are now aware of this and its benefits and so finally starting to see products in microdoses such as Nootropic Depot's, which I have personally been using for a long time. Prior to which, I tried a couple of different products at the doses of 3 mg and it made me very heavy and groggy for a long time.

User Experience

Reddit Review

A reddit user documented his experience after 2 years of using microdose of melatonin as recommended alongside magnesium, and his realization of how beneficial it had been working for him after he stopped.

I took Magnesium Citrate (200-400mg) and Melatonin (0.3mg) both every night for over 2 years and thought they didn't make much difference in my sleep. It turned out to be very wrong – I now remember how poor my sleep was 3 years ago, before starting to take them. I wake up from the slightest noise and can't go back to sleep for many hours afterwards – even if I wake up after only 4 hours, I would need to wait 3 hours before I fall asleep again, without Magnesium and Melatonin. This has been this way since I was a child. I find Melatonin is better for actually falling asleep initially, while Magnesium is better for maintaining quality sleep afterwards.

Second Reddit User Experience

I have learned the same lesson with melatonin in that less is more. I took 30 mg one evening and had very unsettling and vivid dreams. Not restful at all. I find 5 mg timed release works well. If you are interested in another natural sleep / relaxation aid, I have had success with Red Bali Kratom.

Further and Related Readings

From the blog: Melatonin for Sleep: How Effective Is It?

Wouldn’t it be great if you could pop a pill for better sleep? A pill that’s non-habit-forming, doesn’t require a prescription, and doesn’t make you do strange things like eat in your sleep? Well, maybe you can. While more satisfying zzz’s in pill form sounds too good to be true, there’s promising evidence that melatonin, the naturally occurring hormone in our bodies, can be harnessed as a supplement for better sleep.

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OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanisms of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceFAQs

Summary: Phenylpiracetam is a potent and fast-acting racetam type nootropic. It enhances cognitive abilities and boosts physical strength, stamina, energy, as well as reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety. Being stimulatory, it is banned by the Olympics Anti-Doping committee to the participating athletes.

Phenylpiracetam Video TTS

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Overview

What is Phenylpiracetam?

Phenylpiracetam (also known, and sold under the brand name Phenotropil) is one of the most effective, most efficient and most potent racetam nootropics which is widely used, and have been available on the market for many years. With the safe and effective use, many regards Phenylpiracetam a “lifesaver” and “faithful companion” in times of need. Quite dramatic descriptions.

Although it is a new nootropic in comparison to classic racetams such as Piracetam, over the past few years, it gained popularity due to its practical use.

Phenylpiracetam – as the name indicates, is a derivative of piracetam, with the phenyl addition. Which is why it shares so many properties with piracetam. However, it seems to be much more powerful. It is anywhere between 30 to 60 times more potent, and therefore effective, in its action.

Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil, Carphedon) is a scarcely studied piracetam derivative. It's notable for its stimulatory subjective effects. It appears on the list of banned substances for Olympic sports. In-vitro experiments suggest phenylpiracetam binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In animal models phenylpiracetam seems to increase NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density, which may suggest it has potential as a cognitive enhancer.[204] Similarly, in animal experiments phenylpiracetam seems to exert anti-depressant effects. [111] No studies have been done to show phenylpiracetam improves cognitive performance in otherwise healthy individuals. Phenylpiracetam seems to be the most stimulatory piracetam derivative.

Reddit's Begginer Guide

Piracetam vs Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam is the same chemical structure of Piracetam, but with the addition of a large phenyl grouping off the 4 position of the pyrrolidone ring that all racetams share. Phenylpiracetam has very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble. The LogP of Phenylpiracetam is .16, and its solubility in water is 1-2mg/ml at 25 Celsius. The melting point of phenylpiracetam is 149-152 Celsius. Phenylpiracetam also has a stereocenter, meaning it can come in both R and L enantiomers. All phenylpiracetam available is racemic, or a 50/50 mixture of both enantiomers.

For the sake of illustration, and to paint the idea well, look at the two following picture. First comes the piracetam skeletal formula, or chemical structure:

Second is Phenylpiracetam skeletal formula, in which you see Piracetam above the red line, and under the line is the phenyl addition, making it into phenylpiracetam:

The phenyl addition on its own:

phenylpiracetam piracetam

phenyl-phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam is quite popular for its neuroprotective properties which are the dominant feature of many racetam nootropics. But in comparison to piracetam, its neuroprotective attributes are more effective.

It is also psychostimulatory, in other words, it is a stimulant. For that reason, Phenylpiracetam enhances physical performance, which is the primary reason behind its increased consumption among athletes.

