Memory

Memory tag archive. A collection listing every nootropic published on the website tagged under Memory.

Summary: Ginkgo biloba is the most commonly ingested herb for brain health. Research proves that its neuroprotective, improves memory, boosts cognitive function, to name a few of its diverse benefits.



Introduction

What is Ginkgo Biloba?

Ginkgo biloba derives from the family of medicinal plant  Ginkgoaceae – which is highly loved, appreciated, and respected traditional Chinese medicine. It is the last and only ‘ginkgoaceae’ plant still existing today. The rest of the family is said to have gone extinct, after nearly 190 million years of existence. [R]

Today, Ginkgo biloba (also known as Tebonin, Tanakan, Rökan, Maidenhair, and gingko) is the most widely used herb for cognitive function and brain health.

Moreover, it is one of the top 10 best selling dietary supplements in the whole world. [R]

Although more commonly used by older people, the wide variety of benefits it possesses make it appeal to people of all ages.

Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko, also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated, and was cultivated early in human history. – Wikipedia


Benefits & Effects

What Are The Benefits of Ginkgo Biloba?

  • Improves Memory (Formation, Consolidation, and Recall)
  • Ginkgo Relieves Anxiety & Stress (Generalized Anxiety)
  • Ginkgo biloba Relieves Depression Symptoms
  • Ginkgo biloba Protects Mitochondrial Health and Supports Longevity
  • Provides Neuroprotection
  • Promotes Nerve Repair and Neurogenesis
  • Promotes Better Sleep Quality
  • Treats Sexual and Erectile Dysfunction

Supporting Research:

Improves Memory (Formation &Recall)

In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia running over the course of 52 weeks and involving 309 patients, it was concluded that it is “capable of stabilizing improving the cognitive performance and the social functioning of demented patients for 6 months to 1 year.” [R]

Relieves Anxiety & Stress (Generalized Anxiety)

In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using ginkgo extract in patients with generalized anxiety disorder and ‘adjustment disorder with anxious mood’.

In this study, the results were “significantly superior to placebo on all secondary outcome measures. It was safe and well tolerated and may thus be of particular value in elderly patients with anxiety related to cognitive decline” [R]

Ginkgo biloba Relieves Depression Symptoms

Due to its ability of preserving serotonin and dopamine, as well as having strong protective and antioxidant effects, those 3 together allow ginkgo to provide an antidepressant effect. [R]

Protects Mitochondrial Health and Supports Longevity

Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents mitochondrial aging by protecting it against oxidative stress. The study suggests that on a rodents experiment, the extract ‘partially’ prevented changes due to oxidative damage [R] and that sounded good enough for me to reach out to my supplements cabinet for a 120mg dose.

Provides Neuroprotection

In a different rodent study where they were fed ginkgo biloba, a reduction in platelet activating factor (PAF) activity was noted. That reduction seems to be one of the leading mechanisms allowing ginkgo to have neuroprotective effects. [R]

Promotes Nerve Repair and Neurogenesis

Ginkgo (bilobalide) appears to promote neuronal proliferation with higher potency than Rolipram. Moreover, this can apply to all neurons of the central nervous system as well as the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to the cognitive function effect, this also underlie its nerve repair benefits. [R]

Promotes Better Sleep Quality

240mg Egb-761 over four weeks to depressed persons currently on therapy (trimipramine) was able to improve sleep efficiency by reducing the frequency of waking and increasing non-REM sleep, although REM sleep was unaffected. [R]

Treats Sexual Dysfunction

Some sources indicate that ginkgo may treat sexual dysfunction, such as erectile dysfunction or low libido.

Ginkgo has the ability to improve blood levels of nitric oxide, which improves circulation via the dilation of blood vessels. [R]

As a result, ginkgo may also be useful for treating various symptoms of sexual dysfunction by improving blood flow to those areas of the body.

Some research has investigated using ginkgo to treat sexual dysfunction caused by the use of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs). Results indicated that ginkgo wasn’t any more effective than a placebo in these cases.

Additionally, there may be an interaction between ginkgo and SSRI medications, which could render them less effective.

One study evaluated the use of ginkgo to increase sexual desire and contentment in women who were concurrently undergoing sexual psychotherapy [R]

The combination of ginkgo and therapy were effective over a longer term compared to a placebo, but supplementing with ginkgo alone was not.
The rationale for using ginkgo to treat sexual dysfunction makes sense, but research does not support it at this time.


Mechanism of Action

How Does Ginkgo Biloba Work?

Absorption of oral supplementation allows for a 79% to 88% depending on the variant whether it is ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, or bilabolide [R] which if you try to say out loud would sound in between funny and awkward.

Oral ingestion of ginkgo biloba is thought to increase dopamine concentration levels in the prefrontal cortex. Which is related to the flavonoids rather than terpenoids assuming anyone would care about that comparison. [R] – However, the fact that its neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects may actually be extending its effects to the dopaminergic neurons is sort of interesting. “The key benefits of Ginkgo originate in one’s circulatory system. The most popular and effective nootropics and smart drugs, typically have the ability to enhance circulation. Gingko supports the release of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin. These help protect vessel walls, while blocking platelet formation. The end result is improved circulation in all major tissues and organs in the body.

Having excellent brain circulation is critical, because if circulation is poor, it can lead to severe imbalances. In more mild cases, individuals can experience headaches. In more severe cases, individuals could have a stroke. When you have good brain flow, these instances can be prevented.

This increased blood flow helps maintain healthy neural tissues. When neuron and synapse growth are supported, memory formation is enhanced. Gingko works by acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. This aids in the protection of acetylcholine levels. When all these effects are combined, they lead to greater neuroplasticity. This is the brain’s ability to adapt over time, which is key to mental power long-term.

While focusing on neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, Gingko acts as a Monoamine Oxidase inhibitor. Since this chemical generally decreases the amount of these neurotransmitters, Gingko helps to boost mental energy, clarity, and focus (by elevating levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine).”


Dosage

How to Take Ginkgo Biloba?

For its nootropic effect, the recommended dose is 120 to 240 mg, and to be taken 2 hours before the task or performance.

For neuroprotection and preventing cognitive degeneration, the recommended dose is 40 to 120mg, taken three times a day after food.

Ginkgo comes in various forms and seems to be most effective when taken in several doses throughout the day that total 120–240 mg.

Ginkgo Biloba Stack

Ginkgo biloba seems to synergize very well with another popular herb and one of my favorite nootropics, Panax Ginseng. The exact synergism isn’t really known or understood, but it is suggested that its synergy is especially effective and beneficial for memory formation and enhancement.

It also goes well with Phosphatidylserine. There are claims of Phosphatidylserine enhancing the efficacy of ginkgo biloba but the study on the subject lacked solid evidence therefore is irrelevant.

If you would like to boost the cognitive effects of Ginkgo, you should stack is with a choline-enhancing supplements. These are known as cholinergics, and include options such as Alpha GPC and Citicoline. By stacking with a choline supplement, you can amplify positive effects.


Side Effects

What Are Ginkgo Biloba Side Effects?

For most adults, the risk associated with taking ginkgo is relatively low, but there are cases in which ginkgo could cause serious harm. If you are allergic to plants that contain alkylphenols or taking certain medications, you should not take ginkgo. Possible side effects include:

  1. Nausea
  2. Diarrhea
  3. Dizziness
  4. Headaches
  5. Stomach pain

Those taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) as antidepressants should not take ginkgo as it inhibits monoamine oxidase, reducing the effectiveness of the medications.Combining the two may also increase the risk of a potentially fatal condition known as serotonin syndrome. Examples of SSRIs are Prozac, or fluoxetine, and sertraline, also known as Zoloft.


Conclusion

Ginkgo biloba has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities and an ability to improve circulation.

Together, these characteristics have the potential to affect numerous body systems and diseases, although the science behind it still has some catching up to do.

