Summary: Noopept is one of the most potent nootropics available. It boosts overall cognition with a slight psychostimulatory effect. Effects kick-in within minutes of consumption, making it a handy choice right when dealing with or getting to mentally-demanding tasks.
Noopept is a nootropic that's been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.
Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action. But when it comes to noopept, results are usually felt minutes after ingestion. It shares similar onset of action as somewhat related racetam phenylpiracetam.
“N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester is promoted as a nootropic and is a prodrug of cycloprolylglycine. Other names include the brand name Noopept, developmental code GVS-111; proposed INN omberacetam. Its synthesis was first reported in 1996. Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration. With oral administration, it typically ranges anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, depending on the drug in question.” – Wikipedia
In Russia and a few of the surrounding countries, Noopept is prescribed for its nootropic qualities. The demand for it is dramatically rising and is currently retailing worldwide, amongst the best selling nootropics on the major vendor websites.
It also acts similar to the way Piracetam does – however, it is said to be somewhere over 1,000 more potent. That is why people tend to reach desired effect or outcome from as little as 10 mg and usually not exceeding 30 mg as total, per day. It smoothly settles itself onto the brain’s receptors.
Even with a dose as small as 10mg, many report it to be quite comparable, and many (myself included) actually favor it over Piracetam.
Noopept is also inexpensive comparing to other nootropics because of its high potency.
Its effectiveness and inexpensive price led to it being a classic, very popular, and in many case, a favorite, amongst the nootropic community.
According to Nootropics City:
Noopept is a very potent Ampakine nootropic drug, and the nootropics brand name for the research peptide “N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethyl ester.” Noopept capsules is an entirely synthetic molecule, and has a similar effect to Piracetam, though its effects are quoted as up to 1000 times stronger. Effects are very much like a “mega dose” of piracetam (when a nootropic is taken in dosages up to 8 times the usual amount) and even provides a slight psycho stimulatory effect when taken in low to moderate dosages. Typical dosages of Noopept range from 10mg at the lower end, to a maximum effective dosage of 30mg per day. When higher dosages are taken then this, tiredness can result, negating many of Noopept’s benefits, alongside tolerance and an increase in Noopept’s negative side effects. Noopept, for best results, should be taken 3 times daily (preferably once with each meal) and should be taken with a choline source (preferably CDP Choline) for maximum results. Noopept, like Piracetam, displayed many neuroprotective effects in rats and mice during testing. More studies are needed to confirm exactly what causes Noopept’s supposed neuroprotective effect.
Take into account with Noopept capsules: Remember, Noopept is entirely a research molecule (as are most nootropics) understand what you are taking, do your own personal research on it, and weigh the positives and negatives before taking Noopept. Take Noopept capsules in a regular, consistent dosing pattern of 10mg per day, and continue to supplement in the form of a U shaped curve, ie: Start off with a low dosage, increase accordingly, then taper back down towards the end of your Noopept regiment. Noopept capsules should be cycled on and off for 1-3 months at a time for best results. Be sure to take Noopept when a particularly rigorous mental task is being performed.
Noopept primary interest is how it improves memory and ease the learning process. It helps in memory creation, with additional benefits such as memory consolidation and speed of recall. Noopept helps the correct management of all sorts of stimuli as they are under process by the cerebellum, which permits better memory retrieval. In other terms, signal handling by our sensations is more smooth as they are carrying forward into our memory. Through the continued use of Noopept, individuals report information to be more easily digested and processed, giving them the availability to be ready-for-use in everyday activities. One might remember names, places; maybe a word chatted in contact, a tune thought to be forgotten, and such. Memory failures will diminish or to the least will be kept to a very minimum. 
Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
Studies prove that noopept possesses excellent neuroprotective attributes. The stimulation of the neurons produced by the supplement blocks oxidative damage in the human brain. Many patients dealing with cognitive impairment can benefit from a consistent dosage of noopept to avoid further cognitive decline. 
Increases Nerve Growth Factor and BDNF
NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) is a protein in the body that is involved in the growth, preservation, and continuation of nerve cells, including brain cells. Nerve growth factor is also deemed to be very important in neurogenesis; the body’s ability to generate new cells. By raising NGF levels in the cerebellum, it allows for new neural connections. The result indicates potentially improved mental skills in nearly all areas of cognition. 
BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) is another protein in the body that has s role to the NGF mentioned above. BDNF is one of the most critical molecules that associate with memory, playing an essential role in both short and long-term memory formation. [4, 5]
Improves Association Between Left and Right Brain Hemispheres
Both the right and left hemispheres of the brain to have their localized functions. Through the use of noopept, each of those functions is developing through the synthesis of various memories, ideas, and stimuli. There are nuances among these functions that improve the way we think. That is why many people have claimed that their quality of life had a significant improvement when taking noopept on a regular basis.
Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim.
“Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”
Noopept users report results of improved clarity, better memory, and focus. More studies are undergoing to determine precisely how it provides those privileges to the brain. Studies on animals have shown that Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity in all brain areas (R).
Noopept’s mechanism of action is similar to the other racetams. Noopept works on the AMPA and NDMA receptor sites and their pathways of function. It also has an affinity for the Acetylcholine system and the ACh receptor sites. Both of these factors contribute to Noopept’s array of nootropic benefits. Like Aniracetam, Noopept appears to produce an anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) response in animal and human models. This is not a guaranteed result and seems to vary widely between subjects. Like with Aniracetam, Noopept seems stimulate Dopamine receptor sites (D2 and D3) as well as the ACh nicotinic receptor sites. Noopept also seems to stimulate certain Serotonin receptors and this may also contribute to its mood boosting qualities.
On Memory and Cognitive Decline
Noopept seems to be especially effective, and demonstrates the greatest benefits to patients with mild cognitive decline. It is now undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cognitive deficiency of post-traumatic origin and cerebrovascular cause.
The cerebellum benefits include antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory qualities, along with repression of toxicity by the removal of excessive glutamate, and calcium. Similarly, blood rhythm and flow signifies further improvement. Two possible mechanisms of action for enhancing cognition are a sensitizing effect on acetylcholine processes or induction of neurotrophin production, both of which theoretically enhance memory formation.
Noopept absorption is a process by the digestive system and succeeding to cross the blood-brain barrier readily. The brain utilizes it almost entirely, very little goes to waste.
Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning. It works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes.
Anecdotal reports often recall the “sudden abundance of clarity and precision” delivered by the immediate advantage of added oxygen to the brain and enhanced glucose use. Furthermore, its frequently reported that it also improves eyesight and perception, expanding one's awareness to his or her surroundings and perceiving colors and objects to be more alive, vibrant, and vivid.
If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, the recommended Noopept dosage would be to take it in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.
10 mg: divide into three doses throughout the day
15 mg: divide into two doses twice a day
30 mg: one dose per day
Do not exceed the 30mg Noopept dosage in one day – and ideally, no longer than 60 days cycle if taken everyday. After that, allow yourself some time off before you start another cycle. Alternatively, you can take it on and off as needed. Experimenting is the best way to find out what works for your own body.
Given how fast the body metabolizes it, and due to its rather short half-life, it is best to take small doses multiple times a day instead of a large one at once; thereby prolonging the effects. In the beginning, it is wise to start with the smallest effective dose with careful observation, before progressing into a higher dose.
Noopept Powder Form
In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately. According to the label, take Noopept for 1.5 to 3 weeks and then, if necessary, to begin another cycle after a 1-month break. Alternatively, many users follow 56 days on and four days off. Do not take Noopept late in the evening as its energizing effects may interfere with sleep.
And furthermore; “to supplement Noopept, take 10 – 30 mg, once a day, for up to 56 days at a time. More research is needed to determine the optimal human dose for Noopept.” again, quoting Examine.
Noopept Nasal Spray (Intranasal)
Many people seem to discuss different mixtures to getting the most ideal ratio for a Noopept Nasal spray, but there isn't any solid information that I could put on here. If you're interested in user experiments and anecdotal experiences, there are a couple different threads you can find by searching ‘Noopept Nasal' on reddit nootropics subreddit here.
Best Noopept Stack
Alpha-GPC or Citicoline (or whatever your choline preference may be). This will massively potentiate the effect, and will prevent the occasion occurrence of Noopept's headaches.
These side effects of Noopepts are mostly occurring when higher doses are consumed:
Restlessness (or overstimulation)
Some studies suggest that it magnifies the effects of stimulants such as amphetamines, so caution is advisable for individuals using ADHD medication. I can personally advise that as well. I've felt that sense of overstimulation in a couple different occasion when taking a 30 mg dose of Noopept shortly after taking my ADHD medication. I now find that a 15 mg dose works best for me whether once or twice per day.
Noopept was amongst the very first nootropics I got to try. I was taking it in a one dose of 30 mg in the early afternoon with 300mg of Alpha-GPC.
I think it was the most effective, and most profound feeling I ever got off a nootropic to this day. I really thought I hit the jackpot. I was able to sit throughout the day at work fully engaged and focused on my whatever I was working on, without any sort of complaining whatsoever. And that was at my corporate job, not at my home office. I was amazed by that.
I had to see if it was in my head or if it had been really that effective, and so I had both my best friend and my sister to try it out on different occasions – both of them ended up asking me to try it a few more times. My friend went on to buy her own while doing her finals at an international affairs academy programme and I never heard her talk so positively about any supplement or nootropic whatsoever the way she talked and liked Noopept.
Unfortunately though, today, after quite a long time since I first discovered it, it seems to have half the effect it had on me back in the day even if I don't take it for a month or so. But it makes complete since due to the similarities of other racetams that I supplement with frequently – mostly Aniracetam. But the feeling I experienced in the very first few times of Noopept was something I had never felt with any other nootropic.
Reddit User Experience
On reddit's nootropics sub, a user wrote:
“Noopept: Probably the most potent memory and cognition enhancing nootropic I’ve tried besides Phenylpiracetam…noopept really makes a huge difference for me in terms of mental clarity, memory recall, and fluid thinking. I’ll be on this for life 100%”
Another reddit user wrote his experience titled: ‘My Experience with Noopept and Adderall' and its as follows:
Before the downvote brigade comes out and downvotes me to hell, I am prescribed adderall, it works wonders for me, and no nootropic could ever replace adderall for me. I've been on it for probably 15 years. It does its job, but I still have issues with performance anxiety where if I start thinking about my performance it slowly spirals into being so anxious about not being able to do well that I can't even retain the information in a sentence. CBD oil helps a little bit. My focus has never really been mine to ‘give', its more at the whim of when and where it works, no matter how hard I may try to concentrate. Noopept is changing that.
Anywho, WOW is all I have to say. I have tried noopept many times, but never did I do it consistently. I hate that I hadn't before because this is borderline life changing. Here's what happened:
My friend ordered some Russian noopept for the both of us, as he's from Russia and wanted to try it out. I had tried the sublingual and powdered versions of it and they had always given me brain fog, so I was a bit wary, but his dad had said that he had used it in college and that you have to keep taking it to get over that yucky feeling. So I figured I'd give it a shot, it was the original stuff after all. So I took he threw me a box of it in class the day it came in, and we took some right there.
Day 1: The first dose in the morning didn't kick in until about an hour, took it on an empty stomach. It was the same yucky, brain foggy stuff I was used to, but he was so excited about it I was gonna give it a few days before I was gonna stop and tell him. We took a second dose a few hours later and felt noticeably worse. We kinda brushed it off and hoped his dad's advice was correct.
Day 2: Same thing, took it in the morning, and at lunch, but couldn't concentrate at all. Except later that day, I got this burst of clarity around the time I was expecting it to wear off, which was unusual. But before the clarity happened, I was feeling downright awful, enough so that I wasn't going to take another dose. It felt like nicotine poisoning almost. I told him about it and he said he felt similarly. But then this clarity, it was like I had a cup of coffee but I hadn't. It was weird.
Day 3: I take it with breakfast and holy crap, I feel great. It's like I can just read a sentence without my eyes jumping around the page!!! (Something that I would consider quite the feat!) It was like my focus was mine to give, like I could read an entire line of code and actually process it without having to re-read it at all!
Day 4 and 5: I continue taking it with food and now I understand why people say its effects compound. I still have plenty of focus to give, more so, and I feel like some of my anxiety has gone. Very satisfied.