Due to these attributes, Phenylpiracetam has become a favorite amongst other nootropics, and its sales have also increased over the past few years due to the positive response it keeps receiving.


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Phenylpiracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Cognitive Function, Memory, and Attention
  2. Reduces Anxiety and Depression
  3. Boosts Energy and Increases Physical Mobility
  4. Enhances Physical Performance
  5. Additional Benefits

Supporting research:

Improves Cognitive Function, Memory, and Attention

In studies of subjects with cognitive impairment, phenylpiracetam improves cognitive function and enhances overall memory impressively after a month of treatment. The study's abstract notes:

“Ninety-nine patients with encephalopathy developed in the remote period after acute lesions of cerebral blood circulation, brain traumas and cerebral gliomas surgery have been studied. Phenotropil was used in a dosage of 200 mg per day during one month.

A CT survey revealed that in a stable state of brain changes phenotropil exerted the mostly pronounced influence on movement disturbances: decreased an extent of pareses in limb and face muscles, improved motor coordination, higher brain functions, memory, attention, counting.” [1]

Reduces Anxiety and Depression

In the same study, one of the revelations in the state of brain changes that Phenylpiracetam caused were:

  1. Higher mobility and daily activity
  2. Lower and less feelings of discomfort
  3. Lower anxiety
  4. Reduction depression

“Patients exhibited higher mobility and daily activity, along with lower discomfort, anxiety and depression. EEG study showed more intensive alpha- and beta-rhythms, a decrease of paroxysmal activity and slow waves as well as a general tendency to its normalization.” [2]

Boosts Energy and Increases Physical Mobility

A study patient with chronic fatigue syndrome finds that a one-month treatment of phenylpiracetam reduces fatigue notably.

The study included 1170 patients with brain ischemia, aged 45-65 years, treated with phenotropil in dose 100 mg during 2 and 3 months. Clinical examination and MFI-20 subscales were administered.

The results of the study:

“The high incidence of asthenic syndrome was observed across all MFI-20 subscales. The decrease in asthenic syndrome severity was significant already in the end of the first month of treatment with phenotropil. Such dynamics maintained to the end of the second and third month of treatment. More than 2-fold decrease in the severity of asthenia symptoms was achieved in all subgroups 3 months after treatment. More rapid and apparent decrease in asthenic syndrome was observed in younger patients.” [3]

Furthermore, a notable increasing of movement and physical activity is seen in this study, though it is conducted on rodents. The abstract of the study reads:

“Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil).” [4]

Enhances Physical Performance

Here is another very interesting rodent study in which Phenylpiracetam was found to increase the speed and distance traveled during an open-race test. Some of the highlights of that study:

“After a single administration, it increased locomotor and antidepressant activity in the open‐field and forced swimming tests, respectively, as well as enhanced memory in the PAR test. Racemic phenotropil and S‐phenotropil also stimulated locomotor activity and induced some antidepressant effect after acute administration.”

It's quite an interesting, and extensive study. You may find the study here: [5]

Additional Benefits

Anecdotal reports claim It was used by Russian soldiers and astronauts to achieve high physical strength and mental abilities. Although it makes sense and I do believe it personally, those studies are very hard to find due to having taken place a very long time ago, and in another period of time, and another language (Russian).

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Mechanism of Action

How Does Phenylpiracetam Work?

Phenylpiracetam is a piracetam which comes with a phenyl group attached to it. It has similar functions and potency as that of piracetam, which is its parent molecule. However, the addition of the phenyl group has increased its effectiveness in many ways which have led to the increased usage and exposure of Phenylpiracetam in the market.

Furthermore, it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Thus it has CNS effects. Most users compare its impact to that of Adderall and modafinil. It is more potent than other racetams and has a high bioavailability, making it a great first line agent to take in case if you are having an exhaustive day ahead.

Its half-life is about 3-5 hours.

No mechanism is in the documentation for the action it produces and the way it processes them and makes them work. However, it has energy and performance boosting properties, and it has a close resemblance to phenyl-ethylamine, which has stimulatory effects. Phenylpiracetam has a close affinity with neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

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Dosage

How To Take Phenylpiracetam?

The general Phenylpiracetam dose is usually 100 to 200 mg per dose, and can be taken in up to 2 to 3 doses per day at max. Although I wouldn't go that far myself. The higher end is often for specific conditions and are less frequent than the lower end dosage.

Personally, I prefer taking one 200 mg dose, once only. The effects are much more present and pleasing at that dosage. I feel like anything more than 200mg would be too stimulatory for me, especially given that I often take it along with other nootropics as part of a stack.