While ginkgo has been used for centuries, it’s not completely understood how it works. Much of the available research is inconsistent or inconclusive, and it’s important to keep that in mind.

As with any herbal supplement, there are risks involved. Ginkgo could lead to serious health complications if you are allergic or taking certain medications.If you’re thinking of including ginkgo in your regimen, be sure to consult your doctor first.


Frequently Asked Questions

Does Ginkgo biloba work?

Ginkgo extract has proven benefits to elderly people. This ancient herb acts to enhance oxygen utilization and thus improves memory, concentration, and other mental faculties also to significantly improve long-distance vision and may reverse damage to the retina of the eye. Studies have also confirmed its value in the treatment of depression in elderly people. The ginkgo extract may provide relief for those who suffer from headaches, sinusitis, and vertigo. It may also help relieve chronic ringing in the ears known as tinnitus.

Healing properties:
Germany and France have run literally hundreds of studies on the leaf extract. These studies along with similar studies in America, have shown significant results. The extract of ginkgo biloba has been studied for its effectiveness in the treatment of acrocyanosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral atherosclerosis, cerebral insufficiencies, cochlear deafness, dementia, depression, menopause, peripheral and cerebral circulatory stimulation, peripheral vascular disease, Raynaud’s syndrome, retinopathy, senility, short-term memory loss, tinnitus, vascular diseases, and vertigo. It is said to be effective in improving the blood flow to the hands and the feet as well as stimulating the brain and reducing short-term memory loss. It increases blood flow to the brain, the uptake of glucose by brain cells, and has been said to improve the transmission of nerve signals.

Depression:
Patients suffering from varying degrees of vascular insufficiency also noted an improvement in mood while taking ginkgo biloba extract. This has prompted a surge of interest in its use as a treatment for depression, especially in the elderly. Those under the age of fifty may also benefit from ginkgo biloba’s antidepressant effects. So far though, the greatest level of improvement has been noted with older patients.

Alzheimer’s & mental function:
As more than 300 studies demonstrate, ginkgo facilitates better blood flow through out the body, most notably the brain, where it both protects and promotes memory and mental function, even for people with Alzheimer’s disease.

Antioxidant Properties:
As an antioxidant, ginkgo biloba combats free radicals and repairs molecular damage. A great deal of research suggests that antioxidants such as GBE may play important roles in preventing or delaying heart disease, cancer and other ills. Antioxidants may even halt the damage to cells, thereby slowing the effects of aging.

Impotency:
Another use for ginkgo biloba is in the treatment of impotency. The main cause of male impotence is poor circulation and impaired blood flow through the penis, which is often the result of atherosclerosis. Since ginkgo biloba increases blood flow, it’s been found to help up to fifty percent of patients after six months of use.

Raynaud’s disease:
Raynaud’s disease is believed to be caused by blood vessels that over react to the cold and spasm, reducing blood flow and there by depriving extremities of oxygen. Ginkgo biloba may help this condition by widening the small blood vessels, which would keep these spasms from completely blocking the blood flow.

Parkinson’s Disease:
Ginkgo biloba may help symptoms by increasing the brain’s blood flow and thereby allowing more of the depleted dopamine to be circulated to the areas that need it most.

Other Conditions:
Other uses for which ginkgo biloba extract is often recommended include depression, diabetes related nerve damage and poor circulation, allergies, vertigo, short-term memory loss, headache, atherosclerosis, tinnitus, cochlear deafness, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and PMS.

Strokes:
Scientists continue to study the prevention and treatment benefits, ginkgo biloba may help stop strokes from occurring. It’s also believed that the herb inhibits free-radical damage of brain cells after a stroke.

Why is Ginkgo biloba called a living fossil?

You have to understand that Ginkgo biloba is the world’s oldest living plant. It is called a living fossil because it has no close living relatives and also appears to be the only plant species dating back 270 million years (Permian) in the fossil record. However, it is also one of a rare few (6%) dioecious flowering plants, meaning it has distinct male and female organisms. Not only has this exceptionally hardy species survived three mass extinction events over the past quarter of a billion years, but it was found to be the only surviving plant species near the epicenter of the August 6th, 1945 Hiroshima atomic bomb blast.

Does Ginkgo biloba actually enhance brain functions?

Yes. Scientific research support that it improves memory and cognitive thinking. But remember, just because it’s natural doesn’t mean it’s not harmful. Some people are allergic to Ginkgo biloba. They can also interfere with other medications, boasting or decreasing their effects. If you take other medications, always ask your physician if it’s safe to take a new one.

How much Ginkgo biloba is safe?

There is no standard dose of ginkgo. Most studies have used a standardized extract of ginkgo, to 24% flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones. For improving cognitive function, studies have used between 120 milligrams to 600 milligrams of the extract daily. The dose given to people with dementia is 40 milligrams of that extract three times daily. No matter why are you using ginkgo, you better start at a low dose (120 milligrams daily) and increase this level gradually while observing your body and its response to the supplement. 

Useful & Related Readings

Agmatine SulfateBacopa MonnieriMelatoninLion’s Mane MushroomL-Theanine, and more on the blog.

Ultimate Nootropics FAQNootropics 101Racetams 101


Choline

Choline

Choline is an essential nutrient, and the precursor for neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine interacts directly with many functions such as the liver, brain, and nerve functions. It further extends to muscle control, energy level, as well as the metabolic process.

Summary: MindLab Pro is a pre-formulated nootropic. A blend of 11 natural and potent ingredients in 1 pill. It offers a great convenience while delivering measurable and obvious increases in physical and mental performance.



Introduction


What Is MindLab Pro?

I have come across Mind Lab Pro after the rebranding and introduction, and was immediately drawn to its overall presentation. I care about companies images just as much as I care about the product itself. After immersing myself into reading every word on the extensive ingredient list and description of each, I thought to myself, and I owe it to myself to give it a shot. The price was reasonable for the content, and I ordered my first bottle.

Fast forward about a year later, I still have it standing amongst the first on my shelf. Except now I also have my mom and two sisters, as well as a friend or two, all enjoying supplementing and using it on a daily basis.

We all got easily attracted to the product because of its moderate dosage, and commitment to natural ingredients. I don’t mind other nootropics but I know people who wouldn’t come near anything synthetic, so Mind Lab Pro seemed appealing to them. Each serving (2 pills) contains the following 11 “enhanced potency form”


The Formula


What’s In MindLab Pro?

With such an impressive list of ingredients formulating together into one (or two) pills, it’s no surprise why Mind Lab Pro made quite a name for itself and maintaining a loyal, returning customers.


Benefits & Effects


What Are The Benefits of MindLab Pro?

Unlike any other nootropic on the website, it’s a little bit more challenging to list down the benefits and effects of using Mind Lab Pro because it consists of 11 different ingredients, each of which serves many benefits. However, you can click on each component and see the list of its benefits and effects.

I’ve used it short term and long term and have seen results in both ways. What I like the most about Mind Lab Pro is the fact that it has citicoline, which means I can perfectly pair it with a racetam without having to get an additional choline source (currently I take Alpha GPC when taking racetams). As well as the fact that it also has Lion’s Mane Mushroom which I think is one of the most profound nootropics I have come across. So when I wake up in the morning and wanting to head out to work fast and arrive fresh and mentally prepared, (also because I’m almost always late), I would only take 2 pills instead of reaching out to 11 different containers and taking 1 by 1 – I am one who really goes the extra mile for convenience.


Side Effects


What Are The Side Effects of MindLab Pro?

Again, from personal experience, and at least six people that I know from friends and family, none of us have encountered any side effects that were leading back to Mind Lab Pro. I’ve recommended that they take it with a fat source for better absorption and to avoid any stomachache, but I almost always take it first thing in the morning and never had any adverse effects.