Now here it is on Day 7 on a Sunday, I didn't take it yesterday and I feel like the effects are still there. I had focus to give yesterday and today and I haven't taken it. Like I don't know what to say, except that I wonder if this is how neurotypical people feel on a regular basis. It's nuts.
My only concern I have here is its interaction with adderall tolerance. I haven't noticed anything yet, but has anybody that has taken these 2 together experienced any effects on their adderall/amphetamine tolerance? (vyvanse, dexedrine, etc.) That would be the only thing that would get me to stop with noopept is if it has a severe effect on tolerance.
Anyway, I just wanted to share my experience with the two, and I hope it's helpful! I also wasn't on any other nootropics this week to test this out.
UPDATE: I have been taking 10mg twice a day on weekdays and the only physical side effect I've noticed is I'm more sensitive to temperature and I've been sweating more, even sitting still. Off of it my pits don't sweat but on it they do.
Last but not least, again from reddit: ‘Nootropic report by a total Newbie'
The benefits of Noopept are numerous, but the best thing about it is that its effects are cumulative. Noopept has quickly grown in demand and has earned its space within people’s nootropic stacks due to its impressive results, ease of small doses, and its reasonable, affordable cost. Whether an expert nootropic user or merely getting to learn about it all, noopept is an excellent choice for an overall cognitive function boost.
Noopept is a nootropic that's been receiving significant appreciation for quite some time. It has close links to the favorite racetam group of nootropics which are known for their exceptional benefits on cognitive function as well as their neuroprotective qualities.
How Does Noopept Work?
Noopept marks glutamate receptor sections where it chains with the glutamate and inhibit breakdown. Glutamate, being one of the most influential neurotransmitters, supports and increases cognitive functioning.
What Does Noopept Do?
Noopept is a powerful Nootropic compound. It protects your brain from stresses and toxins (neuroprotection). It is great at improving cognitive performance and memory. Furthermore, it shields from degenerative brain disorder relating to aging.
How Long Does Noopept Take to Work?
Noopept works fast once it is in the bloodstream, maximizing concentration following only 15 to 20 minutes. Its effects kick-in almost instantly after consumptions which is one of the reasons behind its popularity. Many nootropics could take anywhere from one day to three months for their optimal effect to take action.
How to Take Noopept Capsules?
10 mg – divide into three doses throughout the day 15 mg – divide into two doses twice a day 30 mg – one dose per day
If you prefer to prolong the effect throughout the day, take Noopept in three doses of 10mg, or two doses of 15mg, or just one dose of 30mg.
How to Take Noopept Powder?
In powder form, take Noopept sublingually or as a drink with water. Effects will kick-in almost immediately.
How to Take Noopept Sublingually?
There's no “right way” to do it. Place under tongue, close mouth and rest tongue gently on the Noopept. Just hold it there for a while. Once it's mostly gone, swoosh it around a bit and swallow the rest. Try not to swallow the saliva that builds up in your mouth because then you are most likely swallowing some of the drug that hasn't been absorbed yet.
What is the Half-life of Noopept?
Noopept's half-life depends on the individual. The duration of Noopept is around 3 – 6 hours. Effects of Noopept increase after using it for a few days.
Where to Buy Noopept?
I have only bought Noopept from Nootropics Depot, so I can't recommend or suggest any other vendor. If ND is an option for you, then get it from them. I tried it myself, and they are quire reputable.
Summary: PRL-8-53 (chemical name Methyl 3-(2-(benzyl(methyl)amino)benzoate) is a synthetic nootropic compound that was discovered in 1972 and patented in 1975 by then Dr. Nikolaus Hansl, a neuropharmacologist at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska.
What is PRL-8-52?
PRL-8-53 is a synthetic nootropic compound that was discovered in 1972 and patented in 1975 preliminary animal tests showed that the compound was both secure and nootropic, boosting the learning of prevention in rodents without adverse effects. However, a 1978 research on human volunteers triggered sincere interest in PRL-8-53, showing that a single dose of the compound could enhance word retention ratings by more than 200%.
Comments by author and longevity expert Durk Pearson, who was cited in' High Frontiers' as follows, fuelled interest in the compound: “PRL-8-53 is a great memory enhancer. Usually, just looking at them for a second, you can memorize about seven or eight numbers. On average, PRL-8-53 is said to increase memory span of approximately 21 to 22 digits. “Hansel's single human study on PRL-8-53, soon after patenting the compound, highly promotes the potential of the drug as a nootropic.
The research evaluated word retention between the ages of 24 and 86 in a group of 30 healthy volunteers. While participants with good baseline word retention scores showed little improvement after taking PLR-8-53, participants with low initial scores or over 30 showed significant improvement after a 5 mg dose of PLR-8-53, often more than doubling their recall rate.
In the human study, no adverse effects were observed. Anecdotal evidence seems to support claims for safety and nootropic capacities of PRL-8-53, but due to restricted testing, it is still regarded as an experimental drug.
PRL-8-53 is presently an unplanned drug and is legally available for purchase in the United States.
Benefits and Effects
The elderly participants showed necessary improvements in memory after taking a single 5 mg dose in the only human research on PRL-8-53. A double-blind study using word memorization as a measure, testing the capacity of the respondents to recall a list of 12 one-syllable phrases, first to create a baseline and then again after PRL-8-53 or placebo has been ingested. The participants were screened for their capacity to remember the phrases 24 hours after hearing them, and then one week later again.
Results of the research show that respondents with higher baseline scores showed the least improvement after PRL-8-53 was ingested, while subjects with imperfect first memory or over 30 years of the era showed significant improvement in recall. Hansl described the impact on elderly respondents in an article on the exam as follows: “This group was 30 years of era or older. Rote memory, as could be anticipated, did not come to this group as readily as it did to younger learners. After 24 hours on placebo, the average retention was just under three words out of a possible 12.
After a week, the average retention was two words. However, the same topics maintained an average of 5.85 phrases after 24 hours and 5.25 words after a week when learning after drug administration.
Again, there were statistically essential increases. The enhancement expressed in percentage of placebo results was 108 percent for the 24-hour test and 152 percent for the one-week recall. “Many individual nootropic users who have attempted PRL-8-53 confirm their memory boosting impacts, sometimes comparing it to a more strong variant of other nootropics such as nefiracetam and Noopept.
Mechanism of Action
How Does PRL-8-53 Work?
The precise mechanisms of action of HOW IT WORKS PRL-8-53 are not well understood, but the production and reaction of the brain to several key neurotransmitters is thought to be regulated. Hansl stated in his reports on human and animal studies that PRL-8-53 potentiates dopamine, partly restricts serotonin production and enhances the reaction of the brain to acetylcholine. While Hansl's research report on the human research of 1978 indicates these activities, the mechanism of action is not delineated.
The fact that older participants saw the most nootropic advantage from taking the drug promotes the notion that modulation of dopamine plays a significant part in the consequences of PLR-853. Upregulating the ordinary age-related reduction in the manufacturing of dopamine associated with cognitive decrease could have a beneficial effect on both learning and memory.
In an article in 1979 entitled “Learning and Memory Improvement Through Chemistry: Dream or Offering Reality?”Hansl said,” PRL-8-53 has been shown to increase the peripheral and central reactions to noradrenaline in the animal model. Therefore, assuming that a comparable feature may be present in humans seems reasonable.
Translated into behavioral effects, it implies that this drug potentially is capable of facilitating the conversion of short-term to long-term memory, resulting in increased storage of information code. “According to Hansl, in the same article,” PRL-8-53 has been shown to improve the response to acetylcholine, the answer being quantitatively similar over a considerable dose range, excluding the likelihood of acetylcholine. In short, we now have a possibly effective drug that will increase a particular chemical system in the brain, the cholinergic system, thereby enhancing our capacity to recall data from a pre-existing data pool.
How to Take PRL-8-53?
The only human study on PRL-8-53 was based on a single 5 mg dose intake. No information is available on the efficacy or prospective toxicity of any other human dosage.
Because of the restricted knowledge of the mechanism of action of PRL-8-53, it may be advisable not to stack it with other nootropics.
What are the side effects of PRL-8-53?
No adverse effects were observed in the human study from a single 5 mg dose of PRL-8-53. Animal studies indicate that the compound has a high therapy threshold, but the proof is very restricted as there have been no extensive toxicity trials. Keep in mind that this is exceptionally experimental chemistry for studies, so caution is recommended.
PRL-8-53 is a fascinating synthetic nootropic, if mainly unexplored, which many think will eventually prove to be an invaluable smart drug.
Although it gave rise to high concern when it was launched 40 years ago, after a few animal tests and a single human study, research into its opportunities came to a halt; little has been learned about it since the review that sparked such compelling interest in its potential as a memory enhancer.
There does not seem to be any continuing research on the compound at this moment, but nootropic lovers continue to be curious about its opportunities and are regarded one of the most excellent short-term memory boosters on the market.
Summary: Bacopa monnieri is a powerful natural herb nootropic used for ages for its memory enhancing and anti-aging effects. It reduces anxiety and improves memory formation. It also expands learning capacity, decreases stress and even offers neuroprotection
Bacopa monnieri (also known as Brahmi) is one of the most acknowledged and widely respected nootropics. A traditional Ayurvedic medicine that has a good reputation of being a potent cognitive enhancer, stress and anxiety reliever, and brain protector. It improves memory formation and recall speed, it stimulates learning, enhances thought clarity, and increase brain function. It acts as a brain protectant, and studies confirm it as a potential remedy for dementia and similar conditions. Furthermore, it reduces anxiety and provides a feeling of calm and tranquility, all while eliminating stress. Users report it an excellent relaxant that improves sleep quality, leading to rejuvenating and refreshing rest. Its nootropic effects are comparable to those of Piracetam, one of the most popular smart drugs in the world. The supplement is produced from the plant extracts.
Enhancement in memory formation, as well as recall speed, is one of Bacopa's primary benefits. Studies show that it significantly enhances memory in older people, and ongoing research is investigating its potential as a treatment of memory issues relating to neurological disorders. (J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0342.)
Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. 
Improves Learning and Cognition
Bacopa Monnieri improves cognitive processing, making learning new things faster and easier. Studies show that it significantly enhances spatial learning, and it has also been confirmed to improve learning capacity in subjects under stress. Most users say that taking bacopa while studying makes it easier to understand and process new information. Reports carried out by clinical trials at India’s Central Drug Institute (CDRI) in Lucknow state that children taking bacopa show improved academic skills.
Reduces Anxiety and Stress
Bacopa Monnieri is effective in reducing anxiety and stress. Clinical trials show that it significantly decreases anxiety and depression in volunteers, and animal studies compare bacopa to other plant extracts for the effective treatment of anxiety and similar disorders.  
Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)
Bacopa is effective in reducing oxidative stress effects on the brain. It possesses potent antioxidant properties that protect the brain against environmental stressors associated in the cognitive decline relating to aging and associated with Alzheimer’s and other neurological diseases.
Reduces Symptoms of Depression
In a study of individuals over 65 years old receiving 300mg dosage, the results show a notable decrease in depression symptoms as well as anxiety. 
Bacopa's nootropic and anxiolytic effects are due to its capability of enhancing neural communication as well as modulating the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and GABA.
Memory and Cognitive
Although it works over time by a variety of functions, bacopa improves memory and cognitive abilities by increasing synaptic communication. It promotes dendrites generation, thereby enhancing neural signaling. The improvement in neural impulse transmission is key to cognitive enhancement. The active ingredient in Bacopa monnieri extract (Bacoside-A) has been shown to stimulate nerve cells and cause synapses to be more receptive to nerve impulses. Studies show that Bacoside-A can prevent dopamine receptor dysfunction. Dopamine is a powerful neurotransmitter responsible for the brain’s reward and pleasure systems.
It also improves production of the enzyme Tryptophan Hydroxylase (TPH2); vital to many central nervous system actions such as the biosynthesis of serotonin. Furthermore, Bacopa stimulates activity in the hippocampus by increasing the activity of kinases, which are proteins that regulate cellular pathways. Because the hippocampus is involved in almost all cognitive activity, this is one of the main methods that allows bacopa to boost brain function.
Anxiety and Stress Relief
Bacopa monnieri produces its unique calming effects through several actions. One of the most crucial anxiety reduction effects is within its power to modulate the activity of certain neurotransmitters like those that regulate the uptake of serotonin, which is connecting to mood and anxiety.
