Cannabidiol (CBD)

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Summary: CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabis extract. It is a potent anti-inflammatory that fights cancer, helps with IBS, schizophrenia, anxiety, and needless to say, promote quality of sleep.

what is cbd oil
Cannabidiol CBD Skeletal Structure

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Introduction

What is CBD Cannabidiol?

CBD is one of the (more or less) 113 cannabinoids identified in help plants. Also, it accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. That is a lot. A lot of extensive research is ongoing about cannabidiol, most of which is on anxiety, cognition, movement disorders, and pain. [1]

CBD is one of over 60 compounds found in cannabis that belong to a class of ingredients called cannabinoids.

THC is one of the other 60 compounds, and it is what got mainstream attention, and everyone got to know it because its an ingredient in cannabis and produces the psychoactive effect.

Although CBD is also an ingredient in marijuana, it doesn't seem to provide the same psychoactive effects the way THC does, yet still offers many benefits nevertheless.

CBD is a component of sativa. Moreover, it can be beneficial in many different ways with more and more research showing up every day along with an equal amount of marketing advertisements. It may be helpful on such a broad spectrum that is from anti inflammation to antioxidation to anxiolytic to antipsychotic. That’s the anti’s part. Furthermore, it is a potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, anxiety, and even schizophrenia. [2]

What is CBD Oil?

Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is oil that is extracted from the annual herbaceous flowering plant cannabis. The oil taken from the plant's secretions is used as a food supplement and as a medicine (we retail it as a food supplement). It was discovered in 1940 and the plant has over 400 additional compounds, which have been used throughout the world for millennia.

CBD is a product that helps to communicate with the body to complete its natural maintenance and regenerative functions. Activating these CB1 & CB2 receptors in your body will give it balance, helping the natural signals of these bodily systems flow.

Legal Status

With the United Nations: Cannabidiol is not scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances or any other UN drug treaty. In 2018, the World Health Organization recommended that CBD remains unscheduled. [R]

I think that by itself explains the explosion of online vendors and the increase in the sale of CBD oil as well as CBD isolate.


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Benefits and Effects

What Are the CBD Benefits?

  1. CBD Reduces Anxiety and Depression
  2. CBD Treats Seizures, Epilepsy & Neurological Disorders
  3. CBD Benefits Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  4. Relieves Pain and Inflammation
  5. CBD Benefits Schizophrenia
  6. Anti-Cancer Properties
  7. Additional Benefits

CBD Reduces Anxiety and Depression

A 2011 study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test on healthy control patients and treatment-naive patients with a social anxiety disorder. A total of 24 never-treated patients with a social anxiety disorder were given either CBD or placebo 1.5 hours before the test. Researchers found that pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alertness in anticipation of their speech. The placebo group presented stress, anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort. [3]

CBD has also shown antidepressant-like effects in several animal studies. [4]

Social Anxiety Disorder

Early research shows that taking cannabidiol at a dosage of 300 mg daily didn't improve anxiety in people with social anxiety disorder. However, another research suggests that taking a higher dose (400-600 mg) notably improves anxiety, especially that which is related to public speaking and medical tests in people with social anxiety disorders. [5]

Depression

According to researchers, CBD has antidepressant effects in mice. These depression-reducing effects of CBD in mice were fast, maintained over time, and as strong as a standard antidepressant (common tricyclic medication imipramine, also known as Tofranil) [R] [R]

Treats Seizures, Epilepsy & Neurological Disorders

A 2014 survey conducted by researchers at Stanford University on 19 subjects who suffered epilepsy and had previously tried up to 12 antiepileptic drugs. 84% of the participants had a reduction in seizure frequency while taking CBD. Furthermore, 11% reported complete diminishing symptoms of seizure altogether. [6]

CBD Benefits Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Aside from all the research I came across supporting this, I just remembered that one of my friends’ sisters who has been suffering multiple sclerosis for a long time, told us the day she tried cannabis had been a turning point in her life regarding easing her symptoms to new levels. Moreover, with my knowledge of the plant, I can believe everything about this study, and it makes total sense to me.

Relieves Pain and Inflammation

CBD significantly suppresses neuropathic pain as well as chronic inflammation in rodents without causing tolerance. It inhibits the neuronal transmission within the pain pathways. With those findings and many more surfacing from all over the world, researchers are now suggesting that CBD and other ingredients of cannabis – those that don’t produce psychoactive effects, might be representing a novel class of therapeutic remedies for treating chronic pain. [7]

Furthermore, it is also said to lower the incidence of diabetes, relieve nausea, promote cardiovascular health, and much more. It sounds like an all-in-one ointment that you have to keep around in the house for when necessary. It can heal a wound if you have one or in another day gets you to relax and unwind. I thought I'm over it after my experiment, but now after researching it again a year later, I think I might give it another shot — although definitley not vaping it this time.