Personal Experience


Honestly, if anyone asks me for a recommendation when first starting on nootropics, I would recommend Mind Lab Pro. And I am not even an affiliate nor sponsored by them whatsoever (although I should be…)  – it is a genuine suggestion.

It has many good ingredients and at moderate dosages. Beginners can easily understand the mix and expand their knowledge further intro nootropics if they wanted to. Moreover, I also really enjoy the (if not mistaken) buy two get 3rd free & buy three get 4th free. It makes a good value for money and always comes in handy for last minute packing, late and rushing situations, and can even be carried out in your bag on day to day basis unlike when you’re using a stack of different products. I don’t think I can’t even fit all the containers I have from various companies in my car trunk.


Vinpocetine

Summary: Vinpocetine is a neuroprotective nootropic, an extraction from flower-plant vinca minor. It works as a cognitive enhancer, memory booster, while also uplifting mood and supporting overall well-being.


Introduction

What is Vinpocetine?

Vinpocetine (aka Cavinton, Intelctol), is an extract from flowering plant vinca minor (or myrtle); a flower-family native to Portugal, France, and other parts of central and southern Europe. A 1975 discovery by Hungarian chemist named Csaba Szantay. Only three years after the invention, production of the extract in pill form started. Some of the primary uses of Vinpocetine as a nootropic are memory and cognition improvement, increasing learning capacity, and mood enhancement. Medical applications extend to the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, dementia, and strokes. It is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. Its excellent safety profile is inspiring more companies to study and research Vinpocetine to explore other possible therapeutic and nootropic benefits. Although less popular comparing to other nootropics, the research as well as the knowledge of it is rapidly growing


Benefits & Effects

Vinpocetine Improves Memory and Cognition

Vinpocetine is widely in use for memory improvement. In Eastern Europe, it is a medical prescription for treating memory-related problems and disorders. Clinical trials confirm its effect on improving memory formation, and individuals receiving Vinpocetine report it’s beneficial especially in remembering and recalling information. Other studies also confirm it as a memory enhancer that can be used by anyone looking to improve their memory. (R)

Increases Focus, Concentration, and Brain Blood Flow

Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and supports better blood circulation without having adverse effects on blood pressure. The better blood flow and circulation leads to an increase in productivity within the brain. This productivity increases and allows for better focus and concentration, as well as allowing for longer and steady attention span. Take notes, fellow ADHD ADHE’s – (attention-deficit hyperactive extraordinary). (R) (R)

Enhances Learning Capacity, Information Processing, and Attention

Vinpocetine improves the body’s ability of converting dietary glucose and fat to ATP, which is the coenzyme that transmits chemical energy for metabolism. Having more ATP ready for use in the brain leads to better intellectual capability, and thereby learning becomes more comfortable and faster. Moreover, the presence of sufficient ATP reduces feelings of mental exhaustion and “brain fog,” as well as supports feelings of mental clarity. (R)

Vinpocetine Reduces Cognitive Decline and Increases Overall Well-Being

An increase in overall well-being is a result of a reduction in the rate of cognitive decline. (R) (R)

Vinpocetine is Neuroprotectant and Anti-Inflammatory

Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.


Mechanism of Action

Early studies show that Vinpocetine benefits the brain in many ways, one of which is by improving blood flow, circulation, and utilization of oxygen. Unlike common stimulants, Vinpocetine increases blood flow in the brain without affecting the rest of the body. It targets impaired cells and areas of poor circulation within the brain. Enhancing blood flow, circulation, and oxygenation allows the brain to tolerate conditions of lack of sufficient oxygen (such as ischemia and hypoxia) better. Those conditions can relate to strokes and similar injuries. The elevation of blood flow and oxygenation result the nootropic effect.

Furthermore, improving circulation and oxygenation in the brain also enhances the overall brain function while increasing the production of ATP. All of which are vital for cerebral metabolism. By generating sufficient amounts of ATP, vinpocetine increases the use of glucose thereby improves mental clarity.

Vinpocetine interacts with sodium, calcium, and potassium ion channels within the brain, modulating the release of various neurotransmitters. That includes, but not limited to acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Increasing the availability of those neurotransmitters not only affects memory and overall cognition but may also improve mood by relieving feelings of anxiety and enhancing energy and well-being. Vinpocetine also acts as an anti-inflammation agent in the brain. It reduces expression of the pro-inflammation and vascular cell adhesion molecules which can lead to neuronal death in some conditions (such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). The anti-inflammatory qualities of vinpocetine make it a promising neuroprotectant that is likely to have significant anti-aging and longevity benefits.


Dosage

How To Take Vinpocetine?

For general health and prevention purposes, the low dose is 5mg 3x per day at meals and ranges up to 20 mg 3x per day. These doses are for neuroprotection, enhancing cerebral blood flow, and reducing the rate of cognitive decline.

For nootropic purposes, suggestion doses of 30 to 45 mg, 3 times a day, alongside food.


Side Effects

Vinpocetine is very safe and has (almost) no side effects. It is also very well tolerated and has no reported adverse effects. New users rarely experience a soft version of caffeine “buzz” that fades away as tolerance to vinpocetine is increased. Keep in mind that increasing the daily dosage to over 40 mg could decrease benefits.


Conclusion

Vinpocetine’s unique mechanisms of action, great cognitive enhancement abilities, and insurance of neuroprotection are leading to increasing attention within the nootropic community. It’s a safe brain-booster that works well with other nootropics, thereby becoming an attractive addition to nootropic stacks. It’s affordable and easily accessible.

If you are interested in further optimizing your brain, enhancing its blood circulation, as well as allowing it to function at maximum productivity; vinpocetine is a nootropic worthy of your consideration.


Summary: Bacopa monnieri is a powerful natural herb nootropic used for ages for its memory enhancing and anti-aging effects. It reduces anxiety and improves memory formation. It also expands learning capacity, decreases stress and even offers neuroprotection


Introduction

What is Bacopa Monnieri?

Bacopa monnieri (also known as Brahmi) is one of the most acknowledged and widely respected nootropics. A traditional Ayurvedic medicine that has a good reputation of being a potent cognitive enhancer, stress and anxiety reliever, and brain protector. It improves memory formation and recall speed, it stimulates learning, enhances thought clarity, and increase brain function. It acts as a brain protectant, and studies confirm it as a potential remedy for dementia and similar conditions. Furthermore, it reduces anxiety and provides a feeling of calm and tranquility, all while eliminating stress. Users report it an excellent relaxant that improves sleep quality, leading to rejuvenating and refreshing rest. Its nootropic effects are comparable to those of Piracetam, one of the most popular smart drugs in the world. The supplement is produced from the plant extracts.


Benefits & Effects

What Are Bacopa Monnieri Benefits?

  1. Enhances Memory Formation
  2. Improves Learning and Cognition
  3. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  4. Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity
  5. Reduces Symptoms of Depression

Bacopa Monnieri Enhances Memory Formation

Enhancement in memory formation, as well as recall speed, is one of Bacopa’s primary benefits. Studies show that it significantly enhances memory in older people, and ongoing research is investigating its potential as a treatment of memory issues relating to neurological disorders.  (J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0342.)

Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. [R]

Improves Learning and Cognition

Bacopa Monnieri improves cognitive processing, making learning new things faster and easier. Studies show that it significantly enhances spatial learning, and it has also been confirmed to improve learning capacity in subjects under stress. Most users say that taking bacopa while studying makes it easier to understand and process new information. Reports carried out by clinical trials at India’s Central Drug Institute (CDRI) in Lucknow state that children taking bacopa show improved academic skills. (R)

Reduces Anxiety and Stress

Bacopa Monnieri is effective in reducing anxiety and stress. Clinical trials show that it significantly decreases anxiety and depression in volunteers, and animal studies compare bacopa to other plant extracts for the effective treatment of anxiety and similar disorders. (R)(R)

Neuroprotective and Promotes Longevity (Anti-Aging)

Bacopa is effective in reducing oxidative stress effects on the brain. It possesses potent antioxidant properties that protect the brain against environmental stressors associated in the cognitive decline relating to aging and associated with Alzheimer’s and other neurological diseases. (R)

Reduces Symptoms of Depression

In a study of individuals over 65 years old receiving 300mg dosage, the results show a notable decrease in depression symptoms as well as anxiety. (R)

Bacopa Monnieri

Mechanism of Action

How Does Bacopa Monnieri Work?