Another active ingredient in bacopa is hersaponin, an alkaloid that provides a relaxing and soothing effect. Bacopa’s active ingredients also support the activity of GABA, another major neurotransmitter that acts to prevent anxiety by restricting the signaling of neuron over-excitement due to stress.
Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.
Bacopa side effects range from minor (digestion issues and fatigue) to severe (thyroid disorders and urinary tract complications). Minor side effects usually disappear as the body adapts to the herb.
Rodent studies suggest bacopa may reduce sperm count, so it's wise to avoid it if you are planning to conceive. However, it didn't have any impact on sex drive nor testosterone. Moreover, sperm count returns to normal once supplementation stops. 
Severe side effects may include thyroid disorders, urinary tract problems, gastrointestinal blockage, adverse impact on ulcers and lung conditions, and bradycardia.
So start with the lowest effective dose, and observe your body's reaction to it. If adverse effects occur, stop use.
Bacopa monnieri enhances cognitive abilities, reduces anxiety, and treats a variety of conditions. Although it works over time, the anxiety-relieving effects are immediate.
Its a precious addition to nootropic stacks. If you’re looking for a natural nootropic to boost your cognition, relieve anxiety, and protect your brain against oxidative stress, Bacopa would make an excellent choice.
And throughout your day, if you drink coffee add 1x L-theanine 100-200mg in it.
How much Bacopa Monnieri should I take?
The minimum effective dose of Bacopa Monnieri is 300mg, taken with food or fat source. Some people, myself included, find it more effective at a higher dosage.
I take 300 to 600mg depending on the purpose, while people like Dave Asprey recommend a daily dose of 750mg.
Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.
How long does it take Bacopa Monnieri to work?
The acute relaxation effects of Bacopa Monnieri start working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption.
The potential benefits of Bacopa Monnieri for improving memory and cognition will generally take effect within 4-6 weeks.
What are some uses of a Bacopa monnieri?
Enhance Memory Formation Improve Learning and Cognition Reduce Anxiety and Stress Neuroprotective and Promote Longevity Reduce Symptoms of Depression
Bacopa monnieri commonly called as ‘Brahmi’ is a perennial herb belonging to Plantaginaceae family of the flowering plants. In India it has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine as memory enhancer. It is also used in treatment of anxiety, digestive disorders, asthma, bronchitis and heart problems.
Summary: Piracetam is a designer nootropic made to enhance brain function. It's the primary and original racetam out of all the ones out there today. Up to date, there has been 20 different derivatives of Piracetam, and counting. It’s a revolutionizing nootropic that improves memory and remarkably boosts cognitive function.
Piracetam is a nootropic that enhances memory and brain function. It's been around for a surprisingly long period, thus becoming a “classic” amongst the rest on the list. It allows creative and logical thoughts to run together into a stream of higher-level reasoning. It is the father of all nootropics and often the first choice for individuals looking to improve cognitive abilities.
Furthermore, it increases the amount of knowledge the brain can process, as well as preserve, for future reference. Piracetam is an invention by Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea dating over 50 years ago, to create a supplement to enhance memory and learning capacity. It is in medical use in Europe, Russia, and South America, amongst other countries, as a treatment for a type of muscle spasm called molycous. However, due to its nootropic effects, it became one of the most prominent cognitive enhancers. Confined studies show that Piracetam reverses the effects of Alzheimer’s disease as well as dementia in elderly individuals. There is also sufficient evidence proposing that it prevents brain damage caused by excessive alcohol intake.
“Piracetam is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions.”
Piracetam is popular first and foremost because of its positive, profound impact on improving memory. In a meta-analysis of 19 different double-blind studies, Piracetam shows an exceptional improvement relating to memory. However, it is important noting that memory improvement effects build up gradually. The studies show minor improvement after a 7-day administration and a significant increase after a 14-day administration. Today, most individuals benefiting from Piracetam do so entirely for its memory-enhancing result.  
Enhances Cognitive Function
There is a healthy amount of studies administering the effects of piracetam on cognition enhancement. Piracetam improves cognitive performance especially in individuals with neurodegenerative conditions. While most studies are governing elderly individuals with chronic disease, there is nevertheless sufficient evidence proving it to be beneficial for healthy, young adults. Piracetam is especially helpful for individuals suffering from chronic conditions. Healthy individuals tend to embrace it for the nootropic traits.   
Neuroprotective and Prevents Neurodegeneration
Piracetam supports neuroprotection as well as encouraging healthy brain growth and protects as well as prevents it from neurodegeneration related to aging. In this particular area, it serves greater as a preventative rather than a treatment. Prevention is of often the best medicine there is.  
Increases Self-Awareness and Promotes Clarity of Thought
There is evidence indicating that piracetam improves sensory perception by increasing acetylcholine activity in the hippocampus. In this particular example, it suggests an increase in self-awareness, zen-like state as well as an increased feeling of overall well-being. Many report colors are appearing brighter and more vivid. Furthermore, many report a heightened sense of perception and a higher level of vibration, along with a feeling of connectedness to nature and other beings. 
Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Eases Depression
In a study by the Department of Pharmacology in India examining the antianxiety effects of Piracetam taken orally over the period of 7 and 14 days, it confirms that; although a single dose does not seem to induce immediate anxiolytic effect, a delayed anti anxiety impact was rather apparent. It is especially evident in individuals with anxiety due to alcohol withdrawal. Anecdotal reports imply piracetam is a useful tool for managing stress and anxiety levels, and to a certain extent, easing depression symptoms. However, clinical research is limited relating to depression. Therefore, piracetam should not be a source to rely on should you be clinically diagnosed with depression. Use with caution. With that said, it is nevertheless useful and worth experimenting if your anxiety is somewhat generalized or social   – (high-five btw, makes two of us!)
Improves Verbal Learning and Fluency in Dyslexics
Over a 21 day study, piracetam shows an increase in verbal learning by 8.6% compared to placebo in healthy volunteering individuals. In patients with dyslexia, however, verbal learning shows a significant 15% increase. Piracetam, therefore, proves to be beneficial to individuals with dyslexia. Moreover, children tests in letter analyzing while receiving 3.3mg per day over 36 weeks showed an increase in letter-matching as well as reaction time.  
Helps with Schizophrenia
Piracetam shows to reduce symptoms of uncontrolled movement in individuals with schizophrenia. Furthermore, Piracetam may have a protective effect upon glutamatergic receptors within the hippocampus.  
Interestingly, piracetam doesn’t seem to show any effect on the GABAergic system even though it is a cyclic derivative of GABA. Piracetam' mechanism of action relates to how it increases the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory function. It works to improve memory by making the transfer of acetylcholine more effective. It also affects NMDA glutamate receptors which also play a role in the memory formation and learning processes. Scientists believe piracetam works through these possible mechanisms in the brain: compromised neuronal cells experience a loss of fluidity which prevents signaling molecules from crossing the lipid bilayer membrane of the corpus callosum, the part of the brain separating the left and the right hemispheres. Piracetam can restore or even increase the membrane fluidity of these neuronal cells, making neurotransmission a more effective and effortless process.
“Overall, Piracetam increases glucose and oxygen consumption in brains which precedes cognitive improvement (as these benefits are global (not favoring certain brain regions) and more significant in cognitively impaired persons, both of which are in accordance with interventions in humans).
The exact mechanisms underlying the enhancement of glucose and oxygen consumption are currently not established.
Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.” – Examine
Protein synthesis is an essential part of memory-storage in the brain. Piracetam can cause an increase in learning and memory when various steroids transport them in the brain. When steroids in the brain are blocked, the effects of nootropics are blocked as well. Recruitment of AMPA receptors that are generally not part of synaptic transmissions, essentially making more receptors available, when would undoubtedly cause an increase in learning. Moreover, of course, acetylcholine increases and increased transmission of this critical neurotransmitter which is one of the most important in memory storage and learning processes.
Typically, the Piracetam dosage for adults is between between 1,200 to 4,800 mg per day.
The most effective and agreed upon Piracetam dose is 1,600 mg. It can be taken once per day, or up to three times per day, totaling a maximum of 4,800 mg per day.
If new to Piracetam and taking it for the first time, start with 1,600 mg and wait and observe your reaction to it. Few hours later, you can choose whether you want to take another dose, or if one is enough for your needs.
Piracetam is considered very safe and side effects rarely occur. 
Headaches are often reported. It is due to lowered acetylcholine levels in the brain due to racetams utilizing them. Therefore, it is very important to pair racetams with a choline source like Citicoline or Alpha-Gpc, especially if you notice a headache after supplementing with Piracetam, or if you do so on regular basis.
Not only will choline prevent or eliminate the headache, it will even work synergistically together with Piracetam (or any other racetam) and potentiate both of their cognition benefits. 
A user on reddit shared his following piracetam experience which helped him getting off hard drugs:
So a bit of background. I have ADHD and aspergers and piracetam has been a godsend. Honestly i've never felt better. When I was diagnosed with ADHD and aspergers my life basically turned crappy and I started experimenting with drugs to “alleviate” my conditions. I've lost friends, lied, cheated and made a fool of myself. Now with piracetam i'ts another story. I always had a fascination with psychotropic substances, and went and abused ritalin for a long while. This lead me to have even worse depression and anxiety. With piracetam thought, it made me stable and understand that my drug abuse was not amusing, specially for those around me. Now I focus on what is important and I don't care to get high, drunk or abuse anything. I've started dedicating more time to my hobbies and passions. I've also noted i'm more honest and don't feel the need to judge others to make me feel better or have to justify myself. I take it when I need and take breaks. Also noted less apathy and dissociative/ antisocial behaviour. I was actually nice to my neighbours for once(Bc honestly i've been an asshole my whole life) Even so I'm still waiting to see if this change is permanent(I hope it is) If you have ADHD or some ASD I recommend this! But… Research your stuff and stay responsible. Meds are not the solution, they're only one of many tools in your arsenal to improve yourself. Exercise, healthy diet are essential to getting better as well. ]Sorry if I seem overly exited, I just wanted to share my story to a community that showed me that I don't have to take possibly addictive substances to be a better person. Nootropics worked for me. – an experience and condition very similar to my own.
Another Reddit review
So I was using Piracetam sporadically for past 2-3 weeks, at the beginning I thought it is just a hyped up nootropic or maybe not potent at 800mg-1200mg dose or ineffective in comparison to other racetams (I have never tried any other racetam.) But today I can feel the effects, I took CDP choline for the first time this morning with 1 Piracetam 800 mg tab in the morning and and 1 at night sometime earlier. I am able to think quick, able to respond to what my friends say quickly and the music sounds so so good especially the percussions and I am only wanting to listen to fast paced songs, I did not expect a stimulating effect from piracetam, even I am typing this at a great pace, believe me I did not take caffeine. No benefit in terms of focus, I also didn't expect it, in fact I feel a little distracted.
Overall, Piracetam (alongside Noopept, if I may add) is one of the most fundamental brain boosting nootropics out there. It has very noticeable effects on increasing memory and learning capability, and certainly has the potential to enhance cerebral performance.
Student looking to get the edge on academics, or merely wanting to think smarter and faster in their day to day life, this is a great nootropic to start with to introduce you to the world of nootropics. As well as safer than many other alternatives – especially stimulants, that most college students seem to favor.
It's legal to buy, but might not be legal to sell. FDA regulations affecting “dietary supplements” may not apply to piracetam. But regardless, those regulations only control the sale of substances and not the purchase of substances. So buying is OK.
What's the difference between Piracetam and Noopept?
Noopept seems to be effective – and longer lasting than Piracetam, due to its effect on the NMDA receptors. It works in a similar way and has similar mechanisms as Piracetam, but at a much lower dosage – when it comes to whole brain function. The research available along with the anecdotal reports seem to strongly support this claim. “Oral ingestion of Noopept results in a very rapid absorption and metabolism of Noopept, although the kinetics of metabolites (which are thought to be bioactive) is not yet known. A true bioavailability study has not been conducted, although it appears that an oral dose is about the equivalent of one tenth an injected dose (10% bioavailability).”
Whereas Piracetam shows affinity for two subsets of AMPA (glutamate) receptors, Glu2 and Glu3, and may attenuate the rate of action potentials. It does not appear to directly act upon the other two glutamate receptors (Kainate and NMDA) although the ability of piracetam to possibly increase receptors in general in aged mice may influence these two receptor classes.”
What are the long-term possible risks of using piracetam?