Its also important to note that Phenylpiracetam tolerance builds up quickly. Therefore, minimize your use to when you need it rather than making it a part of a daily stack. Once to twice per week is a good practice.

A little bit more science from Examine.com about recommended dosage, active amounts, and other details:

Phenylpiracetam is taken at a dosage of 100-200mg acutely, and this dose is taken 2-3 times per day (totalling a daily range of 200-600mg). The lower range seems effective, but the optimal dosage is not yet known.

The R-isomer appears to be more active on the common usages of phenylpiracetam (stimulation and cognition) than does the S-isomer, and while the racemic mixture (commonly sold version) is effective for cognitive decline it is not certain if it works for nootropic purposes in youth.

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Side Effects

What Are Phenylpiracetam Side Effects?

The major issues and side effects that appear with Phenylpiracetam are the same that occur with other racetams.

The most common side effect of Phenylpiracetam is a headache. which is due to the choline reserves depletion. Using a choline source such as Alpha-GPC or Citicoline would quickly resolve the issue.

Due to that, I try to always pair Phenylpiracetam and a choline source together instead of waiting to see whether or not I am going to have a headache. That, plus I wouldn't mind the potentiating boost of the additional choline.

Rarely reported side effects are related to the GI tract, such as digestion issues, and constipation.

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User Experience

Nootropics Depot Review

This is a great product, don't get me wrong. Personally, however, my tolerance built up almost instantaneously. First use was wonderful, worked exactly as advertised. Took it a second time 2 days later. Still felt the effects, but was noticeably diminished. Waited a week before taking it again and felt like that first use. Decided to take it the very next day and felt it somewhat, but hardly. Abstained for a week and decided to take 2 in the morning. The effects were comparable to the first time. Took the same dose 3 days later and didn't notice the effects at all. Waited a week before taking it again, took two again and felt the effects like the previous week but it wore off rather quickly. Since then I've only taken it once a week in the latter part of the day when I work a double at my job. This product definitely works, but in my opinion should be used very sparingly. I acknowledge the fact that I tend to develop tolerance to most substances quickly, so if you consider yourself to have that same trait this review would likely apply to you.

Phenylpiracetam without a doubt works, and quite well at that. This was my introduction to the racetam family. I’m eager to try the others now, but wanted to start with one that provided an energy boost. I definitely picked the right one. Within an hour after use you will feel the effects, and they last around 5 hours for me. Sometimes I would take 2-3 capsules instead of 1, and it never made me feel jittery or anxious like too much caffeine would. Highly recommend this product if you are looking for a clean boost in energy and motivation. Works well along side caffeine in my opinion as well.

“This is a great product, don't get me wrong. Personally, however, my tolerance built up almost instantaneously. First use was wonderful, worked exactly as advertised. Took it a second time 2 days later. Still felt the effects, but was noticeably diminished. Waited a week before taking it again and felt like that first use. Decided to take it the very next day and felt it somewhat, but hardly. Abstained for a week and decided to take 2 in the morning. The effects were comparable to the first time. Took the same dose 3 days later and didn't notice the effects at all. Waited a week before taking it again, took two again and felt the effects like the previous week but it wore off rather quickly. Since then I've only taken it once a week in the latter part of the day when I work a double at my job. This product definitely works, but in my opinion should be used very sparingly. I acknowledge the fact that I tend to develop tolerance to most substances quickly, so if you consider yourself to have that same trait this review would likely apply to you.

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Conclusion

Phenylpiracetam has attained the attention and popularity among the nootropic users for its powerful, dynamic impacts and effects. It is a potent activator of the CNS activities. Its ability to increase the energy and physical performance have made it a favorite for many in the field of study and sports as well. As time passes, these highly active ingredients are only going to gain more attention.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Phenylpiracetam used for?

Phenylpiracetam is more potent than piracetam and is used for a wider range of indications. In combination with a vasodilator drug, piracetam appeared to have an additive beneficial effect on various cognitive disabilities. [R]

Does Phenylpiracetam get you high?

Phenylpiracetam boosts memory, cognition level, stamina and energy levels. Having those benefits to someone who has deficiencies in one or more of them would lead him to experiencing a euphoric state, which many people may refer to as being high. Therefore, ultimately, the answer to the question of does phenylpiracetam get you high would be yes.

Is Phenylpiracetam a stimulant?