Bacopa’s nootropic and anxiolytic effects are due to its capability of enhancing neural communication as well as modulating the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and GABA.

Memory and Cognitive

Although it works over time by a variety of functions, bacopa improves memory and cognitive abilities by increasing synaptic communication. It promotes dendrites generation, thereby enhancing neural signaling. The improvement in neural impulse transmission is key to cognitive enhancement. The active ingredient in Bacopa monnieri extract (Bacoside-A) has been shown to stimulate nerve cells and cause synapses to be more receptive to nerve impulses. Studies show that Bacoside-A can prevent dopamine receptor dysfunction. Dopamine is a powerful neurotransmitter responsible for the brain’s reward and pleasure systems.

It also improves production of the enzyme Tryptophan Hydroxylase (TPH2); vital to many central nervous system actions such as the biosynthesis of serotonin. Furthermore, Bacopa stimulates activity in the hippocampus by increasing the activity of kinases, which are proteins that regulate cellular pathways. Because the hippocampus is involved in almost all cognitive activity, this is one of the main methods that allows bacopa to boost brain function.

Anxiety and Stress Relief

Bacopa monnieri produces its unique calming effects through several actions. One of the most crucial anxiety reduction effects is within its power to modulate the activity of certain neurotransmitters like those that regulate the uptake of serotonin, which is connecting to mood and anxiety.

Another active ingredient in bacopa is hersaponin, an alkaloid that provides a relaxing and soothing effect. Bacopa’s active ingredients also support the activity of GABA, another major neurotransmitter that acts to prevent anxiety by restricting the signaling of neuron over-excitement due to stress.


Dosage

How To Take Bacopa Monnieri?

The minimum effective dose of Bacopa Monnieri is 300mg, taken with food or fat source. Some people, myself included, find it more effective at a higher dosage.

I take 300 to 600mg depending on the purpose, while people like Dave Asprey recommend a daily dose of 750mg.


Side Effects

What Are Bacopa Monnieri Side Effects?

Bacopa monnieri side effects are uncommon. It is generally safe and effective, nevertheless, side effects can occur just as with any other nootropic.

Bacopa side effects range from minor (digestion issues and fatigue) to severe (thyroid disorders and urinary tract complications). Minor side effects usually disappear as the body adapts to the herb.

Rodent studies suggest bacopa may reduce sperm count, so it’s wise to avoid it if you are planning to conceive. However, it didn’t have any impact on sex drive nor testosterone. Moreover, sperm count returns to normal once supplementation stops (R).

Severe side effects may include thyroid disorders, urinary tract problems, gastrointestinal blockage, adverse impact on ulcers and lung conditions, and bradycardia.

So start with the lowest effective dose, and observe your body’s reaction to it. If adverse effects occur, stop use.


Conclusion

Bacopa monnieri enhances cognitive abilities, reduces anxiety, and treats a variety of conditions. Although it works over time, the anxiety-relieving effects are immediate.

Its a precious addition to nootropic stacks. If you’re looking for a natural nootropic to boost your cognition, relieve anxiety, and protect your brain against oxidative stress, Bacopa would make an excellent choice.


Further & Related Readings

Melatonin For Sleep: How Effective Is It? / Melatonin

The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ Page

Bacopa Monnieri – Wikipedia


Introduction Benefits & EffectsMechanism of ActionDosageSide EffectsUser ExperienceConclusion

Summary: Sunifiram is an experimental, potent and powerful nootropic that enhances memory, expands learning capacity, and uplifts mood. A recent addition to the racetam family that seems more than promising. Sunifiram dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

Sunifiram


Introduction

What is Sunifiram? What Does It Do?

Sunifiram is a synthetic derivative of Piracetam. Although there has not been much evidence about its efficacy, it has been proven to be beneficial for the (many) individuals using it. With research and trials ongoing and growing, its use will increase along as well. Sunifiram (also known as DM-235) has been one of the best nootropics that powerfully influence cognition. It enhances mood, lowers stress, and increases energy and focus.

It is an invention from the year 2000. And although it is very new to the market, it is proving to be effective and useful to individuals both in long and short terms. It is an effective nootropic that improves learning and memory, and furthermore enhances cognitive function. It is used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amnesia, like most racetams. There are no reports of any severe side effects from its use, making it effective, useful, and safe.

Although it belongs to the racetam class, Sunifiram has a different structure. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to as a piperazine alkaloid rather than racetam. It delivers many of the same memory and learning enhancements as piracetam but is much more potent.

Sunifiram is also an ampakine. It increases the efficacy and activity of neurotransmitter glutamine. This leads to significant changes such as mood and energy improvement along with other cognition benefits.

Sunifiram (developmental codename DM-235) is an experimental drug which has antiamnesic effects in animal studies and with significantly higher potency than piracetam. Sunifiram is a molecular simplification of unifiram (DM-232). As of 2016, sunifiram had not been subjected to toxicology testing, nor to any human clinical trials, and is not approved for use anywhere in the world. Wikipedia


Benefits and Effects

What Are Sunifiram Benefits?

  1. Reduces Anxiety and Stress
  2. Improves Symptoms of Depression
  3. Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy
  4. Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation
  5. Enhances Focus and Motivation
  6. Enhances Visual Perception
  7. Increases Libido

Supporting research:

Sunifiram Reduces Anxiety, Stress, and Symptoms of Depression

As an antidepressant and anxiety reliever, Sunifiram produces its effects as a mirror image of an ampakine. It reacts with glutamatergic AMPA receptors. That also allows it to act as a mild stimulant.

Sunifiram Enhances Mood & Boosts Energy

Sunifiram is known to increase energy and enhance mood. This is likely due to its antidepressant-like effect.

Improves Learning Skill and Memory Formation

Sunifiram is a potent and powerful nootropic. It enhances memory formation and retention as well as expanding the learning capacity. It is in use in case of diseases that cause memory loss or amnesia. Its use is not yet regulated by the FDA, but still widely in use by many individuals for its nootropic benefits. [R] [R]

Appears to promote long term potentiation in the hippocampus with oral ingestion, which should result in an improvement in memory in animals that have otherwise impaired memory. Examine.com

Enhances Focus and Motivation

Sunifiram enhances focus and concentration. It is known to improve motivation and enable a person to complete mentally-demanding tasks at ease and comfort. The focus heightening and motivation is due to the increase in the release and utilization of acetylcholine; which has a direct impact on cognitive abilities.

Enhances Visual Perception

Sunifiram keeps you out of stress and negative thinking. It makes you have a confident, better outlook on life. It allows you to look at the future positive and ambitiously. Such useful effects are helpful for people at any and every stage of life.

Sunifiram Increases Libido

Increase in the sex drive is often in anecdotal reports. However, there is no clinical evidence on this specific claim and only anecdotal ones support it.


Mechanism of Action

How Does Sunifiram Work?

Sunifiram is a piracetam derivative. But it often comes as a surprise that it has a different chemical structure from the other racetams. It is basically a piperazine alkaloid which can act as an ampakine that will increase the activity of glutamine receptors and increase the stimulation effects. Or it can serve as a cholinergic that stimulates the production and release of acetylcholine.