Although there is no hard evidence on the matter, some users would say Piracetam as well as many other cholinergic nootropics (with notable exceptions like coluracetam), can subdue mood. It can make you have trouble turning off automatic memory associations, and being ‘locked' in a particular state of consciousness for many hours.
What is the correct way to take Piracetam?
“The correct way to take piracetam is whatever way works for you. If you cannot abide the bitter taste, taking piracetam in pills or capsules is the better way to go. I found that the bitter taste grew on me, so paying extra for capsules (or pharmaceutical tablets with excipients and dyes) is not worth it. For some, it’s taking it constantly, like 600–1000 mg three times a day. For me, I often take the entire daily dose in the morning, which greatly helps my circadian rhythm sync to the day when it is drifting into my old pattern of night-owl-ism. I know people who only take piracetam in certain circumstances, like before a public talk or interview, or flying on an airplane, or traveling to a high-altitude location for business or vacation. I take it when I’m going to be putting demands on my verbal, editing and writing skills. For people with high cholinergic tone (like me), taking piracetam with minimal cholinergic support is best. For a more cholinergically recessive person, taking piracetam with B5, choline, phosphatidylcholine, etc. is best. So I think there is no one correct answer to your question.”
Why does piracetam take so long to act?
Piracetam does not efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier, so it takes a while to build up enough to modify neurological activity. The time depends on the dose, which is why it is common practice to use a loading dose for the first day or three. When I used an aggressive 6400 mg loading dose (2.6 times the standard daily dose), I got conspicuous effects the first day. The “conservative” escalating loading dose that I suggest is wise for children with Down's syndrome takes roughly a week to get the level of piracetam into the therapeutic range. The delay with piracetam also depends on the integrity of your blood-brain barrier, which if low facilitates piracetam acting quickly.
Why is piracetam considered a nootropic?
The research done on piracetam actually led to the coining of the term “Nootropic” and is the first member of the “Racetam” class of cognitive enhancers. There are several definitions of Nootropic. Corneliu E. Giurgea, the lead scientist that termed Nootropics, has his own list of qualifiers. More anecdotally, Nootropics must meet two identifying criteria:
1. Enhance some form of cognition. 2. Have either neuroprotective or regenerative effects, or at the very least possess very few side effects and extremely low toxicity.
For the first Qualifier:
Chemically, piracetam is a synthetic derivative of our major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, Piracetam is understood to act primarily on the glutamate system within brain areas specific to memory and learning.
Research suggests that, as a primary mode of action, Piracetam increases neural activity in the hippocampus and cortex by upregulating AMPA and NMDA receptor densities, thereby enhancing glutamate transmission. Piracetam has also been reported to increase cerebral blood flow and the acetylcholine efficacy in the brain, both of which have been suggested to positively influence focus, memory, and learning.
Piracetam is one of the most research nootropics, probably the most researched synthetic one. Piracetam demonstrates relatively low toxicity and shows promise in studies that examine its potential in cognitive decline. [R]
Summary: MindLab Pro is a pre-formulated, all natural nootropic supplement. A blend of 11 natural and potent ingredients in 1 pill. It offers a great convenience while delivering measurable and obvious increases in physical and mental performance.
What Is MindLab Pro?
I have come across Mind Lab Pro after the rebranding and introduction, and was immediately drawn to its overall presentation. I care about companies images just as much as I care about the product itself. After immersing myself into reading every word on the extensive ingredient list and description of each, I thought to myself, and I owe it to myself to give it a shot. The price was reasonable for the content, and I ordered my first bottle.
Fast forward about a year later, I still have it standing amongst the first on my shelf. Except now I also have my mom and two sisters, as well as a friend or two, all enjoying supplementing and using it on a daily basis.
We all got easily attracted to the product because of its moderate dosage, and commitment to natural ingredients. I don’t mind other nootropics but I know people who wouldn’t come near anything synthetic, so Mind Lab Pro seemed appealing to them. Each serving (2 pills) contains the following 11 “enhanced potency form”
With such an impressive list of ingredients formulating together into one (or two) pills, it’s no surprise why Mind Lab Pro made quite a name for itself and maintaining a loyal, returning customers.
Benefits and Effects
What Are MindLab Pro Benefits?
Unlike any other nootropic on the website, it’s a little bit more challenging to list down the benefits and effects of using Mind Lab Pro because it consists of 11 different ingredients, each of which serves many benefits. However, you can click on each component and see the list of its benefits and effects.
I’ve used it short term and long term and have seen results in both ways. What I like the most about Mind Lab Pro is the fact that it has citicoline, which means I can perfectly pair it with a racetam without having to get an additional choline source (currently I take Alpha GPC when taking racetams). As well as the fact that it also has Lion’s Mane Mushroom which I think is one of the most profound nootropics I have come across. So when I wake up in the morning and wanting to head out to work fast and arrive fresh and mentally prepared, (also because I’m almost always late), I would only take 2 pills instead of reaching out to 11 different containers and taking 1 by 1 – I am one who really goes the extra mile for convenience.
What Are The Side Effects of MindLab Pro?
Again, from personal experience, and at least six people that I know from friends and family, none of us have encountered any side effects that were leading back to Mind Lab Pro. I’ve recommended that they take it with a fat source for better absorption and to avoid any stomachache, but I almost always take it first thing in the morning and never had any adverse effects.
Honestly, if anyone asks me for a recommendation when first starting on nootropics, I would recommend Mind Lab Pro. And I am not even an affiliate nor sponsored by them whatsoever (although I should be…) – it is a genuine suggestion.
It has many good ingredients and at moderate dosages. Beginners can easily understand the mix and expand their knowledge further intro nootropics if they wanted to. Moreover, I also really enjoy the (if not mistaken) buy two get 3rd free & buy three get 4th free. It makes a good value for money and always comes in handy for last minute packing, late and rushing situations, and can even be carried out in your bag on day to day basis unlike when you’re using a stack of different products. I don’t think I can't even fit all the containers I have from various companies in my car trunk.
Other Natural Nootropics
If you're into all natural nootropics, check you the following:
Summary: Sunifiram is an experimental, potent and powerful nootropic that enhances memory, expands learning capacity, and uplifts mood. A recent addition to the racetam family that seems more than promising. Sunifiram dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.
Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam. Although there has not been much evidence about its efficacy, it has been proven to be beneficial for the (many) individuals using it. With research and trials ongoing and growing, its use will increase along as well. Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) has been one of the best nootropics that powerfully influence cognition. It enhances mood, lowers stress, and increases energy and focus.
It is an invention from the year 2000. And although it is very new to the market, it is proving to be effective and useful to individuals both in long and short terms. It is an effective nootropic that improves learning and memory, and furthermore enhances cognitive function. It is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amnesia, like most racetams. There are no reports of any severe side effects from its use, making it effective, useful, and safe.
Although it belongs to the racetam class, Sunifiram has a different structure. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as a piperazine alkaloid rather than racetam. It delivers many of the same memory and learning enhancements as piracetam but is much more potent.
Sunifiram is also an ampakine. It increases the efficacy and activity of neurotransmitter glutamine. This leads to significant changes such as mood and energy improvement along with other cognition benefits.
Sunifiram (developmental codename DM-235) is an experimental drug which has antiamnesic effects in animal studies and with significantly higher potency than piracetam. Sunifiram is a molecular simplification of unifiram (DM-232). As of 2016, sunifiram had not been subjected to toxicology testing, nor to any human clinical trials, and is not approved for use anywhere in the world. Wikipedia
Sunifiram is a potent and powerful nootropic. It enhances memory formation and retention as well as expanding the learning capacity. It is in use in case of diseases that cause memory loss or amnesia. Its use is not yet regulated by the FDA, but still widely in use by many individuals for its nootropic benefits. [R] [R]
Appears to promote long term potentiation in the hippocampus with oral ingestion, which should result in an improvement in memory in animals that have otherwise impaired memory. Examine.com
Sunifiram enhances focus and concentration. It is known to improve motivation and enable a person to complete mentally-demanding tasks at ease and comfort. The focus heightening and motivation is due to the increase in the release and utilization of acetylcholine; which has a direct impact on cognitive abilities.
Sunifiram keeps you out of stress and negative thinking. It makes you have a confident, better outlook on life. It allows you to look at the future positive and ambitiously. Such useful effects are helpful for people at any and every stage of life.
Sunifiram is a piracetam derivative. But it often comes as a surprise that it has a different chemical structure from the other racetams. It is basically a piperazine alkaloid which can act as an ampakine that will increase the activity of glutamine receptors and increase the stimulation effects. Or it can serve as a cholinergic that stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine.
Although no such evidence is still available about its use and its action in humans due to the lack of the trials, the primary factor that drives it to work would be the ampakine factor which allows it to provide the stimulation effects by acting at the glutamate receptors. Ampakines are mild stimulants. They can increase alertness and energy. They do not cause restlessness which like other antidepressants or anxiolytics. The increase the energy levels and the activity factor is also one of the significant roles Sunifiram plays. Due to its effect on the glutamate receptors, it leads to functions such as spatial navigation and the formation and storage of memory, which are crucial for many neurological conditions.
Sunifiram acts as a cholinergic as well. Due to this effect, it leads to the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Acetylcholine increases brain function and cognition abilities. The primary functions are memory enhancement, learning speed and capacity which grow and expand very notably. You can also count on the fluid intelligence or ability to solve unique problems with this supplement. Sunifiram is an essential nootropic to students as well as athletes to increase their performance and achieve better results.
Sunifiram appears to act on the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, which enhances signalling and activates some intracellular proteins (CAMKII and PKCα) which then positively regulate the AMPA receptors. These mechanisms are highly similar to that seen with nefiracetam. Examine.com
The mechanism of action of sunifiram is unknown. Sunifiram, as well as unifiram, were assayed at a wide panel of sites, including the most important receptors, ion channels, and transporters, but showed no affinity for any of the sites. They specifically did not bind to the glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, adrenergic, histamine, acetylcholine, or opioid receptors at concentrations of up to 1 μM. In addition, the drugs were tested on recombinant AMPA receptors and showed no potentiation of the receptors, indicating that they do not act as AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators. However, they were able to prevent the amnesia induced by the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX in the passive avoidance test, suggesting that indirect/downstream AMPA receptor activation may be involved in their memory-enhancing effects. Sunifiram, as well as other nootropics such as piracetam, levetiracetam, and aniracetam are able to antagonize inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates (e.g., pentobarbital), diazepam, and certain other drugs in human erythrocytes in vitro (Ki = 26.0 uM for sunifiram), and this action has been found to correlate with their potency in reversing scopolamine-induced memory deficits in mice. However, this action has been regarded as very unlikely to represent the main mechanism of action of sunifiram. – Wikipedia
Sunifiram works effectively at a dosage of 5 to 10 mg – at a maximum of three times per day. This is the safe dose which is often taken sublingual for maximum efficacy and absorption.
It is advised that one starts with the smallest doses to prevent side effects and toxicity. Although it is not in documentation, tolerance can grow with excessive usage, so it is better to take it occasionally instead of daily basis.
only 4-8 mg 2-3 times a day is needed with this ultra potent nootropic. When you’re talking about the Bugatti of the nootropics world, less is more. A little goes all the way!
Possible side effects:
it is possible to experience headaches from choline depletion with excessive use. This can be combated by consuming sources of choline. In rare cases individuals have experienced nausea. – Nootropics City
By pairing sunifiram with one or more of the racetams like piracetam, oxiracetam, or Noopept, we can achieve this increase which has been the most common and most favorite Sunifiram combo. A choline source like Alpha GPC is an important part of this combo due to the increased choline depletion by the former nootropics.
Combining Aniracetam with sunifiram is a good option for mood enhancement. You can combine L-theanine, which increases production of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA with sunifiram. Sulbutiamine, which is a potent enhancer of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic functions can be a good combination as well. Choline source should always be present in those combos to prevent getting a headache.
Due to being fairly new and not as widely popular as the rest of the racetams, no severe side effects of sunifiram have surfaced yet. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still ongoing, and it is yet to get FDA approval. Use with caution.
On a Reddit user wrote down a thorough experience of sunifiram:
For years I have been a hardcore coffee drinker and other than that I had not used any other substances to enhance my cognition in any way. A few months ago I started a doctor-supervised weight loss program that included the use of 30 mg of Phentermine daily as an appetite suppressant.