Yes, in comparison to the general nootropics, Phenylpiracetam is considered to be stimulating nootropic. Moreover, Phenylpiracetam is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (Olympics) due to its reported psychostimulatory and cold resistance properties . But it is not a hard stimulant like amphetamines, methamphetamine, and other pharmaceutical & street drugs. It would be the better alternative – although its not recommended for day to day use due to quick tolerance-building. Ideally, taking Phenylpiracetam once to twice a week is the best way to use it without worrying about tolerance build-up or abuse potential.

Is Phenylpiracetam Legal?

Phenylpiracetam legality status depends on country to country basis. In the US, Phenylpiracetam is uncontrolled, unscheduled compound. Which means it is legal to buy and posses. While in Russia, Phenylpiracetam is a prescription drug (sold under brand name Phenotropil). Therefore, in Russia, you need a prescription to legally posses Phenylpiracetam.

How much Phenylpiracetam should I take?

The general Phenylpiracetam dose is usually 100 to 200 mg per dose, and can be taken in up to 2 to 3 doses per day at max. Although I wouldn't go that far myself. The higher end is often for specific conditions and are less frequent than the lower end dosage. Personally, I prefer taking one 200 mg dose, once only. The effects are much more present and pleasing at that dosage. I feel like anything more than 200mg would be too stimulatory for me, especially given that I often take it along with other nootropics as part of a stack. It's also important to note that Phenylpiracetam tolerance builds up quickly. Therefore, minimize your use to when you need it rather than making it a part of a daily stack. Once to twice per week is a good practice.

What is the best way to cycle Phenylpiracetam?

I would say limit the usage to once or twice per week as needed. Anything more than that would start the tolerance build-up. Another individual's advise, from his personal experience: Avoid taking phenylpiracetam for more than two consecutive days. I’ve found that by day 3 tolerance develops, even if I’m taking low doses (e.g. 50 mg). A solid schedule might be taking phenylpiracetam every other day. Better yet, twice a week only.

What does Phenylpiracetam stack with?

Aniracetam, low dose of Noopept, Alpha-Gpc, Lion's Mane Mushroom. Many other nootropics as well if you are only taking one phenylpiracetam capsule of 150mg. But in general Phenylpiracetam stacks well with most nootropics. Though most frequently its stacked with cholinergics.

Why do many people prefer phenylpiracetam over Piracetam?

“It's no secret that Phenylpiracetam is often preferred to Piracetam by some people. This is largely due to the fact that it is stronger than Piracetam. You see, phenylpiracetam was first synthesized in 1983 as a modification of the nootropic Piracetam. The primary alteration to Phenylpiracetam from its predecessor is the addition of a phenyl group– a small change that has made phenylpiracetam significantly more potent than Piracetam, even at much smaller dosages. Phenylpiracetam cognitive enhancing effects are reportedly achieved by increasing the density and number of acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA, and glutamate receptors in the brain. Through this mechanism, research suggests that Phenylpiracetam increases functional activity at the neurotransmitter binding sites most important for memory and cognition.” Also: The stimulant qualities, which disappear after regular use. I estimate it is at first like one strong cup of coffee, weakening on subsequent doses. I think that is the reason that phenylpiracetam hasn’t replaced piracetam altogether. The advantages of phenylpiracetam have to be weighed against the greater cost. For daily or at least regular use, the price point of plain piracetam is better.

What are Phenylpiracetam capsules?

Phenylpiracetam capsules is a nootropic compound derivative of the parent compound in the Racetam family, Piracetam. It was first created in 1983 by a team of Russian scientists, and has recently become more well-known outside of Russia. Phenylpiracetam differs from Piracetam in the addition of a bulk phenyl grouping off the 4 position on the 2-pyrrolidone base structure. A phenyl grouping is a six-sided cyclic ring consisting of benzene, minus a hydrogen, leaving an open carbon bond available. Phenylpiracetam has very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble. It has a molar mass of 218.3 g/mol and a molecular formula of C12H14N2O2. CAS: 77472-70-9 – IUPAC: (R,S)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide

What's the difference between Phenylpiracetam and Piracetam?

Phenylpiracetam is the same chemical structure of Piracetam, but with the addition of a large phenyl grouping off the 4 position of the pyrrolidone ring that all racetams share. Phenylpiracetam has very low water solubility but is slightly lipid soluble. The LogP of Phenylpiracetam is .16, and its solubility in water is 1-2mg/ml at 25 Celsius. The melting point of phenylpiracetam is 149-152 Celsius. Phenylpiracetam also has a stereocenter, meaning it can come in both R and L enantiomers. All phenylpiracetam available is racemic, or a 50/50 mixture of both enantiomers.