CBD Benefits Schizophrenia

While the psychoactive THC in cannabis seems to trigger psychotic episodes, especially in those with schizophrenia, CBD has opposite, antipsychotic effects. More and more studies are pointing to CBD as a natural alternative to antipsychotic drugs but with far fewer side effects. [R]

Anti-Cancer Properties

CBD decreases the energy production in cancers, triggering their death. It makes cancer cells kill themselves (apoptosis), stopping both cancer growth and spreading. [R] [R]

Furthermore, in test-tube and animal studies, CBD has demonstrated anti-tumor effects. In animals, it has been shown to prevent the spread of breast, prostate, brain, colon, and lung cancer. [R]

Additional Benefits

Antipsychotic effects

Studies suggest that CBD may help people with schizophrenia and other mental disorders by reducing psychotic symptoms [R]

Substance Abuse Disorder Treatment

CBD has been shown to modify circuits in the brain related to drug addiction. In rats, CBD has been shown to reduce morphine dependence and heroin-seeking behavior. [R]

Diabetes Prevention

In diabetic mice, treatment with CBD reduced the incidence of diabetes by 56% and significantly reduced inflammation. [R]


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Mechanism of Action

How Does CBD Work?

CBD supports your complete wellbeing by working with your Endocannabinoid System (ECS). In the 1990s, the first Endocannabinoid System receptors were cloned: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors have an effect on the brain, and nervous system and how our bodies feel overall. CB2 receptors influence appetite and immune system function. CB2 receptors also control the management of pain throughout the nervous system. It uses 2-AG and binds with enzymes throughout the Endocannabinoid system. The Endocannabinoid system also uses (2-AG) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol to control these body systems.

Cannabidiol has antipsychotic effects. The exact cause for these effects is not apparent. However, cannabidiol seems to prevent the breakdown of a chemical in the brain that affects pain, mood, and mental function. Preventing the breakdown of this chemical and increasing its levels in the blood seems to reduce psychotic symptoms associated with conditions such as schizophrenia. Cannabidiol might also block some of the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Furthermore, cannabidiol seems to reduce pain and anxiety. [R]

The Endocannabinoid System

The Endogenous Cannabinoid System, also known as the ECS system, are cell receptors that communicate with various parts of the body to tell them when to start or to tell the process when to stop such as:

  1. The brain
  2. Organs
  3. Connective Tissues
  4. Glands
  5. Immuno Cells

The goal of the ECS is to achieve the overall balance of the body’s systems. The ECS chemical keys are the CB1 and CB2 receptors within the body, which lock and unlock systems of the body. Since cannabinoids play a significant role within the body’s functions, they constitute an important tool to maintain our overall wellbeing.


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Dosage

How to Take CBD?

CBD dosage can vary anywhere from 100 mg up to even 3 g per day, depending on the health issue on target.For protecting the brain (such as in Alzheimer’s) and reducing inflammation and muscle twitching (MS), doses of 100 to 600 mg of CBD were used in clinical studies. In some studies, patients took as much CBD oil as they needed to feel pain or muscle spasm relief.

Doses up to 800 mg CBD daily were used for psychosis and schizophrenia.

The highest CBD doses used in studies were up to 3.5 g of CBD oil daily for very severe drug-resistant seizures in children and young adults with epilepsy. 300 mg per day was enough to reduce anxiety in clinical studies.

Typically, it is recommended to take 150 mg of CBD oil twice a day for tackling anxiety, and for inflamation relief.

For multiple sclerosis: A spray delivering 2.5 mg of cannabidiol under the tongue per dose is positivley reported.

How is CBD Oil Used?

CBD oil is used to support the overall wellbeing of the body and mind. Today, it is used widely as a food supplement that activates receptors that communicate with the different systems of the body. CBD supports your overall feeling of wellbeing throughout the body, but does not give a sensation of “being high”, which is why THC, the other well-known active substance from the Cannabis plant, has been prohibited in most countries and considered a drug.


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Side Effects

What Are The CBD Side Effects?

CBD is generally well tolerated, and safe at high doses, and with chronic use in humans. [R]

Cannabidiol sprays used under the tongue have been used in doses of 2.5 mg for up to 2 weeks.