Unfortunately, Phentermine is an amphetamine that gave me an extreme energy rush that was affecting my focus and concentration. I could not sit and study because I was getting easily distracted by anything. This was starting to affect my performance in my current classes and at work so I tried using 200 mg of L-Theanine and reduce my caffeine intake with moderately positive effects.
After losing about 100 lbs, I am ready to stop the Phentermine and continue my healthy eating habits for a long-term weight loss maintenance. This Phentermine is addictive so my doctor is reducing the dose gradually to minimize the withdrawal effects. However, I started feeling slightly depressed and foggy. This is when I decided to go on my own and experiment with Noots to see if they would help.
My doctor is not familiar with any nootropics nor did he think anything like that would be appropriate since the effects of phentermine withdrawal would pass in a few weeks.
I did some research about nootropics that would help me with this situation and decided to go shopping. I was low on cash but had a credit on Amazon so the only strong nootropic that I found was Sunifiram. Despite the warnings that there are no sufficient studies on the long-term effects, I decided to assume all risks and give it a try.
I started five days ago with 10mg of Sunifiram administered sublingually. Approximately 10-15 minutes after the first dose I felt what others have called “sunny”. It is hard to explain but it was somewhat overwhelming and the effect did not last long.
The following day I took the same dose and got the same but short effect. I did have a mild headache after waking up but nothing unbearable. I started to get the full effect on Day 3. Suddenly I was able to focus on whatever I wanted and the ideas flowed easily. I had struggled to finish a paper for days but this time I finished it in less than an hour.
Today is Day 5 of using Sunifiram and I have to say it has been a positive experience so far. I wish I could explain better my experience but I have not used anything with comparable results. It is not an extreme rush of energy nor a sedative effect. I just feel a sense of clarity that I had not felt before.
I don't want to take the risk of using Sunifiram for long-term cognition enhancement given the unknown effects of continued use, so I will stop taking it as soon as I finish this class. Once I have some cash to spend, I might look into other alternatives like Piracetam, Noopept or something similar.
Sunifiram was my first experience with a “smart drug”. During the first two days the effects were mild and nearly unnoticeable. After the third day I felt a positive improvement in my mood and focus. Since there are no sufficient studies on the long term use of this substance, I will discontinue its use and seek other Nootropics with better background research.
Sunifiram is one of the nootropics having huge and fast-growing demand, so its not easily accessible. Its potency, efficacy, and effectiveness have been superb. Although it does not have a lot of trials under its belt, it is nevertheless one which has been encouraging and promoted as a safe and effective nootropic.
Not for everyday use, but it can be a good companion to have in your stack. Increasing energy, cognitive abilities, and physical performance are the prime features of this product which make it one worth trying out.
While researching a bit more on Sunifiram, I came across an article on Nootropics City titled ‘Why was Sunifiram Taken Off the Market,' and dates back to 2004. I thought it would be an interesting read to someone looking for all and any information about Sunifiram. It says:
“In 2000, Sunifiram was introduced to the market. It is well known as DM-235. While clinical trials are done before releasing any drug on the market, as a brand name or a generic one, it is not the only parameter that measures that it will react to general people in the same way. Hence, some drugs are taken off the shelves. Now, why was Sunifiram was taken off the market when some people were responding well towards it. What is the safety information that one should know related to this drug?
The real reason for Sunifiram to be off the market is that there were few safe studies conducted on it. This made it difficult for many physicians to prescribe it to their patients. It is now seen as a recreational drug and a stimulant. Some stimulants like this may be legit but dangerous. It is always best to keep in touch with the ones that have a proven track record, not only in clinical results but in public domain also.
It was introduced as a nootropic to help patients recover mental alertness. The effect of the composition is stronger, and it certainly raises safety issues. Some of its negative properties have made it to remain on the shelves for a little longer. Even healthcare professionals advise its limited usage considering there are other nootropics also on the market that have positive effects.
With its composition, the drug is capable of releasing AMPA receptors that are in the brain. The tolerance level of some patients may have triggered its negative reviews. In fact, some reports also suggested that the drug had toxic effects on consumption. Even small milligram dosages seemed to be bad for the rest of the system. It is also responsible for increased heartbeats in patients who have increased the dosage.
Some of the effects cannot be reversed, and this makes it important to take it off the shelves. It is a very strong drug. Even though it is legal, one must take a medical opinion before consuming it. The Internet offers several slices of information about this drug and its replacements.
It is an ampakine that immediately brings on the ‘horsepower’ to the brain. The brain has AMPA receptors. When they are activated with the help of an ampakine like Sunifiram, it increases the energy. When people have stress on performance in certain jobs, they have been known to consume it. It ensures that there is no other external distraction that can interfere with the mind’s working. People who have short-term memories also have consumed this drug. Since it is strong in its content, it tends to make ‘colors brighter’, ‘sounds clearer’ and general ambience becomes well defined. This could be a dangerous trend.
Sunifiram is an experimental, potent racetam. It shares most of racetams benefits and effects. The dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.
What is Sunifiram Legal Status? Is Sunifiram legal?
In the US, Sunifiram is unscheduled, and not FDA approved.
How To Take Sunifiram?
Being an ‘experimental' drug, and a very potent one, its important to take very low doses (5 mg, 10 mg tops) and do your research to find news and updates on the matter. You can find the post I cited from Nootropics City under Conclusion which has more information regarding that.
Where to Buy Sunifiram?
I have found a few different vendors, none of which I tried, rather, only listing for research purpose. Nootropics City, Nootropics Retail, as well as NewMind – all offer Sunifiram in powder as well as capsules.
What is Sunifiram Dosage?
Unless you are quite experienced in racetams, I wouldn't recommend anything over 5 mg as a starting point. People reported side effects after deciding to increase the dose for more results.
Where to Buy Sunifiram Powder?
What is Sunifiram half-life?
Sunifiram has a half-life of 1-2 hours
Is sunifiram stimulating like Adderall?
Not really at all. Adderall (amphetamine) causes release of dopamine and norepinephrine to increase focus and cause physical and mental stimulation. Sunifaram is a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA channels (increases the activity when a glutamate molecule is bound, but not when nothing is bound), which are a subtype of glutamate receptors. The effect of this is to increase memory formation via long term potentiation, which occurs when NMDA and AMPA (both subtypes of glutamate receptors) channels are both activated in the same neuron. When this happens more glutamate receptors are put into the neuron to make it more likely to fire in the future. Sunifaram increases AMPA firing so increases the odds of a long term pontentiation event happening, and therefore memory formation. It does not act as a CNS stimulant like adderall though, and those two drugs really serve different purposes.
Summary: Alpha-GPC is a natural choline compound. It works on its own as a powerful memory booster. In combination with other nootropics, it works as a potentiator boosting cognitive capabilities. It's also used as a mild stimulant to boost energy and power output when exercising. Furthermore, it promotes cell regeneration and acts as a neuroprotective agent, against cognitive decline.
Alpha-GPC is a cholinergic compound naturally present in the body in small amounts and commercially manufactured as an extract of purified soy lecithin. 
Although there are dietary resources of Alpha-GPC such as dairy products, organ meats, and wheat germ, concentrations achieved by dietary intake are lower than those obtainable by a supplement. It works rapidly and reliably by delivering necessary choline to the brain. 
It provides valuable nootropic qualities, including memory enhancement and protection against brain aging, attributing to longevity. Clinical trials covering thousands of participants confirm Alpha-GPC is a remarkable remedy for memory loss that accompanies Alzheimer’s disease , vascular dementia , and stroke. 
Moreover, it provides neuroprotective, anti-aging benefits. Studies further suggest it is useful in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.  
Another benefit is its ability to enhance cells membrane health and promote rapid recovery following physical activity. Studies indicate that it also acts as a dopaminergic, encouraging the release of dopamine, meaning it works as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, in addition to being an overall mood enhancer.  
Many consider the real strengths of Alpha-GPC is the potentiating feature when in combination with other nootropics. The choline that it provides the brain with significantly magnify the cognitive enhancing effects of other nootropics, especially the racetams.
I've always liked both Alpha-GPC and Citicoline and appreciated their profound effect, until one day I added Aniracetam 750mg and it was as if I had just took a racetam for the first time. The effects of both nootropics synergize together so well, a year later both of them are on the front line among my nootropic stack.
According to examine and based on a handful of different studies, Alpha-GPC appears to be the best currently known cholinergic in increasing plasma and brain choline levels, as it has better transportation into the brain than does choline (somewhat similar to CDP-choline) but since it is a greater percentage choline by weight (relative to CDP-choline) taking X dose of either drug gives more choline when using Alpha-GPC
This effect is mainly due to the increase of choline it makes available for conversion to acetylcholine, which is profoundly correlating with cognitive functions and the ability to create and revive memories. Studies confirm it an effective treatment for memory impairment caused by age-related diseases, including Alzheimer’s and several forms of dementia. It has further proven to be capable of recovering memory in volunteers following brief chemically-induced amnesia. [10, 11, 12]
Neuroprotection and Development of New Brain Cells
It protects and maintains overall brain health by promoting the development of new brain cells and enhancing the body’s capability to repair damaged cell membranes. This attribute is a significant longevity advantage. 
Because it stimulates the production of human growth hormone (HGH), Alpha-GPC is valuable for individuals looking to perform better, increase lean muscle mass, feel peak energy during workouts and recover quickly afterward. A pilot study shows that 600 mg of Alpha-GPC taken 90 minutes before bench pressingincreases power output by 14%. [14, 15, 16]
Increases Attention and Enhances Mood
Users report that using Alpha-GPC provides distinguished mental clarity while improving mood. This elevating effect is explained partially by the additional choline it presents, which increases attentiveness and promotes effortless clear-thinking. It's also a link to its production of human growth hormone, which provides energizing, longevity effects. 
In combination with other nootropics, it offers adequate choline to achieve optimal cognitive enhancement effects, and it prevents the minor headaches often associating with racetams.
Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.
It is a fundamental associate of many cognitive functions including memory formation, learning capacity, and attention. By stimulating the production of acetylcholine, it acts as a neuroprotectant; maintaining neuronal health and preventing potential damage. [Ref 1, 2, 3, 4]
Oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can also be dopaminergic, by increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors. It also has involvement in increasing brain serotonin concentrations following oral administration. [22, 23, 24]
Alpha-GPC digests and absorbs smoothly and is gentle on the stomach taken at the typical dose of 300mg. Although many nootropists tend to prefer a dose of 600mg, with a total daily intake ranging from 300 to 1200 mg, either at once or split into two doses. 
“Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. Alpha-GPC with >99% purity will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month's supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. It is important to note that hygroscopy is not degradation and leaves the substance still usable; however, the ability to accurately weigh a dose is no longer possible as the substance being weighed will be a mixture of powder and water. Liquefied or gelled alpha-GPC may also be indicative of poor storage and thus have an increased likelihood of actual degradation.”
Here is 3 random alpha-gpc reddit community thoughts and experiences:
This might be considered a bit on the excessive side, but I've been taking 300mg of GPC daily for ~2.5 years. I've found it to be one of the most effective ways to treat the severe anxiety that I've suffered throughout most of my life. Initially, I periodically experienced the insomnia you mentioned, but that passed within a month or so. Every once in a while, I'll go several days without taking the stuff. During those short, sporadic periods of “cycling off”, I've noticed that I feel significantly more “dull” and lethargic than I otherwise do, but that might just be placebo in action. I understand that such a lengthy use of an under-researched substance might be a bit careless. I suppose the greatest concern would likely be down regulation of choline receptors and reduced choline production, but I doubt that any studies of the effects of long-term heavy choline supplementation currently exist to prove that one way or another. [find thread here]
Second Reddit user experience
As the title says, Alpha GPC has next to eradicated my social anxiety. It's incredible. Only downside is I'm having a hard time sleeping at night. Guess my question is, how long can I cycle this stuff safely. [find thread here]
Third user experience
So I used to take Alpha GPC, as well as a ton of other nootropics for a few months but recently took a couple months off. Anyway, I've been trying to get back into them so I took only Alpha GPC this morning. I already feel more at ease with everything. I font have much depression but its crazy how great I feel already. I happened to just see this and put it all together. [find thread here]
Alpha-GPC is a compound with decades of research, and its worldwide appreciation comes from the effects of memory enhancement. In addition to the dominant nootropic qualities, it's also an excellent companion to racetams. Moreover, it stimulates the production of human growth hormone. This hormone production improves strength, reduces recovery time, and support the development of lean muscle mass. Therefore; it is an excellent nootropic for individuals who enjoy leading an active lifestyle.