What is it like to combine modafinil with phenylpiracetam?

“If taken in in doses within the normal range then, anecdotally, you're not likely to notice the phenylpiracetam. The subjective effects felt from a typically prescribed dose of Modafinil (or recommended dose of it's alternative pro-drug cousin Adrafinil) are, in my experience, significantly more pronounced than those of any “racetam”. That said, anyone who can get what they need (be it an increase in vigilance and/or cognitive enhancement) from phenylpiracetam alone would do well to consider staying monogamous to that truer “cleaner” class of nootropic.”

How does taking Phenylpiracetam feel different from taking modafinil?

“I can’t disagree more with anyone who suggests the superiority of one over the other. Everyone reacts differently to subtances, even the exact same substance at the same dose delivered to folks of the same gender, body weight, age, whatever. The first rule is to understand this. Personally, I have the choice to take either, and I always take phenyl instead. Modafinil works well for me the first day, maybe the second, but it will burn me out very quickly. It makes me feel terrible fast. Phenyl doesn’t have this effect. Supplement with citicholine (or another choline source like centrophenoxine, alpha-GPC, or dietary choline) and fish oil (or DHA enhanced flax seed oil) to get the best effects. Take the choline source and the DHA source together, and take the phenylpiracetam an hour later. Try both if you can. I really hate provigil and nuvigil, Dexedrine is far more dangerous and unhealthy than pro/nuvigil or any racetam, but if its not going to become a habit it might be worth looking into. Dexedrine is about as strong as you can get without using crystal meth. Again, it may affect you terribly or in a great way. It depends on the brain, not the substance. Experiment responsibly.”

Does eating food effects Phenylpiracetam?

Eating a meal will likely hinder absorption with phenylpiracetam and especially noopept. I would recommend taking phenylpiracetam on an empty stomach (ie first thing in the morning). Noopept can be taken sublingually (under the tongue) and bypass the need to absorb it in your GI. It’s absorbed much more efficiently this way and it does not matter if you’ve recently eaten anything. If you’re asking if eating food while under the effects of phenylpiracetam or noopept, the answer is no.

What does phenylpiracetam synergize with?

Phenylpiracetam stacks well with most other nootropics. The most common type of nootropic that it's stacked with is the cholinergics. And of the cholinergics, the most common ones taken with phenylpiracetam are Alpha-GPC and CDP-Choline. The reason for this is twofold: First, some people get headaches with phenylpiraceam and other racetams. It is thought that this side effect is caused by reduced acetylcholine levels. Taking a choline source with it increases acetylcholine levels in the brain, eliminating the headaches. The second reason that cholinergics go well with phenylpiracetam is that the latter works (in part) by affecting acetylcholine in the brain. By taking the former, you have more of this neurotransmitter for the phenylpiracatam to work with. This leads to a synergistic effect. Taking phenylpiracetam with either Alpha-GPC or CDP-Choline seems to be more effective than taking either of these by themselves.

More FAQs can be found on here [link]

Related Nootropics

Phenylpiracetam is one of a nootropic-family type called racetams. Some of which are:

Other nootropics that might be of interest:

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Return to Nootropics Information homepage.

OverviewBenefits and EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser Experience

Summary: Sunifiram is an experimental, potent and powerful nootropic that enhances memory, expands learning capacity, and uplifts mood. A recent addition to the racetam family that seems more than promising. Sunifiram dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

Sunifiram Video TTS

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Overview

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam. Although there has not been much evidence about its efficacy, it has been proven to be beneficial for the (many) individuals using it. With research and trials ongoing and growing, its use will increase along as well. Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) has been one of the best nootropics that powerfully influence cognition. It enhances mood, lowers stress, and increases energy and focus.

It is an invention from the year 2000. And although it is very new to the market, it is proving to be effective and useful to individuals both in long and short terms. It is an effective nootropic that improves learning and memory, and furthermore enhances cognitive function. It is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amnesia, like most racetams. There are no reports of any severe side effects from its use, making it effective, useful, and safe.

Although it belongs to the racetam class, Sunifiram has a different structure. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as a piperazine alkaloid rather than racetam. It delivers many of the same memory and learning enhancements as piracetam but is much more potent.

Sunifiram is also an ampakine. It increases the efficacy and activity of neurotransmitter glutamine. This leads to significant changes such as mood and energy improvement along with other cognition benefits.