Some reported side effects of cannabidiol include dry mouth, low blood pressure, lightheadedness, and drowsiness.

This is what I can second as well, from my personal experience with CBD.


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User Experience

My Personal Experience

Although my method of administration was slightly different, during my experimental period with CBD oil I was inhaling it through a vape.

I can confirm that at many times it had an incredible effect on me especially regarding anxiety and on my hypertension. However, most often than not, I was experiencing side effects rather than the benefits. To me, those were dry mouth, which is tolerable and expected. However, I often suffered somewhat an anxiety rebound instead of ease. And I believe it stemmed from analyzing and paying attention to how my heart starts beating fast and I feel altogether uncomfortable. It's like being on a bad trip and without even the psychoactive effect.

I tried several types. Some of the very potent and concentrated and some were diluted and had lower concentrations. I had very mixed feelings about it and decided to give away the oil along with the vape all together a long time ago. However, I might give it another try this time leaving the vape away and taking it orally instead.


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Frequently Asked Questions

Does CBD Oil Help Anxiety?

CBD was recommended to me for anxiety and depression about a month ago.
I've suffered anxiety and depression for as long as I can remember. I managed it for a while with vitamins and exercise, but a little over a year ago the depression and anxiety became overwhelming. They helped, but it was still there. Antidepressants and anti-anxiety meds have been recommended, but the idea of an adverse reaction making it worse was terrifying. A few months ago PMDD (pre menstral dysphoric disorder) appeared. A week or so before my period, anxiety went in to overdrive. I would wake up terrified. I was afraid to leave my house, go to work, I convinced myself I was a terrible mother and my daughter would be better off somewhere else. Horrible, awful, crippling fear. Even auditory hallucinations. I felt borderline psychotic, like I wasn't in control of my thoughts. All created soley by out of whack hormones. And this happened every month!! Enter CBDs. I started taking 20Mg CBD capsules every morning about a month ago. Within a couple days, I felt better. In less than a week, anxiety and depression significantly dissipated and I just feel normal. I’m positive and energetic. I'm eating better, exercising again, and I don't have a lead weight on my chest that prevents me from making decisions or doing what I need to. PMDD hasn't shown up whatsoever. I've had unusually strong cravings for chocolate milkshakes the last couple days, but I'll take that over the bs I was going through. My experience with CBDs has been phenominal, with absolutely no side effects. Everyone is different, but its helped me immensly with anxiety and depression.

What Does CBD Oil Do?

CBD has show promise for many health related issues, but still needs to be studied more closely. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) just realesed their findings on CBD ad the recognized they could not find any side effects associated with CBD and they found it MAY be useful for various issues, including:
Alzheimer's disease: anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiapoptotic in in vitro and in vivo models of Aβ-evoked neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative responses.
Parkinson's disease: Attenuation of the dopaminergic impairment in vivo; neuroprotection; improvement of psychiatric rating and reduction of agitation, nightmare and aggressive behaviour in patients.
Multiple sclerosis: Improved signs of EAE in mice, antinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties.
Huntington's disease: Neuroprotective and antioxidant in mice transgenic models; no significant clinically important differences in patients.
Hypoxia-ischemia injury: Short term neuroprotective effects; inhibition of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in vitro and in rodent models.
Pain: Analgesic effect in patients with neuropathic pain resistant to other treatments.
Psychosis: Attenuation of the behavioural and glial changes in animal models of schizophrenia; anti-psychotic properties on ketamine-induced symptoms
Anxiety: Reduction of muscular tension, restlessness, fatigue, problems in concentration, improvement of social interactions in rodent models of anxiety and stress; reduced social anxiety in patients.
Depression: Anti-depressant effect in genetic rodent model of depression.
Cancer: Antiproliferative and anti-invasive actions in a large range of cancer types; induction of autophagy-mediated cancer cell death; chemopreventive effects.
Nausea: Suppression of nausea and conditioned gaping in rats
Inflammatory diseases: Antinflammatory properties in several in vitro and in vivo models; inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pathways.
Rheumatoid arthritis: Inhibition of TNF-α in an animal model
Infection: Activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Inflammatory bowel and Crohn's diseases: Inhibition of macrophage recruitment and TNF-α secretion in vivo and ex vivo; reduction in disease activity index in Crohn's patients.
Cardiovascular diseases: Reduced infarct size through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo.
Diabetic complications: Attenuation of fibrosis and myocardial dysfunction

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