Personally never experienced any side effects from its use. But I've never taken more than 300mg in one dose, and never more than 600mg in a 24-hours frame. Additionally, according to a study by Food Chem Toxicol in 2011 said Alpha-GPC does not appear to possess mutagenic activity, as well that No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for humans was at least 150 mg/kg over 26 weeks based on extrapolation from dogs.
Is Alpha-GPC the Same as Choline?
Alpha-GPC is cholinergic (compounds that increase the levels of acetylcholine or choline in the brain). While Choline is actually a molecule mostly used for turning into acetylcholine, the learning neurotransmitter, as well as live health agent reducing fatty liver buildup.
Is Alpha-GPC Water Soluble?
Alpha-GPC is very water-soluble. It's much more likely to be soluble in water than non-polar solvents such as fat. The reasons why I would say that are as follows: the molecule itself has two ionic sites, ionic organic compounds generally have at least some solubility in water. Two ionic sites significantly increases the likelihood of it being soluble in water. Furthermore, the molecule has many OH a Oxygen moieties. Molecules with a lot of oxygen containing moieties are also likely to be water soluble, due to the hydrogen bonding of water. A good example of this are monosaccharides, they are not ionic, yet dissolve readily in water because of the numerous oxygen containing functional groups on the molecule. Decent answer from a chemist reddit user: everyone_wins
Does Alpha-GPC Work?
Yes. Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.
Does Alpha-GPC Keep You Awake?
Although traditionally known as being non-stimulating, some persons do report cognitive stimulation with supplemental alpha-GPC.
Can Alpha-GPC Increase Dopamine?
Yes, some research studies suggests that oral ingestion of Alpha-GPC can be dopaminergic, by both increasing dopamine release during neuronal action potentials and possibly by stimulating the expression of receptors
How Much Alpha-GPC To Take?
A standard dosage of alpha-GPC is 300-600 mg, according to the most common label doses. 300mg for general use, and 600 mg for increasing power output. This dose is in accordance with the study using alpha-GPC to enhance power output (600 mg) and the two studies noting an increase in growth hormone secretion, and is likely a good dose to take for athletes.
How Does Alpha-GPC Work?
Alpha-GPC is comprising of choline, glycerol, and phosphate and its classification is cholinergic. The mechanism of its action is examined with high understanding. However, the manner in which it affects some neuronal functions remains unclear. A water-soluble supplement that is fast-acting and highly bioavailable orally. It crosses the blood-brain barrier shortly after ingestion, and effects work within an hour. It metabolizes into a combination of choline and byproduct glycerophosphate. Additional choline forming by Alpha-GPC is the essence of its nootropic abilities.
How Much Alpha-GPC to Take with Piracetam?
Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Piracetam stack, the dose would be: Piracetam: 1,600 mg and Alpha-GPC: 300 mg.
How Much Alpha-GPC to take with Aniracetam?
Same as with Piracetam, when taking an Aniracetam and Alpha-GPC stack, the ideal dosage would be: 750 mg of Aniracetam and 300 mg of Alpha-GPC.
How Much Alpha-GPC to Take with Noopept?
Ideally when pairing Alpha-GPC and Noopept stack, the dosage would be 30mg of Noopept (or 15mg if you prefer 2 doses per day instead than one), and 300mg of Alpha-GPC.
When to Take Alpha-GPC?
Alpha-GPC can be taken any time, although preferably not late in the evening due to some reports that it stimulates some people. Other than that, you can take it any time with or without food because its water-soluble.
Where to Buy Alpha-GPC?
Alpha-GPC can be bought on many places. You local drugstore, pharmacies, department store where they have supplements. Its also available with many different vendors online and on Amazon.
Which is the Best Alpha-GPC brand?
Personally, I only used Nootropic Depot's Alpha-GPC which I highly recommend. It can be found either on their website or on Amazon here.
Does Alpha-GPC Increase HGH?
Yes, Alpha-GPC increases growth hormone, but due to a rapid normalization of growth hormone concentrations within 2 hours it may not lead to practical benefits.
Is Alpha-GPC Natural?
Yes, Alpha-GPC is a natural compound.
Where can I buy Alpha-GPC in Dubai and the UAE?
You can buy Alpha-GPC in Dubai online with express delivery and cash on delivery by visiting the store page or contacting us via the numerous channels available.
Summary: Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a popular multi-functional nutrient, amino acid type nootropic. It benefits the body and brain. A potent antioxidant and neuroprotectant, and a powerful energizing nootropic that promotes anti-aging and longevity.
Acetyl-L-Carnitine, also known as ALCAR and ALC, is an amino acid naturally produced in your body to generate energy. It’s also found in animal proteins such as red meats. Many people supplement with acetyl-L-carnitine because of its potential benefits. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a more bioavailable form of amino acid l-carnitine, a derivative of amino acid lysine. The body continuously produces L-carnitine, and furthermore gets it from the foods you eat.
Although research shows actual carnitine insufficiency is uncommon in healthy people with no metabolic disorders, supplementation with addition of it is proven to be beneficial in many different ways. Ranging from improving heart health  to enhancing brain function. 
Acetyl-L-Carnitine is L-carnitine with the addition of an acetyl group, thereby making it the most bioavailable form of L-carnitine and it readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Its primary actions work towards brain functionality. Its nootropic properties seem to magnify when taken with other nootropics. The combination makes it a potentiating agent allowing nootropics to work more effectively.
Other forms of L-carnitine include L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) which is typically assessing physical performance, and Glycine Propionyl L-carnitine (GPLC), which relieves blood flow issues. The only L-carnitine form that possesses nootropic properties is Acetyl L-carnitine, and it furthermore provides both L-carnitine and acetyl groups (molecule) that act towards the development of the learning neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.
From Nootropics Depot product description:
Acetyl L-Carnitine, also commonly known as ALCAR, is an acetylated version of L-Carnitine. L-Carnitine is an amino acid naturally produced but is also taken in supplement form. It is a natural nootropic supplement that may aid in delivering fatty acids to our cells’ mitochondria to be broken down. Acetyl L-Carnitine has superior absorption in comparison to standard L-Carnitine. Acetyl L-Carnitine promotes energy.
Acetyl L-Carnitine HCL Capsules are best known for supporting brain health and cognitive function, but it has many other potential uses.
ALCAR vs L-Carnitine vs Carnitine
ALCAR: supplies acetyl group and carnetine, and crosses the blood brain barrier easier. The acetyl group detaches from the amino acid and helps to recycle acetylcholine.
L-Carnetine: the same as carnitine. The ‘l-‘ prefix is just a part of the chemical notation and is often omitted because cells only make ‘l-‘ form (as only those forms are used in proteins) and it's implied that it's the ‘l-‘ form if it's not specified (if you imagine a molecule as a 2D picture of structure, then ‘l' and ‘d' prefix specifies whether the molecule is flipped or not; flipped version can have totally different properties; the ‘l-‘ version of amino acids is the one you supplement and your cells use).
Carnitine: Refrence the above. It is also involved in energy metabolism.
Taking Acetyl-L-Carnitine or ALCAR, therefore, supplements both and gets both the effects.
Research proves ALCAR beneficial to the brain and body in many ways. From enhancing cognitive abilities  to increasing energy , reducing pain, and even preventing damage from alcohol consumption. 
Studies show that it successfully lowers mental exhaustion and improves cognitive function as well as learning capability. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, 2-phase study, 66 participants with fatigue were given 2 g of L-carnitine once a day. By the end of the study, the group taking L-carnitine showed significant improvements in physical fatigue, mental fatigue, fatigue severity amongst other physical enhancements, as compared to those receiving a placebo.
Moreover, the study confirms that oral supplementation of L-carnitine reduces the total of fat mass, increases muscular mass, increases capacity for physical and cognitive activity, improves cognitive functions, all while reducing fatigue as well. 
Provides Neuroprotection Against Brain Cell Death
Due to its potent antioxidant attributes, ALCAR acts as a neuroprotectant, blocking and restoring damage from free radicals that injure brain cells. It also helps the brain clear itself of other toxins and decreases cell death due to excitotoxicity, a neurotic process that triggers by the over-activation of glutamate receptors. It enhances the neural network by stimulating nerves and signal receptors and additionally protects the brain against the damaging influences of drinking alcohol. 
Restores Cognitive Function and Repairs Impairment
One of Acetyl-L-Carnitine' many exciting prospects is as a treatment for age-related neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. It has been confirmed to dramatically slow decline in Alzheimer's patients and decreases age-related recall failure. Other studies showed that ALCAR supports repair ambulatory capability in the elderly and functions as a mood lifter as well as working as an anti-depressant in the elderly. 
Support Mitochondria and Nervous System
ALCAR promotes mitochondrial function and serves to support the nervous system overall performance. Especially in the case where an individual is subject to neurodegenerative disease. It can be of significant benefit to people with physical disorders typically correlated with aging, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. It has shown to be efficient in managing nerve pain, enhancing kidney function, and improving heart health.  
Regulates Sexual Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction
ALCAR regulates men's infertility and improves signs of andropause and erectile dysfunction. It is also in use to fight Peyronie's disease, an inflammatory disease that affects the penis.  
Additionally, it is under clinical trials as a possible treatment for chronic fatigue.
ALCAR synthesizes primarily in the liver and kidneys, after which it travels to other tissues. ALCAR has excellent bioavailability. The gastrointestinal tract quickly digests it. Its actions differ considerably from other forms of L-carnitine, which don't cross the blood-brain barrier. The acetyl groups that make ALCAR unique, enable it to cross the blood-brain barrier readily and rapidly. Its most effective role is within the cerebellum.
Another one of ALCAR's nootropic benefits involves the acetyl groups, which produce the support for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Often referred to as “the learning neurotransmitter,” acetylcholine is accountable for learning, memory, and cognitive function. Increased levels of acetylcholine result in an improvement in cognitive function, and low levels of that essential neurotransmitter risks neurological complications similar to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.
ALCAR resumes showing increasing levels of norepinephrine and serotonin. They are vital neurotransmitters that play an essential part in mood and brain function. The capacity to improve neurotransmitter production is one of the principal techniques that ALCAR complements nootropics attributes. Similar to those of the racetams, which enhance the action of neurotransmitter receptors in the cerebellum.
Moreover, ALCAR targets brain metabolism, promoting cellular energy and serving as a potent neuroprotectant. Its critical antioxidant qualities combat the impressions of cellular oxidation. It further decreases the number of damaged cells in an individual brain, thereby becoming a useful longevity tool.
Damaged fat cells identified as lipofuscin (age spots) also happen in the brain and are actively correlated amidst age-related neurological dysfunctions, lack of energy, and weak memory. By supporting the brain excrete those damaged cells. ALCAR increases brain function and significantly lessens the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. It has also been shown to limit brain deterioration during times of stress.
Typical Acetyl-L-Canritine dosage is 500 mg per day once in the morning, and up to 1,500 mg split into three doses of 500 mg. From there, adjust dosage to your need without exceeding 1,500 mg. At least not during trial period. It is water-soluble, therefore it can be taken with or without food. However, taking ALCAR late in the evening can result in disruption of sleep.
Recommended ALCAR dosage, active amounts, other details:
“The standard dose for L-carnitine is between 500-2,000mg. There are various forms of carnitine supplementation available.Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) is used for cognitive enhancement. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate (LCLT) is typically used for physical performance and power output. Glycine Propionyl L-Carnitine (GPLC) is used to alleviate intermittent claudication and blood flow issues. L-carnitine is supplemented daily. The equivalent dosage range for other forms of L-carnitine are as follows: 630-2,500mg (ALCAR), 1,000-4,000mg (LCLT) and 1,000-4,000mg (GPLC).”
To be fair in sharing the Reddit community experiences, I will add the first 3 that I see whether the experience is positive or negative. Three Acetyl-L-Carnitine reddit experiences:
As the title says, it’s been a game changer. Old stack was: Citicoline 300mg b.id with centrophenoxine 350mg one to two times daily. Switched Centro to ALCAR 500 one daily just to try and damn it’s been really good. Mornings are good, everything is really clear. Honestly this feels a lot like amphetamine. So much so that I cancelled my pdoc appt to get a refill. I was basically off the meds but wanted to have a few around but now I really don’t think I need them. Very glad people on here have posted about alcar before!