AMPAkine Action

Although no such evidence is still available about its use and its action in humans due to the lack of the trials, the primary factor that drives it to work would be the ampakine factor which allows it to provide the stimulation effects by acting at the glutamate receptors. Ampakines are mild stimulants. They can increase alertness and energy. They do not cause restlessness which like other antidepressants or anxiolytics. The increase the energy levels and the activity factor is also one of the significant roles Sunifiram plays. Due to its effect on the glutamate receptors, it leads to functions such as spatial navigation and the formation and storage of memory, which are crucial for many neurological conditions.

Cholinergic Action

Sunifiram acts as a cholinergic as well. Due to this effect, it leads to the production and release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Acetylcholine increases brain function and cognition abilities. The primary functions are memory enhancement, learning speed and capacity which grow and expand very notably. You can also count on the fluid intelligence or ability to solve unique problems with this supplement. Sunifiram is an essential nootropic to students as well as athletes to increase their performance and achieve better results.

Sunifiram appears to act on the glycine binding site of NMDA receptors, which enhances signalling and activates some intracellular proteins (CAMKII and PKCα) which then positively regulate the AMPA receptors. These mechanisms are highly similar to that seen with nefiracetam. Examine.com


Dosage

How to Take Sunifiram?

Sunifiram works effectively at a dosage of 5 to 10 mg –  at a maximum of three times per day.

This is the safe dose which is often taken sublingual for maximum efficacy and absorption.

It is advised that one starts with the smallest doses to prevent side effects and toxicity.

Although it is not in documentation, tolerance can grow with excessive usage, so it is better to take it occasionally instead of daily basis.

Sunifiram Stack

For Boosting Cognitive Function

By pairing sunifiram with one or more of the racetams like piracetam, oxiracetam, or Noopept, we can achieve this increase which has been the most common and most favorite Sunifiram combo. A choline source like Alpha GPC is an important part of this combo due to the increased choline depletion by the former nootropics.

For Mood Enhancement

Combining Aniracetam with sunifiram is a good option for mood enhancement. You can combine L-theanine, which increases production of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA with sunifiram. Sulbutiamine, which is a potent enhancer of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic functions can be a good combination as well. Choline source should always be present in those combos to prevent getting a headache.


Side Effects

What Are Sunifiram Side Effects?

Due to being fairly new and not as widely popular as the rest of the racetams, no severe side effects of sunifiram have surfaced yet. Nevertheless, clinical trials are still ongoing, and it is yet to get FDA approval. Use with caution.


User Experience

On a Reddit user wrote down a thorough experience of sunifiram:

“For years I have been a hardcore coffee drinker and other than that I had not used any other substances to enhance my cognition in any way. A few months ago I started a doctor-supervised weight loss program that included the use of 30 mg of Phentermine daily as an appetite suppressant.

Unfortunately, Phentermine is an amphetamine that gave me an extreme energy rush that was affecting my focus and concentration. I could not sit and study because I was getting easily distracted by anything. This was starting to affect my performance in my current classes and at work so I tried using 200 mg of L-Theanine and reduce my caffeine intake with moderately positive effects.

After losing about 100 lbs, I am ready to stop the Phentermine and continue my healthy eating habits for a long-term weight loss maintenance. This Phentermine is addictive so my doctor is reducing the dose gradually to minimize the withdrawal effects. However, I started feeling slightly depressed and foggy. This is when I decided to go on my own and experiment with Noots to see if they would help.

My doctor is not familiar with any nootropics nor did he think anything like that would be appropriate since the effects of phentermine withdrawal would pass in a few weeks.

I did some research about nootropics that would help me with this situation and decided to go shopping. I was low on cash but had a credit on Amazon so the only strong nootropic that I found was Sunifiram. Despite the warnings that there are no sufficient studies on the long-term effects, I decided to assume all risks and give it a try.

The Experience

I started five days ago with 10mg of Sunifiram administered sublingually. Approximately 10-15 minutes after the first dose I felt what others have called “sunny”. It is hard to explain but it was somewhat overwhelming and the effect did not last long.

The following day I took the same dose and got the same but short effect. I did have a mild headache after waking up but nothing unbearable. I started to get the full effect on Day 3. Suddenly I was able to focus on whatever I wanted and the ideas flowed easily. I had struggled to finish a paper for days but this time I finished it in less than an hour.

Today is Day 5 of using Sunifiram and I have to say it has been a positive experience so far. I wish I could explain better my experience but I have not used anything with comparable results. It is not an extreme rush of energy nor a sedative effect. I just feel a sense of clarity that I had not felt before.

I don’t want to take the risk of using Sunifiram for long-term cognition enhancement given the unknown effects of continued use, so I will stop taking it as soon as I finish this class. Once I have some cash to spend, I might look into other alternatives like Piracetam, Noopept or something similar.

TL;DR:

Sunifiram was my first experience with a “smart drug”. During the first two days the effects were mild and nearly unnoticeable. After the third day I felt a positive improvement in my mood and focus. Since there are no sufficient studies on the long term use of this substance, I will discontinue its use and seek other Nootropics with better background research. Sykotiko


Conclusion

Sunifiram is one of the nootropics having huge and fast-growing demand, so its not easily accessible. Its potency, efficacy, and effectiveness have been superb. Although it does not have a lot of trials under its belt, it is nevertheless one which has been encouraging and promoted as a safe and effective nootropic.

Not for everyday use, but it can be a good companion to have in your stack. Increasing energy, cognitive abilities, and physical performance are the prime features of this product which make it one worth trying out.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

Although I haven’t tried Sunifiram nor have I purchased from this vendor myself, I am listing them here for those coming to this page to find vendors. So far the ones I found and seem reputable are:

  1. Nootropics City for Sunifiram Capsules
  2. Nootropics Retail & New Mind for Sunifiram Powder
  3. Lift Mode via Amazon for powder (although its out of stock as of today March 20th, 2019)

Interesting Finds

While researching a bit more on Sunifiram, I came across an article on Nootropics City titled ‘Why was Sunifiram Taken Off the Market,’ and dates back to 2004. I thought it would be an interesting read to someone looking for all and any information about Sunifiram. It says:

“In 2000, Sunifiram was introduced to the market. It is well known as DM-235. While clinical trials are done before releasing any drug on the market, as a brand name or a generic one, it is not the only parameter that measures that it will react to general people in the same way. Hence, some drugs are taken off the shelves. Now, why was Sunifiram was taken off the market when some people were responding well towards it. What is the safety information that one should know related to this drug?

The real reason for Sunifiram to be off the market is that there were few safe studies conducted on it. This made it difficult for many physicians to prescribe it to their patients. It is now seen as a recreational drug and a stimulant. Some stimulants like this may be legit but dangerous. It is always best to keep in touch with the ones that have a proven track record, not only in clinical results but in public domain also.

It was introduced as a nootropic to help patients recover mental alertness. The effect of the composition is stronger, and it certainly raises safety issues. Some of its negative properties have made it to remain on the shelves for a little longer. Even healthcare professionals advise its limited usage considering there are other nootropics also on the market that have positive effects.

With its composition, the drug is capable of releasing AMPA receptors that are in the brain. The tolerance level of some patients may have triggered its negative reviews. In fact, some reports also suggested that the drug had toxic effects on consumption. Even small milligram dosages seemed to be bad for the rest of the system. It is also responsible for increased heartbeats in patients who have increased the dosage.

Some of the effects cannot be reversed, and this makes it important to take it off the shelves. It is a very strong drug. Even though it is legal, one must take a medical opinion before consuming it. The Internet offers several slices of information about this drug and its replacements.

What makes it so forceful as a memory booster?

It is an ampakine that immediately brings on the ‘horsepower’ to the brain. The brain has AMPA receptors. When they are activated with the help of an ampakine like Sunifiram, it increases the energy. When people have stress on performance in certain jobs, they have been known to consume it. It ensures that there is no other external distraction that can interfere with the mind’s working. People who have short-term memories also have consumed this drug. Since it is strong in its content, it tends to make ‘colors brighter’, ‘sounds clearer’ and general ambience becomes well defined. This could be a dangerous trend.