Sunifiram (developmental codename DM-235) is an experimental drug which has antiamnesic effects in animal studies and with significantly higher potency than piracetam. Sunifiram is a molecular simplification of unifiram (DM-232). As of 2016, sunifiram had not been subjected to toxicology testing, nor to any human clinical trials, and is not approved for use anywhere in the world. Wikipedia


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Benefits and Effects

What Are Sunifiram Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  2. Improves Symptoms of Depression
  3. Enhances Mood and Boosts Energy
  4. Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation
  5. Enhances Focus and Motivation
  6. Enhances Visual Perception
  7. Increases Libido

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Supporting research:

Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression

As an antidepressant and anxiety reliever, Sunifiram produces its effects as a mirror image of an ampakine. It reacts with glutamatergic AMPA receptors. That also allows it to act as a mild stimulant.

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Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy

Sunifiram is known to increase energy and enhance mood. This is likely due to its antidepressant-like effect.

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Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation

Sunifiram is a potent and powerful nootropic. It enhances memory formation and retention as well as expanding the learning capacity. It is in use in case of diseases that cause memory loss or amnesia. Its use is not yet regulated by the FDA, but still widely in use by many individuals for its nootropic benefits. [R] [R]

Appears to promote long term potentiation in the hippocampus with oral ingestion, which should result in an improvement in memory in animals that have otherwise impaired memory. Examine.com

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Enhances Focus and Motivation

Sunifiram enhances focus and concentration. It is known to improve motivation and enable a person to complete mentally-demanding tasks at ease and comfort. The focus heightening and motivation is due to the increase in the release and utilization of acetylcholine; which has a direct impact on cognitive abilities.

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Enhances Visual Perception

Sunifiram keeps you out of stress and negative thinking. It makes you have a confident, better outlook on life. It allows you to look at the future positive and ambitiously. Such useful effects are helpful for people at any and every stage of life.

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Increases Libido

Increase in the sex drive is often in anecdotal reports. However, there is no clinical evidence on this specific claim and only anecdotal ones support it.

Mechanism of Action

How Does Sunifiram Work?

Sunifiram is a piracetam derivative. But it often comes as a surprise that it has a different chemical structure from the other racetams. It is basically a piperazine alkaloid which can act as an ampakine that will increase the activity of glutamine receptors and increase the stimulation effects. Or it can serve as a cholinergic that stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine.

Sunifiram dosage
Sunifiram Structure

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AMPAkine Action

Although no such evidence is still available about its use and its action in humans due to the lack of the trials, the primary factor that drives it to work would be the ampakine factor which allows it to provide the stimulation effects by acting at the glutamate receptors. Ampakines are mild stimulants. They can increase alertness and energy. They do not cause restlessness which like other antidepressants or anxiolytics. The increase the energy levels and the activity factor is also one of the significant roles Sunifiram plays. Due to its effect on the glutamate receptors, it leads to functions such as spatial navigation and the formation and storage of memory, which are crucial for many neurological conditions.

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Cholinergic Action

Sunifiram acts as a cholinergic as well. Due to this effect, it leads to the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Acetylcholine increases brain function and cognition abilities. The primary functions are memory enhancement, learning speed and capacity which grow and expand very notably. You can also count on the fluid intelligence or ability to solve unique problems with this supplement. Sunifiram is an essential nootropic to students as well as athletes to increase their performance and achieve better results.

Sunifiram appears to act on the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, which enhances signalling and activates some intracellular proteins (CAMKII and PKCα) which then positively regulate the AMPA receptors. These mechanisms are highly similar to that seen with nefiracetam. Examine.com

The mechanism of action of sunifiram is unknown. Sunifiram, as well as unifiram, were assayed at a wide panel of sites, including the most important receptors, ion channels, and transporters, but showed no affinity for any of the sites. They specifically did not bind to the glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, acetylcholine, or opioid receptors at concentrations of up to 1 μM. In addition, the drugs were tested on recombinant AMPA receptors and showed no potentiation of the receptors, indicating that they do not act as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators. However, they were able to prevent the amnesia induced by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX in the passive avoidance test, suggesting that indirect/downstream AMPA receptor activation may be involved in their memory-enhancing effects. Sunifiram, as well as other nootropics such as piracetam, levetiracetam, and aniracetam are able to antagonize inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital), diazepam, and certain other drugs in human erythrocytes in vitro (Ki = 26.0 uM for sunifiram), and this action has been found to correlate with their potency in reversing scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. However, this action has been regarded as very unlikely to represent the main mechanism of action of sunifiram. – Wikipedia

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Dosage

How to Take Sunifiram?

Sunifiram works effectively at a dosage of 5 to 10 mg –  at a maximum of three times per day. This is the safe dose which is often taken sublingual for maximum efficacy and absorption.