Funny enough I get a stronger response from ALCAR then I do racetams in regards to mental performance. It seems to make me really smart. Your mileage may vary though. To OP: I get results in a day. Be careful for not overdoing it. I’ve posted before that acetylcholine overload tends to make you depressed and function worse. – eastmangobo
“I have been taking Acetyl for about 17 years. For the last 2 yrs or so it has affected me less and less (no idea why) but before that, I noticed a MASSIVE positive boost from taking it. I experienced a huge uptick in word retrieval and overall brain function. used to always say that when I took Acetyl, it was like an electric switch was turned on, as that’s what it felt like … electric..I always bought it in bulk powder and almost always used 1 gram in my morning shake (180lb Male). DO NOT use it after noon …. you will NOT sleep !!!! You should notice a difference within 3-4 days. As I did mention, I am noticing now that I am affected by Acetyl less and less. If I miss a few days, I don’t really notice it like I did years ago and I don’t really get that electric charge feeling. I don’t know why this is, as I’ve purchased a few different brands.” Gernan_Mafia
Measuring the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on various aspects of cognitive performance. Alas, after multiple consecutive nights of vivid nightmares (which I rarely have), I wondered if ALC might play a role. I only experienced this when taking ALC in the later afternoon or evening, and daily total consumption never exceeded 1,500mg. After finding a few reports like this, I decided to call it quits with my protocol. Thus far, I have found ALC to produce unpleasantly vivid dreams to a much greater extent than, say, galantamine or huperzine-A, which enhance vividness but don’t seem to create the same degree of negative tone. Of course, this is an N of 1 (single subject) amateur hour, but the contrast has been both remarkable and remarkably consistent. I’d be curious to hear if anyone else has experienced something similar. And be careful with those cholinergic neurons…
ALCAR is an outstanding amino acid nootropic. It offers many benefits to both the body and the brain. In addition to its potent brain boosting effect, it is also a healthy nutrient. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is safe, affordable, very tolerable, and easily accessible in department and drug stores. It enhances cognitive function, supports ant-aging and longevity, which makes it a nootropic worth adding to any stack.
What is the difference between L-Carnitine L-Tartrate, L-Carnitine Tartrate, and Acetyl L-Carnitine?
L-Carnitine L-Tartrate and L-Carnitine Tartrate are the same thing, they just truncate the L-Tartrate for brevity. This is the form of L-Carnitine that is in supplements that some studies have linked to possibly helping recover times from work outs (specifically it was shown that people taking L-carnitine had less damage to their leg muscles after a workout versus people that weren't taking it), there weren't any other observations of it's added use outside of that. Acetylcarnitine is an alternative form of l-carnitine for supplementation that has been pushed because of it's bioavailability. The downside is that it's less concentrated in the bloodstream after digestion. It doesn't appear that any studies have been performed linking acetylcarnitine to exercise performance, but it's only proven use has been in increasing sperm mobility. A few proposals have set out to use it treat neurological conditions, but none have yet been proven.
Can I take 5-HTP and Acetyl L-Carnitine together?
To date there has been no evidence that either counteract the other or have negative effects. Both substances are great for many aspects of brain health. You can be pretty safe in the assumption that it’s worth testing out for yourself to see how you react to this combination.
Can I take acetyl-l-carnitine & taurine together with antidepressants, antipsychotics and NAC?
They don’t interact, in fact, Acetyl-L-Carnitine is used as “complementary” therapy along with Psych Meds. Taurine is as well. Taurine is also VERY much so present in Energy Drinks like Red Bull & Monster. It is responsible for much of the “kick” and focus Energy Drinks give us.
Is ALCAR effective?
Yes. ALCAR has nootropic and neuro-protective benefits. This compound works great alone if you want a substance to help protect your brain from oxidative stress. Better cognitive results often happen when ALCAR is stacked with other nootropics.
The main nootropic benefits of ALCAR will be consistent with higher acetylcholine levels. Low acetylcholine is linked to cognitive deficient and low energy levels. Although ALCAR helps in the production of Acetylcholine, nootropic benefits may not be apparent when taken alone. For this reason, ALCAR is highly recommended to stack with other nootropics. Below is a list of typical benefits seen in an ALCAR + racetam/ampakine combination.
ALCAR is often stacked with a cheap choline salt like choline bitartrate or citrate because it acts synergistically to produce Acetylcholine. Some people will use this stack as a cheaper alternative to more expensive acetylcholine intermediates such as alpha GPC or citicoline.
ALCAR by itself or in a choline stack will also work great with the racetams and ampakines. Boosting the level of Acetylcholine will allow for a synergistic combination with racetams which act as Acetylcholine receptor agonists. ALCAR is suggested to help protect from excitotoxic situations resulting from excess glutamate that may be a result of taking certain ampakines. For this reason, ALCAR may be beneficial when stacked with certain glutamate agonists like sunifram and unifram.
Ginkgo biloba derives from the family of medicinal plant Ginkgoaceae – which is highly loved, appreciated, and respected traditional Chinese medicine. It is the last and only ‘ginkgoaceae’ plant still existing today. The rest of the family is said to have gone extinct, after nearly 190 million years of existence. [R]
Today, Ginkgo biloba (also known as Tebonin, Tanakan, Rökan, Maidenhair, and gingko) is the most widely used herb for cognitive function and brain health.
Moreover, it is one of the top 10 best selling dietary supplements in the whole world. [R]
Although more commonly used by older people, the wide variety of benefits it possesses make it appeal to people of all ages.
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko, also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated, and was cultivated early in human history. – Wikipedia
Improves Memory (Formation, Consolidation, and Recall)
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia running over the course of 52 weeks and involving 309 patients, it was concluded that it is “capable of stabilizing improving the cognitive performance and the social functioning of demented patients for 6 months to 1 year.” [R]
Relieves Stress and Anxiety
In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using ginkgo extract in patients with generalized anxiety disorder and ‘adjustment disorder with anxious mood’.
In this study, the results were “significantly superior to placebo on all secondary outcome measures. It was safe and well tolerated and may thus be of particular value in elderly patients with anxiety related to cognitive decline” [R]
Relieves Symptoms of Depression
Due to its ability of preserving serotonin and dopamine, as well as having strong protective and antioxidant effects, those 3 together allow ginkgo to provide an antidepressant effect. [R]
Supports Mitochondrial Health and Longevity
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents mitochondrial aging by protecting it against oxidative stress. The study suggests that on a rodents experiment, the extract ‘partially’ prevented changes due to oxidative damage [R] and that sounded good enough for me to reach out to my supplements cabinet for a 120mg dose.
In a different rodent study where they were fed ginkgo biloba, a reduction in platelet activating factor (PAF) activity was noted. That reduction seems to be one of the leading mechanisms allowing ginkgo to have neuroprotective effects. [R]
Promotes Nerve Repair and Neurogenesis
Ginkgo (bilobalide) appears to promote neuronal proliferation with higher potency than Rolipram. Moreover, this can apply to all neurons of the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to the cognitive function effect, this also underlie its nerve repair benefits. [R]
Promotes Better Sleep Quality
240mg Egb-761 over four weeks to depressed persons currently on therapy (trimipramine) was able to improve sleep efficiency by reducing the frequency of waking and increasing non-REM sleep, although REM sleep was unaffected. [R]
Treats Sexual and Erectile Dysfunction
Some sources indicate that ginkgo may treat sexual dysfunction, such as erectile dysfunction or low libido.
Ginkgo has the ability to improve blood levels of nitric oxide, which improves circulation via the dilation of blood vessels. [R]
As a result, ginkgo may also be useful for treating various symptoms of sexual dysfunction by improving blood flow to those areas of the body.
Some research has investigated using ginkgo to treat sexual dysfunction caused by the use of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs). Results indicated that ginkgo wasn’t any more effective than a placebo in these cases.
Additionally, there may be an interaction between ginkgo and SSRI medications, which could render them less effective.
One study evaluated the use of ginkgo to increase sexual desire and contentment in women who were concurrently undergoing sexual psychotherapy [R]
The combination of ginkgo and therapy were effective over a longer term compared to a placebo, but supplementing with ginkgo alone was not. The rationale for using ginkgo to treat sexual dysfunction makes sense, but research does not support it at this time.
Absorption of oral supplementation allows for a 79% to 88% depending on the variant whether it is ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, or bilabolide [R] which if you try to say out loud would sound in between funny and awkward.
Oral ingestion of ginkgo biloba is thought to increase dopamine concentration levels in the prefrontal cortex. Which is related to the flavonoids rather than terpenoids assuming anyone would care about that comparison. [R] – However, the fact that its neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects may actually be extending its effects to the dopaminergic neurons is sort of interesting. “The key benefits of Ginkgo originate in one’s circulatory system. The most popular and effective nootropics and smart drugs, typically have the ability to enhance circulation. Gingko supports the release of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. These help protect vessel walls, while blocking platelet formation. The end result is improved circulation in all major tissues and organs in the body.
Having excellent brain circulation is critical, because if circulation is poor, it can lead to severe imbalances. In more mild cases, individuals can experience headaches. In more severe cases, individuals could have a stroke. When you have good brain flow, these instances can be prevented.
This increased blood flow helps maintain healthy neural tissues. When neuron and synapse growth are supported, memory formation is enhanced. Gingko works by acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. This aids in the protection of acetylcholine levels. When all these effects are combined, they lead to greater neuroplasticity. This is the brain’s ability to adapt over time, which is key to mental power long-term.
While focusing on neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, Gingko acts as a Monoamine Oxidase inhibitor. Since this chemical generally decreases the amount of these neurotransmitters, Gingko helps to boost mental energy, clarity, and focus (by elevating levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine).”
For its nootropic effect, the recommended dose is 120 to 240 mg, and to be taken 2 hours before the task or performance.
For neuroprotection and preventing cognitive degeneration, the recommended dose is 40 to 120mg, taken three times a day after food.
Ginkgo comes in various forms and seems to be most effective when taken in several doses throughout the day that total 120–240 mg.
Ginkgo Biloba Stack
Ginkgo biloba seems to synergize very well with another popular herb and one of my favorite nootropics, Panax Ginseng. The exact synergism isn’t really known or understood, but it is suggested that its synergy is especially effective and beneficial for memory formation and enhancement.
It also goes well with Phosphatidylserine. There are claims of Phosphatidylserine enhancing the efficacy of ginkgo biloba but the study on the subject lacked solid evidence therefore is irrelevant.
If you would like to boost the cognitive effects of Ginkgo, you should stack is with a choline-enhancing supplements. These are known as cholinergics, and include options such as Alpha GPC and Citicoline. By stacking with a choline supplement, you can amplify positive effects.
For most adults, the risk associated with taking ginkgo is relatively low, but there are cases in which ginkgo could cause serious harm. If you are allergic to plants that contain alkylphenols or taking certain medications, you should not take ginkgo. Possible side effects include:
Those taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) as antidepressants should not take ginkgo as it inhibits monoamine oxidase, reducing the effectiveness of the medications.Combining the two may also increase the risk of a potentially fatal condition known as serotonin syndrome. Examples of SSRIs are Prozac, or fluoxetine, and sertraline, also known as Zoloft.
Ginkgo biloba has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities and an ability to improve circulation.
Together, these characteristics have the potential to affect numerous body systems and diseases, although the science behind it still has some catching up to do.
While ginkgo has been used for centuries, it’s not completely understood how it works. Much of the available research is inconsistent or inconclusive, and it’s important to keep that in mind.
As with any herbal supplement, there are risks involved. Ginkgo could lead to serious health complications if you are allergic or taking certain medications.If you’re thinking of including ginkgo in your regimen, be sure to consult your doctor first.
Ginkgo extract has proven benefits to elderly people. This ancient herb acts to enhance oxygen utilization and thus improves memory, concentration, and other mental faculties also to significantly improve long-distance vision and may reverse damage to the retina of the eye. Studies have also confirmed its value in the treatment of depression in elderly people. The ginkgo extract may provide relief for those who suffer from headaches, sinusitis, and vertigo. It may also help relieve chronic ringing in the ears known as tinnitus.