Interesting Studies

  1. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram improves cognitive deficits via CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activation in olfactory bulbectomized mice.
  2. Novel nootropic drug sunifiram enhances hippocampal synaptic efficacy via glycine-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Sunifiram?

Sunifiram is an experimental, potent racetam. It shares most of racetams benefits and effects. The dosage is usually as small as 5 mg due to its potency. And it is yet to be approved anywhere in the world.

What is Sunifiram Legal Status? Is Sunifiram legal?

In the US, Sunifiram is unscheduled, and not FDA approved.

How To Take Sunifiram?

Being an ‘experimental’ drug, and a very potent one, its important to take very low doses (5 mg, 10 mg tops) and do your research to find news and updates on the matter. You can find the post I cited from Nootropics City under Conclusion which has more information regarding that.

Where to Buy Sunifiram?

I have found a few different vendors, none of which I tried, rather, only listing for research purpose. Nootropics City, Nootropics Retail, as well as NewMind – all offer Sunifiram in powder as well as capsules.

What is Sunifiram Dosage?

Unless you are quite experienced in racetams, I wouldn’t recommend anything over 5 mg as a starting point. People reported side effects after deciding to increase the dose for more results.

Where to Buy Sunifiram Powder?

Nootropics Retail & New Mind

Where to find Sunifiram capsules?

Nootropics City

What is Sunifiram half-life?

Sunifiram has a half-life of 1-2 hours


Further and Related Readings


Summary: Fasoracetam is a newer addition to the racetam family. It’s a nootropic that helps in relieving anxiety, enhancing memory, and improving overall cognition.


Introduction

What is Fasoracetam?

Fasoracetam is a promising and exciting addition to the racetam family. It’s reported to have the ability to enhance memory and cognition while relieving depression and anxiety. Additionally, it also has a potential for treating ADHD symptoms. Even though Fasoracetam is a new name on the nootropic scene, it was developed by a Japanese pharmaceutical company more than 20 years ago as a potential treatment for vascular dementia. However, it was put on hiatus after a failed trial.  The clinical data were then bought by NeuroFix in 2013. Clinical trials began in 2016 with its focus on treating ADHD symptoms in children. The experiments have shown a great promise as a potential ADHD treatment.

In 2016, the FDA accepted the substance for evaluation.

Fasoracetam is a research chemical of the racetam family. It is a putative nootropic that failed to show sufficient efficacy in clinical trials for vascular dementia. It is currently being studied for its potential use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Wikipedia


Benefits & Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Benefits?

  1. Improves Memory Cognition
  2. Relieves Anxiety and Depression
  3. Potential ADHD Treatment
  4. Increases Creativity and Motivation

Supporting Research:

Fasoracetam Improves Memory Cognition

Fasoracetam minimizes memory decline, forgetfulness, and amnesia. Individuals who use it report it positively impacts their memory. That is due to the chemical that it produces, which increases learning, memory and cognitive functions. (R)

Fasoracetam Relieves Anxiety and Depression

Fasoracetam relieves anxiety, improves mood, and eases depression by acting on glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). By up-regulating GABA and suppressing the excess production of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, Fasoracetam offers a non-jittery and smooth feeling of calmness, relaxation and improved mood. (R) (R)

Potential ADHD Treatment

A study on 30 individuals ranging between 12 to 17 years old test the impact of Fasoracetam on ADHD patients. The subjects were receiving fasoracetam for five weeks, after which improvements were observed relating to ADHD symptoms. (R)

Increases Creativity and Motivation

With more research done on Fasoracetam, the improvement in creativity and motivation progresses as well. Many users report that not only it makes them inspired by nature but keeps them motivated too. These self-reports are credible for boosting moods and ability to increase the release and production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is responsible for cognition and learning.

Fasoracetam

Mechanism of Action

How Does Fasoracetam Work?

There is no clear evidence to support how it works to improve cognition. The theories that exist that describe that it as an interaction with the receptors of glutamate and GABA and the cholinergic system.

Fasoracetam works of a specific group of glutamate receptors known as metabotropic glutamate receptors, which play multiple roles in the brain and body mainly relating to memory, learning, and anxiety.

In increasing acetylcholine fasoracetam is a powerful cholinergic, significantly increasing the uptake of choline in the cortex and hippocampus.

The brain uses the additional choline to produce more acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter most strongly associated with learning, memory, and overall cognition.


Dosage

How to Take Fasoracetam?

A 20 mg dose is a good starting point.

Anecdotal reports suggest smaller doses of 15 to 30 mg per day, while dosages used in clinical trials for ADHD were 100, 200, and 400mg twice a day.

Personally I tried anywhere from 20 mg per dose to 60 mg per dose. The difference was barely notable to me.

Always pair it with Alpha GPC or any choline source to potentiate the effect and prevent a headache.


Side Effects

What Are Fasoracetam Side Effects?

Fasoracetam is safe when taken responsibly. The most common side effect, similar to all racetams, including fatigue, headache, and digestive discomfort.

The is no scientific evidence available on the specific interactions between other drugs and fasoracetam.


User Experience

Fasoracetam Reviews from Different Users

Here is an on-going discussion thread on Reddit’s stack advice regarding Fasoracetam usage that is packed with both information on the nootropic, as well as different user experiences (myself included), suggestions, and thoughts on the nootropic:

Any positive feedback on fasoracetam for anxiety?

Some of the interesting & diverse comments from that thread:

Not from me, unfortunately. Made me feel worse. I’ve lost any faith in common nootropics because they do nothing for me. Oxetine

10-20mg gave me near instantaneous relief from anxiety—sublingual that is. tawatson2

While it seemed to help somewhat with anxiety (not a magic bullet) I also felt like some cognitive abilities were actually reduced by it. I had problems carrying out my work with usual performance and with internalizing new tasks. Sometimes you can’t judge if a nootropic really helps much of anything at all but in case of fasoracetam the downsides seemed pronounced enough for me not to continue. sheldonopolis


Conclusion

Fasoracetam (as well as Coluracetam) is a new nootropic but has had numerous experiments done on it. However, it has already developed a strong force in the nootropic community.

Many people find it an excellent choice to relieve anxiety and depression. Some people also say that it helps in cognition, clarity, and focus. It works well when used responsibly.


Frequently Asked Questions

What is the effect of Fasoracetam?

“I have been dosing for 3 days now. I started noticing my legs were becoming relaxed as if I took a benzo combined with that sense of horniness phenibut gave me when I first began taking it. Typically after a few days of Phenibut use dopamine builds up which leads to euphoria combined with anxiolytic effects. Those effects have been long gone and I’ve basically just been taking about 1.6 grams to avoid withdrawals. I’ve gotten off it a few times only to go back on. Now i’m feeling the orginal effects coming back stronger after each dose of Fasoracetam. I can honestly say I don’t feel many other effects aside from the Phenibut now. I’m dosing Phenibut low so its amazing that the effects are coming back with such low doses. I’m wondering if Fasoracetam will completely abolish all Phenibut Withdrawal. It almost seems like that may be the case since its Re-upregulating Gaba B. I wish I understand the Upregulation and Downregulation process on a deeper level”


Further and Related Readings

Fasoracetam – Wikipedia

Fasoracetam (with the addition of another compound, a new formula) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for ADHD

Nootropics FAQ

Summary: Coluracetam is a new member to the racetam family of nootropics. Early scientific trials confirm that it is beneficial in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder as well as with Generalized Anxiety, in addition to its a bunch of nootropic value it offers.


Introduction

What is Coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a drug that falls in the racetam family. The way it works and its structure are different from other racetams. Despite it being in the racetam family, this drug has gained a widespread reputation on its uniqueness in memory boosting and reduction of anxiety and depression. It is popular in the nootropic community to raise optic properties.