It is advised that one starts with the smallest doses to prevent side effects and toxicity. Although it is not in documentation, tolerance can grow with excessive usage, so it is better to take it occasionally instead of daily basis.

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Suggested dose:

only 4-8 mg 2-3 times a day is needed with this ultra potent nootropic. When you’re talking about the Bugatti of the nootropics world, less is more. A little goes all the way!

Possible side effects:

it is possible to experience headaches from choline depletion with excessive use. This can be combated by consuming sources of choline. In rare cases individuals have experienced nausea. – Nootropics City

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Sunifiram Stack

For Boosting Cognitive Function

By pairing sunifiram with one or more of the racetams like piracetam, oxiracetam, or Noopept, we can achieve this increase which has been the most common and most favorite Sunifiram combo. A choline source like Alpha GPC is an important part of this combo due to the increased choline depletion by the former nootropics.

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For Mood Enhancement

Combining Aniracetam with sunifiram is a good option for mood enhancement. You can combine L-theanine, which increases production of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA with sunifiram. Sulbutiamine, which is a potent enhancer of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic functions can be a good combination as well. Choline source should always be present in those combos to prevent getting a headache.

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Side Effects

What Are Sunifiram Side Effects?

Due to being fairly new and not as widely popular as the rest of the racetams, no severe side effects of sunifiram have surfaced yet. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still ongoing, and it is yet to get FDA approval. Use with caution.

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User Experience

Reddit Review

On a Reddit user wrote down a thorough experience of sunifiram:

For years I have been a hardcore coffee drinker and other than that I had not used any other substances to enhance my cognition in any way. A few months ago I started a doctor-supervised weight loss program that included the use of 30 mg of Phentermine daily as an appetite suppressant.

Unfortunately, Phentermine is an amphetamine that gave me an extreme energy rush that was affecting my focus and concentration. I could not sit and study because I was getting easily distracted by anything. This was starting to affect my performance in my current classes and at work so I tried using 200 mg of L-Theanine and reduce my caffeine intake with moderately positive effects.

After losing about 100 lbs, I am ready to stop the Phentermine and continue my healthy eating habits for a long-term weight loss maintenance. This Phentermine is addictive so my doctor is reducing the dose gradually to minimize the withdrawal effects. However, I started feeling slightly depressed and foggy. This is when I decided to go on my own and experiment with Noots to see if they would help.

My doctor is not familiar with any nootropics nor did he think anything like that would be appropriate since the effects of phentermine withdrawal would pass in a few weeks.

I did some research about nootropics that would help me with this situation and decided to go shopping. I was low on cash but had a credit on Amazon so the only strong nootropic that I found was Sunifiram. Despite the warnings that there are no sufficient studies on the long-term effects, I decided to assume all risks and give it a try.

The Experience

I started five days ago with 10mg of Sunifiram administered sublingually. Approximately 10-15 minutes after the first dose I felt what others have called “sunny”. It is hard to explain but it was somewhat overwhelming and the effect did not last long.

The following day I took the same dose and got the same but short effect. I did have a mild headache after waking up but nothing unbearable. I started to get the full effect on Day 3. Suddenly I was able to focus on whatever I wanted and the ideas flowed easily. I had struggled to finish a paper for days but this time I finished it in less than an hour.

Today is Day 5 of using Sunifiram and I have to say it has been a positive experience so far. I wish I could explain better my experience but I have not used anything with comparable results. It is not an extreme rush of energy nor a sedative effect. I just feel a sense of clarity that I had not felt before.

I don't want to take the risk of using Sunifiram for long-term cognition enhancement given the unknown effects of continued use, so I will stop taking it as soon as I finish this class. Once I have some cash to spend, I might look into other alternatives like Piracetam, Noopept or something similar.

TL;DR:

Sunifiram was my first experience with a “smart drug”. During the first two days the effects were mild and nearly unnoticeable. After the third day I felt a positive improvement in my mood and focus. Since there are no sufficient studies on the long term use of this substance, I will discontinue its use and seek other Nootropics with better background research.

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Conclusion

Sunifiram is one of the nootropics having huge and fast-growing demand, so its not easily accessible. Its potency, efficacy, and effectiveness have been superb. Although it does not have a lot of trials under its belt, it is nevertheless one which has been encouraging and promoted as a safe and effective nootropic.

Not for everyday use, but it can be a good companion to have in your stack. Increasing energy, cognitive abilities, and physical performance are the prime features of this product which make it one worth trying out.

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Where to Buy Sunifiram?