Healing properties: Germany and France have run literally hundreds of studies on the leaf extract. These studies along with similar studies in America, have shown significant results. The extract of ginkgo biloba has been studied for its effectiveness in the treatment of acrocyanosis, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral atherosclerosis, cerebral insufficiencies, cochlear deafness, dementia, depression, menopause, peripheral and cerebral circulatory stimulation, peripheral vascular disease, Raynaud's syndrome, retinopathy, senility, short-term memory loss, tinnitus, vascular diseases, and vertigo. It is said to be effective in improving the blood flow to the hands and the feet as well as stimulating the brain and reducing short-term memory loss. It increases blood flow to the brain, the uptake of glucose by brain cells, and has been said to improve the transmission of nerve signals.
Depression: Patients suffering from varying degrees of vascular insufficiency also noted an improvement in mood while taking ginkgo biloba extract. This has prompted a surge of interest in its use as a treatment for depression, especially in the elderly. Those under the age of fifty may also benefit from ginkgo biloba's antidepressant effects. So far though, the greatest level of improvement has been noted with older patients.
Alzheimer's & mental function: As more than 300 studies demonstrate, ginkgo facilitates better blood flow through out the body, most notably the brain, where it both protects and promotes memory and mental function, even for people with Alzheimer's disease.
Antioxidant Properties: As an antioxidant, ginkgo biloba combats free radicals and repairs molecular damage. A great deal of research suggests that antioxidants such as GBE may play important roles in preventing or delaying heart disease, cancer and other ills. Antioxidants may even halt the damage to cells, thereby slowing the effects of aging.
Impotency: Another use for ginkgo biloba is in the treatment of impotency. The main cause of male impotence is poor circulation and impaired blood flow through the penis, which is often the result of atherosclerosis. Since ginkgo biloba increases blood flow, it's been found to help up to fifty percent of patients after six months of use.
Raynaud's disease: Raynaud's disease is believed to be caused by blood vessels that over react to the cold and spasm, reducing blood flow and there by depriving extremities of oxygen. Ginkgo biloba may help this condition by widening the small blood vessels, which would keep these spasms from completely blocking the blood flow.
Parkinson's Disease: Ginkgo biloba may help symptoms by increasing the brain's blood flow and thereby allowing more of the depleted dopamine to be circulated to the areas that need it most.
Other Conditions: Other uses for which ginkgo biloba extract is often recommended include depression, diabetes related nerve damage and poor circulation, allergies, vertigo, short-term memory loss, headache, atherosclerosis, tinnitus, cochlear deafness, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and PMS.
Strokes: Scientists continue to study the prevention and treatment benefits, ginkgo biloba may help stop strokes from occurring. It's also believed that the herb inhibits free-radical damage of brain cells after a stroke.
Why is Ginkgo biloba called a living fossil?
You have to understand that Ginkgo biloba is the world's oldest living plant. It is called a living fossil because it has no close living relatives and also appears to be the only plant species dating back 270 million years (Permian) in the fossil record. However, it is also one of a rare few (6%) dioecious flowering plants, meaning it has distinct male and female organisms. Not only has this exceptionally hardy species survived three mass extinction events over the past quarter of a billion years, but it was found to be the only surviving plant species near the epicenter of the August 6th, 1945 Hiroshima atomic bomb blast.
Does Ginkgo biloba actually enhance brain functions?
Yes. Scientific research support that it improves memory and cognitive thinking. But remember, just because it’s natural doesn’t mean it’s not harmful. Some people are allergic to Ginkgo biloba. They can also interfere with other medications, boasting or decreasing their effects. If you take other medications, always ask your physician if it’s safe to take a new one.
How much Ginkgo Biloba is safe?
There is no standard dose of ginkgo. Most studies have used a standardized extract of ginkgo, to 24% flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones. For improving cognitive function, studies have used between 120 milligrams to 600 milligrams of the extract daily. The dose given to people with dementia is 40 milligrams of that extract three times daily. No matter why are you using ginkgo, you better start at a low dose (120 milligrams daily) and increase this level gradually while observing your body and its response to the supplement.
What research supports the claim that ginkgo biloba improves memory?
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia running over the course of 52 weeks and involving 309 patients, it was concluded that it is “capable of stabilizing improving the cognitive performance and the social functioning of demented patients for 6 months to 1 year.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. New York Institute for Medical Research, Tarrytown 10591, USA PMID: 9343463
Summary: Picamilon is a nootropic that enhances cognitive function and increases mental energy while reducing stress and anxiety. Its unique blend of energizing and relaxing impacts makes picamilon an outstanding supplement for learners during examination periods or anyone in stressful circumstances who could benefit from faster, clearer thinking.
What is Picamilon?
Picamilon is a distinctive nootropic that enhances cognitive function and increases mental energy while reducing stress and anxiety emotions. Its unique blend of energizing and relaxing impacts makes picamilon an outstanding supplement for learners facing examinations or for anyone in stressful circumstances who wants to think rapidly and clearly.
Picamilon's unique traits make it a truly distinctive supplement. It boosts brain function like all nootropics, enhancing memory, concentration, motivation, the span of attention, and overall productivity. However, its energizing impacts are only half the image; it also calms, relaxes, and generates a tranquilizing effect that decreases stress and anxiety emotions considerably.
This combination of energizing and calming effects, along with its low price, prepared accessibility, and absence of severe side effects, makes picamilon an increasingly common option for anyone who wishes to handle stress and anxiety while maximizing their cognitive skills.
Picamilon was first created in Russia somewhere between the years 1969 and 1971 as part of the Institute's studies into possibly performance-enhancing substances.
Today, picamilon is a prescription drug in Russia and is used to treat a range of conditions and disorders ranging from depression to migraine, neuroinfections, senile psychosis, certain kinds of glaucoma, and even acute intoxication with alcohol.
The wide variety of impacts of Picamilon includes both cognitive enhancement and mood management. It has been shown to promote faster and more comfortable learning pace as well as enhancing both memory retention and recall speed.
Supports Concentration, Focus, and Mental Stamina
By stimulating better blood flow and circulation in the brain, picamilon has critical beneficial impacts on a broad range of cognitive functions, including improving the capacity to concentrate on thinking and improving general mental energy or endurance.
It has been shown that Picamilon has substantial anti-anxiety impacts, significantly decreasing stress effect. It can also assist relieve depression.
Relaxes Without Causing Drowsiness
Users report that taking picamilon outcomes in a pleasant sensation of relaxation without mental fog or grogginess that is usually associated with sedatives or tranquilizers. Most individuals say it provides them a feeling of “calm energy.”
Reduces Blood Pressure
While not positive in all instances, the capacity of picamilon to decrease blood pressure can be a significant advantage to those with hypertension that is enhanced by stress and anxiety.
Improves Sleep Quality
While a single supplement seems contradictory to increase energy and create rest better, many picamilon consumers claim it does just that. Since it is not a tranquilizer, sedative, or muscle relaxer, this impact could be due to the stress reduction and anti-anxiety characteristics of picamilon insignificant portion.
Picamilon is a mixture of niacin and GABA or gamma-aminobutyric acid, two prevalent but essential nutrients. Separately each plays a critical role in brain health but linked to produce unique advantages in a compound that they respond synergistically.
Picamilon’s real strength is the capacity of the niacin element to cross the blood-brain barrier, a semi-permeable capillary filter intended to safeguard the brain and to bring with it the connected GABA element. As a result, GABA, a powerful neurotransmitter that can not cross the blood-brain barrier alone, is transferred into the central nervous system for use across the brain and body.
The real mechanism of action picamilon operates through is both fast and direct. It is a water-soluble compound that is easily absorbed and within an hour of ingestion reaches peak bioavailability.
Picamilon is hydrolyzed or chemically divided back into distinct parts of niacin or nicotinic acid and GABA after crossing the blood-brain barrier. The role of niacin acts as a vasodilator, increasing blood flow in the brain and enhancing oxygen and other nutrients absorption. At the same moment, this vital inhibitory neurotransmitter, which operates by decreasing neuronal excitability, raises the brain concentrations of the GABA element.
The cognitive enhancement impacts of Picamilon can be primarily ascribed to the enhanced effectiveness created by the improved circulation of the brain blood and oxygen absorption. The enhanced blood flow in the brain also enhances the delivery and uptake of glucose and other nutrients, which can boost alertness, concentrate, motivation, and brain energy as a whole. It is also thought to have an essential antioxidant impact that helps break down and remove toxins in the brain.
Picamilon's relaxing and calming impacts are produced by the enhanced concentrations of GABA, a powerful neurotransmitter that operates by inhibiting neuronal firing, decreasing stress and anxiety emotions by generating a slightly sedative impact.
Although picamilon is usually deemed well tolerated and has no severe side effects, it is a potent complement and should be used responsibly. It is wise, as with all supplements, to begin with, the smallest effective dosage possible and gradually boost as required.
Recommendations for daily dosage differ significantly, depending on the special effects you hope to experience in no small measure. Typical is a cumulative dosage of 50 to 400 mg per day, with most customers finding efficacy between 100 and 200 mg divided over two to three doses. However, it may be best for those mainly interested in cognitive enhancements of picamilon and lower dosages of overall mood stabilization, while those looking for significant rises in energy levels may want to create up to higher dosages.
Picamilon operates comparatively fast and is relatively durable. Users say that impacts are usually visible within one hour of intake and last for 4 to 6 hours. It is water-soluble and can be taken on an empty stomach in either capsule or powder form.
While some users prefer cycling picamilon with other nootropics with an anti-anxiety element, there is no negative impact of proof taking it daily.
Picamilon can be taken alone daily, cycled with other supplements or combined with other nootropics in many ways.
The behavioral improvement characteristics of picamilon will be potentiated in a pile with racetam-class nootropics such as piracetam or pramiracetam. However, depending on which racetam supplement you are combining with picamilon, you may also experience, or both, increased energy or relaxation effects.
Combined with ampakine racetam supplements like aniracetam and oxiracetam, both of which have stimulant characteristics, the energy-boosting and mood-modulating impacts of picamilon will be increased.
Some users claim that combining picamilon with other supplements such as kava can boost their energy-producing characteristics while using it in conjunction with relaxing supplements such as valerian will strengthen their calming aspects.
Picamilon is usually regarded as safe and well tolerated, but there have been reports of some side effects. The most severe prospective side effect is low blood pressure, so if you understand that you are susceptible to hypotension or have reason to worry about low blood pressure, you should consult a medical practitioner before taking picamilon.
Allergies and rashes of the skin have been recorded as side effects, but are not prevalent. Such side effects typically include headaches, lightheadedness or dizziness, and nausea. Red skin flushing is also sometimes revealed as a standard and harmless side effect of niacin.
Picamilon is a natural nootropic, and with excellent reason: it can both energize and relax, it is secure and well-tolerated, it has very few reported side effects, it combines well with other supplements, and it is inexpensive and easily accessible. Picamilon provides advantages that are difficult to beat for anyone who wishes or needs to handle their moods and retain ideal cognitive function under pressure.
Picamilon is a substance that does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) defines a dietary ingredient as a vitamin; mineral; herb or other botanical; amino acid; dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of the preceding substances. In contrast, picamilon is a unique chemical entity synthesized from the dietary ingredients niacin and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Picamilon is absorbed into the body, crosses the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in the brain as a separate chemical entity. Because picamilon does not fit any of the categories of dietary ingredients under the Act, any products marketed as dietary supplements that declare picamilon as a dietary ingredient are misbranded.
The FDA has provided expert testimony to the Oregon Attorney General’s office stating that picamilon is not a dietary ingredient.
Picamilon is used as a prescription drug in Russia for a variety of neurological conditions. It is not approved as a drug in the U.S.
Picamilon is also known as:
Recent FDA Action on Dietary Supplements Labeled as Containing Picamilon
On November 30, 2015, the FDA issued warning letters to five companies whose products marketed as dietary supplements claim to contain picamilon. These products are misbranded because picamilon does not meet the statutory definition of a dietary ingredient.
Under existing law, including the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act passed by Congress in 1994, the FDA can take action to remove products from the market, but the agency must first establish that such products are adulterated (e.g., that the product is unsafe) or misbranded (e.g., that the labeling is false or misleading).
The companies have 15 business days from the date of receipt of the letter to communicate to the agency the specific steps they will take to bring their products into compliance with the law.
The agency will continue to update this page in the event additional actions are taken related to picamilon.