However, additional studies are needed to realize the mechanism that supports these benefits. It was initially synthesized in 2005 by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation in Japan as a probable cure for Alzheimer’s disease. BrainCells, Inc. later licensed it for more study after it did not make to reach its clinical endpoint.

Brain Cells began to conduct experiments on its effects. Most of these tests were on rats due to lack of enough participants to undertake the clinical trial. From the clinical analysis carried out, coluracetam showed to improve memory retention and relieve anxiety.


Benefits & Effects

What Are Coluracetam Benefits?

  1. Coluracetam Improves Memory and Learning
  2. Coluracetam Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression
  3. Coluracetam Reduces Anxiety
  4. Promotes Neurogenesis
  5. Helps with Schizophrenia
  6. Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam Improves Memory and Learning

Coluracetam benefits proves to work in enforcing cognitive and memory function in rats and similar effects on humans. Brain Cells Inc. conducted a study which reveals an improvement of mind in rats after receiving AF64A for eight days. The development continued to last even beyond treatment. Alzheimer’s disease leads to lower levels of acetylcholine. By growing acetylcholine in the hippocampus, coluracetam will increase symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease such as learning disorders and poor memory (R) (R).

Coluracetam Reduces Treatment-Resistant Depression

In a study of 101 individuals with depression, who did not achieve result treatment with antidepressants, it had a constructive impact on the apparent improvement in the quality of life at 80 mg 3 times a day. However, this is the only study on humans. The capacity it holds to minimize glutamate noxiousness may be liable for its positive impacts in the depression treatment. (R)

Coluracetam Reduces Anxiety

In a rat study, dosing 21 days of coluracetam shows a 20% improvement in anxiety, which was higher than the 12% effect valium impact in a single dose in the same study. (R)

Promotes Neurogenesis

Some studies mention that  it helps with neurogenesis. The primary mechanism is still not clear, but it relates to the administration of it for several weeks, which increase in acetylcholine in the hippocampus area.

“Patents state that it promotes nerve cell growth (neurogenesis). The mechanism is unknown, yet is thought to be related to the increase in hippocampal acetylcholine when coluracetam is dosed daily for a few weeks.” (R)

Helps with Schizophrenia

Coluracetam increases the activity of ChAT in rats with nerve cell damage. This increase suggests it may benefit patients with schizophrenia through this same enzyme. More research directly on people with schizophrenia is undergoing. (R) (R)

Enhances Eyesight

Coluracetam has shown its optic strengths such as improved color recognition, vision, and vividness. Specifically, it promotes nerve growth for the degenerative retinal disease. Numerous studies mention better color vision and sharpening of the eyesight, but no scientific research has confirmed these effects. (R)


Mechanism of Action

How Does Coluracetam Work?

It works through the process of high-affinity choline uptake. That’s its mechanism of action. The brain chemical responsible for storing cognitive abilities and memories is acetylcholine.

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine within our brain. Studies on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove vital for improving learning, memory, and cognition.

It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.

This chemical is part of the cholinergic system, which is affected when Coluracetam increases the level of acetylcholine in the brain. Many studies done on acetylcholine shows that an increase in the chemical levels can prove very important for improving learning, memory formation, and typically cognitive abilities. It works by enhancing the acetylcholine levels in various regions, including the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory.


Dosage

How to Take Coluracetam?

Typically, the recommended starting dose is 20mg due to that being the manufactured one. There are claims that researchers testing coluracetam dosage of 240 mg per day are finding no side effects. However, the source link to that claim is broken. [R]. [R]

My Personal Experience

The maximum I’ve taken is 60mg in single dose. It caused me a slight headache and yield no special outcome.

Advise: Take it with a choline source. It can be in supplement form (Alpha-GPC. Citicoline), or from foods in your own diet.

Pairing coluracetam with a choline source will both, increase its effect, and prevent an associating headache.


Side Effects

What Are Coluracetam Side Effects?

There isn’t enough evidence regarding the side effects of coluracetam. The human brain and body are well receiving this nootropic drug. Taking coluracetam does not have many side effects, but when they appear, they are similar to other recitals. Some of the concerns are nausea and irritability which are rare.


Conclusion

Coluracetam doesn’t have extensive amount of research, the studies available do show a great potential for its use.

It is one of the more recent-going-mainstream racetams, side by side with Fasoracetam. However, recently, the FDA has approved an “enhanced” form of Fasoracetam for the treatment of ADHD. The relating information on that announcement can be found on the blog post here.


Further Readings

Coluracetam – Wikipedia

Coluracetam – Scientific Review – Examine

Related Nootropics

  1. Aniracetam
  2. Piracetam
  3. Pramiracetam
  4. Oxiracetam
  5. Fasoracetam
  6. Phenylpiracetam
  7. Sunifiram

Summary: Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a popular multi-functional nutrient, amino acid type nootropic. It benefits the body and brain. A potent antioxidant and neuroprotectant, and a powerful energizing nootropic that promotes anti-aging and longevity.


Introduction

What is Acetyl L-Carnitine?

Acetyl-L-Carnitine, also known as ALCAR and ALC, is an amino acid naturally produced in your body to generate energy. It’s also found in animal proteins such as red meats. Many people supplement with acetyl-L-carnitine because of its potential benefits. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a more bioavailable form of amino acid l-carnitine, a derivative of amino acid lysine. The body continuously produces L-carnitine, and furthermore gets it from the foods you eat.

Although research shows actual carnitine insufficiency is uncommon in healthy people with no metabolic disorders, supplementation with addition of it is proven to be beneficial in many different ways. Ranging from improving heart health [1] to enhancing brain function. [2]

Acetyl-L-Carnitine is L-carnitine with the addition of an acetyl group, thereby making it the most bioavailable form of L-carnitine and it readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Its primary actions work towards brain functionality. Its nootropic properties seem to magnify when taken with other nootropics. The combination makes it a potentiating agent allowing nootropics to work more effectively.

Other forms of L-carnitine include L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) which is typically assessing physical performance, and Glycine Propionyl L-carnitine (GPLC), which relieves blood flow issues. The only L-carnitine form that possesses nootropic properties is Acetyl L-carnitine, and it furthermore provides both L-carnitine and acetyl groups (molecule) that act towards the development of the learning neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.


Benefits & Effects

What Are Acetyl-L-Carnitine Benefits?

  1. Enhances Brain Function and Stamina
  2. Provides Neuroprotection Against Brain Cell Death
  3. Restores Cognitive Function and Repairs Impairment
  4. Support Mitochondrial Function and Nervous System
  5. Regulates Sexual Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction

Supporting research:

Research proves ALCAR beneficial to the brain and body in many ways. From enhancing cognitive abilities (R) to increasing energy (R), reducing pain, and even preventing damage from alcohol consumption. (R)

Enhances Brain Function and Stamina

Studies show that it successfully lowers mental exhaustion and improves cognitive function as well as learning capability. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, 2-phase study, 66 participants with fatigue were given 2 g of L-carnitine once a day. By the end of the study, the group taking L-carnitine showed significant improvements in physical fatigue, mental fatigue, fatigue severity amongst other physical enhancements, as compared to those receiving a placebo.