Although I haven't tried Sunifiram nor have I purchased from this vendor myself, I am listing them here for those coming to this page to find vendors.

Within the UAE, you can order sunifiram from our store.

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Interesting Finds

While researching a bit more on Sunifiram, I came across an article on Nootropics City titled ‘Why was Sunifiram Taken Off the Market,' and dates back to 2004. I thought it would be an interesting read to someone looking for all and any information about Sunifiram. It says:

“In 2000, Sunifiram was introduced to the market. It is well known as DM-235. While clinical trials are done before releasing any drug on the market, as a brand name or a generic one, it is not the only parameter that measures that it will react to general people in the same way. Hence, some drugs are taken off the shelves. Now, why was Sunifiram was taken off the market when some people were responding well towards it. What is the safety information that one should know related to this drug?

The real reason for Sunifiram to be off the market is that there were few safe studies conducted on it. This made it difficult for many physicians to prescribe it to their patients. It is now seen as a recreational drug and a stimulant. Some stimulants like this may be legit but dangerous. It is always best to keep in touch with the ones that have a proven track record, not only in clinical results but in public domain also.

It was introduced as a nootropic to help patients recover mental alertness. The effect of the composition is stronger, and it certainly raises safety issues. Some of its negative properties have made it to remain on the shelves for a little longer. Even healthcare professionals advise its limited usage considering there are other nootropics also on the market that have positive effects.

With its composition, the drug is capable of releasing AMPA receptors that are in the brain. The tolerance level of some patients may have triggered its negative reviews. In fact, some reports also suggested that the drug had toxic effects on consumption. Even small milligram dosages seemed to be bad for the rest of the system. It is also responsible for increased heartbeats in patients who have increased the dosage.

Some of the effects cannot be reversed, and this makes it important to take it off the shelves. It is a very strong drug. Even though it is legal, one must take a medical opinion before consuming it. The Internet offers several slices of information about this drug and its replacements.

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What makes it so forceful as a memory booster?

It is an ampakine that immediately brings on the ‘horsepower’ to the brain. The brain has AMPA receptors. When they are activated with the help of an ampakine like Sunifiram, it increases the energy. When people have stress on performance in certain jobs, they have been known to consume it. It ensures that there is no other external distraction that can interfere with the mind’s working. People who have short-term memories also have consumed this drug. Since it is strong in its content, it tends to make ‘colors brighter’, ‘sounds clearer’ and general ambience becomes well defined. This could be a dangerous trend.

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Studies

  1. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram improves cognitive deficits via CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activation in olfactory bulbectomized mice.
  2. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram enhances hippocampal synaptic efficacy via glycine-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is an experimental, potent racetam. It shares most of racetams benefits and effects. The dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

What is Sunifiram Legal Status? Is Sunifiram legal?

In the US, Sunifiram is unscheduled, and not FDA approved.

How To Take Sunifiram?

Being an ‘experimental' drug, and a very potent one, its important to take very low doses (5 mg, 10 mg tops) and do your research to find news and updates on the matter. You can find the post I cited from Nootropics City under Conclusion which has more information regarding that.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

I have found a few different vendors, none of which I tried, rather, only listing for research purpose. Nootropics City, Nootropics Retail, as well as NewMind – all offer Sunifiram in powder as well as capsules.

What is Sunifiram Dosage?

Unless you are quite experienced in racetams, I wouldn't recommend anything over 5 mg as a starting point. People reported side effects after deciding to increase the dose for more results.

Where to Buy Sunifiram Powder?

Nootropics Retail

What is Sunifiram half-life?

Sunifiram has a half-life of 1-2 hours

Is sunifiram stimulating like Adderall?

Not really at all. Adderall (amphetamine) causes release of dopamine and norepinephrine to increase focus and cause physical and mental stimulation.
Sunifaram is a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA channels (increases the activity when a glutamate molecule is bound, but not when nothing is bound), which are a subtype of glutamate receptors. The effect of this is to increase memory formation via long term potentiation, which occurs when NMDA and AMPA (both subtypes of glutamate receptors) channels are both activated in the same neuron. When this happens more glutamate receptors are put into the neuron to make it more likely to fire in the future. Sunifaram increases AMPA firing so increases the odds of a long term pontentiation event happening, and therefore memory formation. It does not act as a CNS stimulant like adderall though, and those two drugs really serve different purposes.

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Further and Related Readings

  1. Coluracetam, Fasoracetam, Phenylpiracetam, Pramiracetam
  2. Alpha-GPC, Citicoline (CDP), Choline
  3. Ultimate Nootropics FAQ, Nootropics 101

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