Moreover, the study confirms that oral supplementation of L-carnitine reduces the total of fat mass, increases muscular mass, increases capacity for physical and cognitive activity, improves cognitive functions, all while reducing fatigue as well. (R)

Provides Neuroprotection Against Brain Cell Death

Due to its potent antioxidant attributes, ALCAR acts as a neuroprotectant, blocking and restoring damage from free radicals that injure brain cells. It also helps the brain clear itself of other toxins and decreases cell death due to excitotoxicity, a neurotic process that triggers by the over-activation of glutamate receptors. It enhances the neural network by stimulating nerves and signal receptors and additionally protects the brain against the damaging influences of drinking alcohol. (R)

Restores Cognitive Function and Repairs Impairment

One of Acetyl-L-Carnitine’ many exciting prospects is as a treatment for age-related neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. It has been confirmed to dramatically slow decline in Alzheimer’s patients and decreases age-related recall failure. Other studies showed that ALCAR supports repair ambulatory capability in the elderly and functions as a mood lifter as well as working as an anti-depressant in the elderly. (R)

Support Mitochondrial Function and Nervous System

ALCAR promotes mitochondrial function and serves to support the nervous system overall performance. Especially in the case where an individual is subject to neurodegenerative disease. It can be of significant benefit to people with physical disorders typically correlated with aging, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. It has shown to be efficient in managing nerve pain, enhancing kidney function, and improving heart health. (R) (R)

Regulates Sexual Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction

ALCAR regulates men’s infertility and improves signs of andropause and erectile dysfunction. It is also in use to fight Peyronie’s disease, an inflammatory disease that affects the penis. (R) (R) Additionally, it is under clinical trials as a possible treatment for chronic fatigue.


Mechanism of Action

How Does Acetyl-L-Carnitine Work?

ALCAR synthesizes primarily in the liver and kidneys, after which it travels to other tissues. ALCAR has excellent bioavailability. The gastrointestinal tract quickly digests it. Its actions differ considerably from other forms of L-carnitine, which don’t cross the blood-brain barrier. The acetyl groups that make ALCAR unique, enable it to cross the blood-brain barrier readily and rapidly. Its most effective role is within the cerebellum.

Another one of ALCAR’s nootropic benefits involves the acetyl groups, which produce the support for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Often referred to as “the learning neurotransmitter,” acetylcholine is accountable for learning, memory, and cognitive function. Increased levels of acetylcholine result in an improvement in cognitive function, and low levels of that essential neurotransmitter risks neurological complications similar to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Neurotransmitters

ALCAR resumes showing increasing levels of norepinephrine and serotonin. They are vital neurotransmitters that play an essential part in mood and brain function. The capacity to improve neurotransmitter production is one of the principal techniques that ALCAR complements nootropics attributes. Similar to those of the racetams, which enhance the action of neurotransmitter receptors in the cerebellum.

Moreover, ALCAR targets brain metabolism, promoting cellular energy and serving as a potent neuroprotectant. Its critical antioxidant qualities combat the impressions of cellular oxidation. It further decreases the number of damaged cells in an individual brain, thereby becoming a useful longevity tool.

Damaged fat cells identified as lipofuscin (age spots) also happen in the brain and are actively correlated amidst age-related neurological dysfunctions, lack of energy, and weak memory. By supporting the brain excrete those damaged cells. ALCAR increases brain function and significantly lessens the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. It has also been shown to limit brain deterioration during times of stress.

Dosage

How to Take Acetyl-L-Carnitine?

Typical ALCAR dosage is 500 mg per day once in the morning, and up to 1,500 mg split into three doses of 500 mg. From there, adjust dosage to your need without exceeding 1,500 mg. At least not during trial period. It is water-soluble, therefore it can be taken with or without food. However, taking ALCAR late in the evening can result in disruption of sleep.

Recommended ALCAR dosage, active amounts, other details:

“The standard dose for L-carnitine is between 500-2,000mg. There are various forms of carnitine supplementation available.Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) is used for cognitive enhancement. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate (LCLT) is typically used for physical performance and power output. Glycine Propionyl L-Carnitine (GPLC) is used to alleviate intermittent claudication and blood flow issues. L-carnitine is supplemented daily. The equivalent dosage range for other forms of L-carnitine are as follows: 630-2,500mg (ALCAR), 1,000-4,000mg (LCLT) and 1,000-4,000mg (GPLC).” – Examine.com

Side Effects

What Are Acetyl-L-Carnitine Side Effects?

  1. Side effects are uncommon. If they occur, it is usually in in the cases of consuming high doses before allowing the body to adapt to the additional amount of Acetyl-L-Carnitine that it is receiving.
  2. Nausea is the most common side effect. It is easily preventable by taking ALCAR alongside food rather than on an empty stomach.
  3. Headaches are the second most common side effect, which may imply an excessive amounts of choline.
  4. Users report that headaches from ALCAR use decrease when they reduce the amount of choline in their stacks and diets.


User Experiences

Reddit User Experience

To be fair in sharing the Reddit community experiences, I will add the first 3 that I see whether the experience is positive or negative. Three Acetyl-L-Carnitine reddit experiences:

First:

“As the title says, it’s been a game changer. Old stack was: Citicoline 300mg b.id with centrophenoxine 350mg one to two times daily. Switched Centro to ALCAR 500 one daily just to try and damn it’s been really good. Mornings are good, everything is really clear. Honestly this feels a lot like amphetamine. So much so that I cancelled my pdoc appt to get a refill. I was basically off the meds but wanted to have a few around but now I really don’t think I need them. Very glad people on here have posted about alcar before!” skibenz

Second:

“Funny enough I get a stronger response from ALCAR then I do racetams in regards to mental performance. It seems to make me really smart. Your mileage may vary though. To OP: I get results in a day. Be careful for not overdoing it. I’ve posted before that acetylcholine overload tends to make you depressed and function worse.” eastmangobo

Third:

“I have been taking Acetyl for about 17 years. For the last 2 yrs or so it has affected me less and less (no idea why) but before that, I noticed a MASSIVE positive boost from taking it. I experienced a huge uptick in word retrieval and overall brain function. used to always say that when I took Acetyl, it was like an electric switch was turned on, as that’s what it felt like … electric..I always bought it in bulk powder and almost always used 1 gram in my morning shake (180lb Male). DO NOT use it after noon …. you will NOT sleep !!!! You should notice a difference within 3-4 days. As I did mention, I am noticing now that I am affected by Acetyl less and less. If I miss a few days, I don’t really notice it like I did years ago and I don’t really get that electric charge feeling. I don’t know why this is, as I’ve purchased a few different brands.” Gernan_Mafia

Conclusion

ALCAR is an outstanding amino acid nootropic. It offers many benefits to both the body and the brain. In addition to its potent  brain boosting effect, it is also a healthy nutrient. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is safe, affordable, very tolerable, and easily accessible in department and drug stores. It enhances cognitive function, supports ant-aging and longevity, which makes it a nootropic worth adding to any stack.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between L-Carnitine L-Tartrate, L-Carnitine Tartrate, and Acetyl L-Carnitine?

L-Carnitine L-Tartrate and L-Carnitine Tartrate are the same thing, they just truncate the L-Tartrate for brevity. This is the form of L-Carnitine that is in supplements that some studies have linked to possibly helping recover times from work outs (specifically it was shown that people taking L-carnitine had less damage to their leg muscles after a workout versus people that weren’t taking it), there weren’t any other observations of it’s added use outside of that.
Acetylcarnitine is an alternative form of l-carnitine for supplementation that has been pushed because of it’s bioavailability. The downside is that it’s less concentrated in the bloodstream after digestion. It doesn’t appear that any studies have been performed linking acetylcarnitine to exercise performance, but it’s only proven use has been in increasing sperm mobility. A few proposals have set out to use it treat neurological conditions, but none have yet been proven.

Can I take 5-HTP and Acetyl L-Carnitine together?

To date there has been no evidence that either counteract the other or have negative effects. Both substances are great for many aspects of brain health. You can be pretty safe in the assumption that it’s worth testing out for yourself to see how you react to this combination.

Can I take acetyl-l-carnitine & taurine together with antidepressants, antipsychotics and NAC?

They don’t interact, in fact, Acetyl-L-Carnitine is used as “complementary” therapy along with Psych Meds. Taurine is as well. Taurine is also VERY much so present in Energy Drinks like Red Bull & Monster. It is responsible for much of the “kick” and focus Energy Drinks give us.

Further and Related Readings

  1. N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (NALT), L-Theanine, N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC), Agmatine Sulfate
  2. The Ultimate Nootropics FAQ